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Copy of Grammar

General Writing Class presentation for a brief review of grammar
by

Natalie Counts

on 26 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Grammar

Grammar
ENGLISH
Composition
Nouns
Adverbs
infinitives
VERBS
Tenses
gerunds
Prepositions
past
present
future
adjectives
articles
example
pronouns
conditionals
abstract
concrete
modifiers
INTERJECTIONS
conjunctions
punctuation
The first sentence contains only a few basic parts.
The: adjective (definite article) – type of modifier
first: adjective
sentence: noun, subject
contains: verb
only: adverb
a few: determiners (a is also an article)
basic: adjective
parts: noun
Parts of Speech
1. Nouns
2. Verbs
3. Adverbs
4. Adjectives
NOUNS
The person, place, thing, or idea of a sentence
5. Pronouns
6. Prepositions
7. Interjections
8. Conjunctions
Proper Nouns:
Specific person, place, or thing (Capitalized)
Charles, California, Queen Elizabeth

Common Nouns:
everything else (not capitalized)
teacher, ball, class
Abstract:
Intelligence
Bravery
Loyalty
Eloquence
Convenience
Concrete:
Student
Fire Fighter
Dog
Pencil
Computer
VERBS
Conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand) in the sentence.


Four Forms
Base (work)
Past (worked)
Present Participle (working)
Past Participle (have worked)

ADJECTIVES
Words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence

Often identified through articles such as:
a, an, and the

Examples:
The
short
professor
A
solid
commitment
A
month’s
pay
A
six-year
old child
The
unhappiest, rich
man

ADVERBS
Conjunctions
A joiner word that connects parts of a sentence

Such as:
And
But
Or
Yet
For
Nor
So
Interjections!
A part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker

Wow!
That was amazing.
Oh my gosh!
Did you see that?

Pronouns
Generally pronouns refer to a noun, individual(s), or thing(s) whose identity was made clear earlier in the text.

They, Them, Theirs
We, Us, Our
He, She, It, I
You, Yours, Mine
This, That, Those, These
Etc.
Prepositions
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.

Examples:
The book is
on
the table.
The book is
beneath
the table.
The book is
leaning
against the table.
The book is
beside
the table.
She held the book
over
the table.
She read the book
during
class
agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement
Singular subjects need singular verbs
The mayor
, as well as his brothers,
is
going to prison.

Plural subjects need plural verbs
The major and his brothers
are
going to prison.
DEFINITIONS
metaphors
analogies
word usage
...
"
,
?
.
Cliches vs. Jargon
`
Definitions:
Groups of words that function in a sentence as one part of speech

Examples:
Adverbial phrase: very carefully
Noun Phrase: the black cat
Prepositional Phrase: over the rainbow
Phrase
Clause
A group of words that contains a subject
and a verb

Example:
Dependent Clause: “Because I went to the store…”
Independent Clause: I went to the store.

Transition
Words that connect ideas and show how they are linked

Examples:
Again, also, similarly, and yet, however, but, or, in fact, all in all, in conclusion, after a while, simultaneously, moreover, on the contrary…

Modifies other words by asking HOW
Modifies Verbs: He drove
slowly

Modifies Adjectives: H
e drove a
very
fast ca
r
Modifies other Adverbs: She moved
quite

slowly
down the street
e
r
r
o
r
s
Basic Punctuation
Comma ,
Use a comma to
separate the elements in a series
(three or more things), including the last two.
"He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base.“
connect two independent clauses
with a little conjunction (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so)
“He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base."
Set off introductory elements
"Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked.“
Set off parenthetical elements
(part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the essential meaning of that sentence)
"The Founders Bridge, which spans the Connecticut River, is falling down.“
Separate coordinate adjectives
"That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow“
Set off quoted elements
"The question is," said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many things.“
avoid confusion
For most the year is already finished.
For most, the year is already finished.

Period .
Use at the end of a sentence that
Makes a statement
Gives a command
Asks an indirect question

Also use a period with abbreviations
Sometimes, check your dictionary to make sure. (ex. FBI, U.S.A., NAACP)
Acronyms are abbreviations usually made up of the first letter from a series of words, pronounced as words not letters and does not use periods.
(ex. NATO, VISTA, RADAR)

Question Mark ?
Use at the end of a direct question

A tag question is a device used to turn a statement into a question.
He should quit smoking, shouldn't he?

Be careful not to put a question mark at the end of an indirect question.
The instructor asked the students what they were doing.

Exclamation Mark !
Use an exclamation mark at the end of an emphatic declaration, interjection, or command.
"No!" he yelled. "Do it now!“

An exclamation mark can be inserted within parentheses to emphasize a word within a sentence.
We have some really(!) low-priced rugs on sale this week.

An exclamation mark will often accompany mimetically produced sounds, as in
"The bear went Grr!, and I went left."
Apostrophe ’
Used to create
Possessive forms
The witch’s broom
The men’s restroom
Contractions
I am = I’m
It is = It’s
Some Plurals
She got four A’s last semester
Don't forget to dot your i's.

Semicolon ;
Use a semicolon to

help sort out a complex list
There were citizens from Bangor, Maine; Hartford, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; and Newport, Rhode Island.

separate closely related independent clauses
My grandfather seldom goes to bed this early; he's afraid he'll miss out on something.

Parentheses ( )
Use parentheses to include material that you want to de-emphasize or that wouldn't normally fit into the flow of your text but you want to include nonetheless.

Thirty-five years after his death, Robert Frost (we remember him at Kennedy's inauguration) remains America's favorite poet.

Brackets [ ]
Use brackets to:
include explanatory words or phrases within quoted language
Mr. Perkins, Director of Athletic Programs, said that Sara, the new soccer coach [at Notre Dame Academy] is going to be a real winner.


Change the capitalization of a word or change a pronoun to make the material fit into your sentence when quoting material
Sara charged her former employer with "falsification of [her] coaching record."

Hyphen -
Use a hyphen to create compound words, particularly modifiers before nouns
The out-of-date curriculum
The well-known actor

Hyphens are also used to:
write numbers twenty-one to ninety-nine and fractions (five-eighths, one-fourth)
create compounds (on-the-fly or step-by-step process)
add certain prefixes to words (self-, ex-, all-, anti-, de-, etc.)

Ellipsis …
An ellipsis is used when you are quoting material and you want to omit some words.

The ellipsis consists of three evenly spaced dots (periods) with spaces between the ellipsis and surrounding letters or other marks.

The ceremony honored twelve brilliant athletes … visiting the U.S.

Use a colon before a list or an explanation that is preceded by a clause that can stand by itself
Think of the colon as a gate, inviting one to go on.

You nearly always have a sense of what is going to follow or be on the other side of the colon.

Colon :
The charter review committee now includes the following people:
the mayor
the chief of police
the fire chief
the chair of the town council
There are a few other times to use a colon such as:
When the introductory phrase preceding the colon is very brief and the clause following the colon represents the real business of the sentence
Remember: Punctuation and grammar will be graded in Project One.

After a salutation in a business letter
Dear Senator Dodd: It has come to our attention that…
Basic
Resources
Pocket Wadsworth Handbook

Purdue OWL online

Andrews Center: Writing Center
IMC 240

Your instructor

Sentences
Compound
A compound sentence contains
two independent clauses
joined by a
coordinator
.
Simple
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a
subject
and a
verb
, and it expresses a complete thought.
Complex
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more
dependent
clauses.
Types of Sentences
Declarative: makes a statement

Imperative: makes a command or polite request

Exclamatory: expresses great emotion or excitement

Interrogative: asks a question

Contractions
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters.
example:
Some
students

like
to study in the mornings.
example:
Alex played football
, so

Maria went shopping
.
example:
John
and
Mary

went
to the movies
after
they
finished
studying.
A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.
Contractions
examples:
Can't = Can not
Don't = Do not
I'm = I am
DETERMINERS
Note: for any essays or homework assignments, do not use contractions in your writing.
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