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Copy of Grammar
Transcript of Copy of Grammar
The first sentence contains only a few basic parts.
The: adjective (definite article) – type of modifier
sentence: noun, subject
a few: determiners (a is also an article)
Parts of Speech
The person, place, thing, or idea of a sentence
Specific person, place, or thing (Capitalized)
Charles, California, Queen Elizabeth
everything else (not capitalized)
teacher, ball, class
Conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand) in the sentence.
Present Participle (working)
Past Participle (have worked)
Words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence
Often identified through articles such as:
a, an, and the
A joiner word that connects parts of a sentence
A part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker
That was amazing.
Oh my gosh!
Did you see that?
Generally pronouns refer to a noun, individual(s), or thing(s) whose identity was made clear earlier in the text.
They, Them, Theirs
We, Us, Our
He, She, It, I
You, Yours, Mine
This, That, Those, These
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
The book is
The book is
The book is
against the table.
The book is
She held the book
She read the book
Singular subjects need singular verbs
, as well as his brothers,
going to prison.
Plural subjects need plural verbs
The major and his brothers
going to prison.
Cliches vs. Jargon
Groups of words that function in a sentence as one part of speech
Adverbial phrase: very carefully
Noun Phrase: the black cat
Prepositional Phrase: over the rainbow
A group of words that contains a subject
and a verb
Dependent Clause: “Because I went to the store…”
Independent Clause: I went to the store.
Words that connect ideas and show how they are linked
Again, also, similarly, and yet, however, but, or, in fact, all in all, in conclusion, after a while, simultaneously, moreover, on the contrary…
Modifies other words by asking HOW
Modifies Verbs: He drove
Modifies Adjectives: H
e drove a
Modifies other Adverbs: She moved
down the street
Use a comma to
separate the elements in a series
(three or more things), including the last two.
"He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base.“
connect two independent clauses
with a little conjunction (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so)
“He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base."
Set off introductory elements
"Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked.“
Set off parenthetical elements
(part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the essential meaning of that sentence)
"The Founders Bridge, which spans the Connecticut River, is falling down.“
Separate coordinate adjectives
"That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow“
Set off quoted elements
"The question is," said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many things.“
For most the year is already finished.
For most, the year is already finished.
Use at the end of a sentence that
Makes a statement
Gives a command
Asks an indirect question
Also use a period with abbreviations
Sometimes, check your dictionary to make sure. (ex. FBI, U.S.A., NAACP)
Acronyms are abbreviations usually made up of the first letter from a series of words, pronounced as words not letters and does not use periods.
(ex. NATO, VISTA, RADAR)
Question Mark ?
Use at the end of a direct question
A tag question is a device used to turn a statement into a question.
He should quit smoking, shouldn't he?
Be careful not to put a question mark at the end of an indirect question.
The instructor asked the students what they were doing.
Exclamation Mark !
Use an exclamation mark at the end of an emphatic declaration, interjection, or command.
"No!" he yelled. "Do it now!“
An exclamation mark can be inserted within parentheses to emphasize a word within a sentence.
We have some really(!) low-priced rugs on sale this week.
An exclamation mark will often accompany mimetically produced sounds, as in
"The bear went Grr!, and I went left."
Used to create
The witch’s broom
The men’s restroom
I am = I’m
It is = It’s
She got four A’s last semester
Don't forget to dot your i's.
Use a semicolon to
help sort out a complex list
There were citizens from Bangor, Maine; Hartford, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; and Newport, Rhode Island.
separate closely related independent clauses
My grandfather seldom goes to bed this early; he's afraid he'll miss out on something.
Parentheses ( )
Use parentheses to include material that you want to de-emphasize or that wouldn't normally fit into the flow of your text but you want to include nonetheless.
Thirty-five years after his death, Robert Frost (we remember him at Kennedy's inauguration) remains America's favorite poet.
Brackets [ ]
Use brackets to:
include explanatory words or phrases within quoted language
Mr. Perkins, Director of Athletic Programs, said that Sara, the new soccer coach [at Notre Dame Academy] is going to be a real winner.
Change the capitalization of a word or change a pronoun to make the material fit into your sentence when quoting material
Sara charged her former employer with "falsification of [her] coaching record."
Use a hyphen to create compound words, particularly modifiers before nouns
The out-of-date curriculum
The well-known actor
Hyphens are also used to:
write numbers twenty-one to ninety-nine and fractions (five-eighths, one-fourth)
create compounds (on-the-fly or step-by-step process)
add certain prefixes to words (self-, ex-, all-, anti-, de-, etc.)
An ellipsis is used when you are quoting material and you want to omit some words.
The ellipsis consists of three evenly spaced dots (periods) with spaces between the ellipsis and surrounding letters or other marks.
The ceremony honored twelve brilliant athletes … visiting the U.S.
Use a colon before a list or an explanation that is preceded by a clause that can stand by itself
Think of the colon as a gate, inviting one to go on.
You nearly always have a sense of what is going to follow or be on the other side of the colon.
The charter review committee now includes the following people:
the chief of police
the fire chief
the chair of the town council
There are a few other times to use a colon such as:
When the introductory phrase preceding the colon is very brief and the clause following the colon represents the real business of the sentence
Remember: Punctuation and grammar will be graded in Project One.
After a salutation in a business letter
Dear Senator Dodd: It has come to our attention that…
Pocket Wadsworth Handbook
Purdue OWL online
Andrews Center: Writing Center
A compound sentence contains
two independent clauses
joined by a
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a
, and it expresses a complete thought.
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more
Types of Sentences
Declarative: makes a statement
Imperative: makes a command or polite request
Exclamatory: expresses great emotion or excitement
Interrogative: asks a question
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters.
to study in the mornings.
Alex played football
Maria went shopping
to the movies
A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.
Can't = Can not
Don't = Do not
I'm = I am
Note: for any essays or homework assignments, do not use contractions in your writing.