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Ingredient Functions- Baking

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Kelly Marie Hobbs

on 23 April 2015

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Transcript of Ingredient Functions- Baking

Ingredient Functions
Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
Chocolate and Cocoa
Chocolate and cocoa are derived from cocoa or cacao beans.
The beans are roasted and ground, and the resulting product is called ‘chocolate liquor.’
This contains a white or yellowish fat called cocoa butter.
Cocoa is the dry powder that remains after part of the cocoa butter is removed from the chocolate liquor.
Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
Salt is more than just a seasoning or flavor enhancer.
Salt also has these functions:
Strengthens gluten structure and makes it more stretchable
Improves the texture of breads
Inhibits yeast growth
It is, therefore, important for controlling fermentation in bread doughs and in preventing the growth of undesirable wild yeasts.
Leavening Agents
When water turns to steam, it expands to 1,600 times its original volume.
Because all baked products contain some moisture, steam is an important leavening agent.
Puff pastry, cream puffs, popovers, and pie crusts use steam as their major or only leavening agent.
Leavening Agents
Chemical Leaveners (cont’d)
Baking powders are mixtures of baking soda plus an acid to react with it.
Single-acting baking powders + moisture = reaction
Double-acting baking powders + moisture + heat = reaction
Baking ammonia is the chemical ammonium carbonate.
It decomposes during baking to form carbon dioxide gas and ammonia gas.
It can be used only in small products, like cookies, which allow the ammonia gas to be completely driven off.
27. Ingredients
Leavening Agents
Yeast is available in three forms:
Fresh yeast (also called compressed yeast)
Active dry yeast
A dry, granular form of yeast.
Must be rehydrated in 4 times its weight of warm water—about 110°F (43°C)—before use.
Instant dry yeast
Also a dry granular form of yeast.
It does not have to be dissolved in water before use.
Leavening Agents
Yeast is a microscopic plant. As a living organism, it is sensitive to temperatures.
34°F (1°C): inactive; storage temperature.
60° to 70°F (15° to 20°C): slow action.
70° to 90°F (20° to 32°C): best growth; proofing temperature for bread doughs.
Above 100°F (38°C): reaction slows.
140°F (60°C): yeast is killed.
25. Ingredients
Leavening Agents
The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
These gases must be retained in the product until the structure is set enough to hold its shape.
Milk and Cream
Milk contributes to the:
Nutritional value
Keeping quality
Crust color of baked goods.
Milk products include:
Liquid whole and skim milk
Dry milk solids
22. Ingredients
Molasses and Brown Sugar
Molasses is concentrated sugar cane juice.
Sulfured molasses is a byproduct of sugar refining.
Unsulfured molasses is not a byproduct but a specially manufactured sugar product.
Brown sugar is mostly sucrose.
Contains varying amounts of molasses and other impurities.
The darker grades contain more molasses.
Because molasses and brown sugar contain acids, they can be used with baking soda to provide leavening.
Sugars or sweetening agents are used for the following purposes in baking:
To add sweetness and flavor.
To create tenderness and fineness of texture by weakening the gluten structure.
To give crust color.
To increase keeping qualities by retaining moisture.
To act as creaming agents with fats.
20. Ingredients
Oils are liquid fats.
Oils used in the bakeshop are limited primarily to:
Greasing pans and proofing bowls.
Deep-frying doughnuts.
Serving as a wash for some kinds of rolls.
18. Ingredients
Regular Shortening
Has a tough, waxy texture.
Small particles of the fat tend to hold their shape in a dough or batter.
Does not melt until a high temperature is reached.
Emulsified Shortening
Used whenever the weight of sugar in a cake batter is greater than the weight of flour.
Puff Pastry Shortening
Is especially formulated for puff pastry and other doughs that form layers.
17. Ingredients
Flours, Meals, and Starches
Other Flours
Buckwheat flour
Soy flour
Potato flour
Oat flour
Barley flour
The term meal is used for products that are not as finely ground as flour.
All these products must normally be used in combination with wheat flour because they do not form gluten.
Flours, Meals, and Starches
Whole Wheat Flour
Made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.
The germ:
The embryo of a new wheat plant.
High in fat, which can become rancid.
Because of this, whole wheat flour does not keep as well as white flour.
15. Ingredients
Flours, Meals, and Starches
White Wheat Flour
Milled from wheat kernels after the bran and the germ are removed.
Wheat flour contains 63 to 73 percent starch and 7 to 15 percent protein.
The remainder is moisture, fat, sugar, and minerals.
Wheat flour is the source of the protein called gluten.
Flours high in protein are called strong.
Flours low in protein are called weak.
The Baking Process
- Melting of fats.
- Formation and expansion of gases.
- Killing of yeast and other microorganisms.
- Coagulation of proteins.
- Gelatinization of starches.
- Escape of water and other gases.
- Crust formation and browning.
Basic Principles of Baking
Mixing and Gluten Development
The baker must be able to control the gluten.
1. Flour is mostly starch, but its protein or gluten content, not its starch, concerns the baker
2. Without gluten proteins to give structure, baked goods would not hold together.
3. Ingredient proportions and mixing methods are determined, in part, by how they affect the
development of gluten.
Basic Principles of Baking
Formulas and Measurement
Baker’s Percentages
The advantage of using baker’s percentages:
The formula is easily adapted for any yield.
Single ingredients may be varied without changing the whole formulation.
Remember that these numbers do not refer to the percentage of the total yield.
They are simply a way of expressing ingredient proportions.
The total of these percentage numbers will always be greater than 100 percent.
Basic Principles of Baking
Formulas and Measurement
All ingredients must be weighed.
Accuracy of measurement is critical in the bakeshop.
Measurement is by weight rather than by volume.
Weight is much more accurate.
Basic Principles of Baking
Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients
Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
Extracts and Emulsions
Extracts are flavorful oils and other substances dissolved in alcohol.
Vanilla, lemon, and bitter almond.
Emulsions are flavorful oils mixed with water with the aid of emulsifiers such as vegetable gums.
The flavorings of extracts and emulsions may be natural or artificial.
Natural flavorings give the best results, but they are often expensive.
Artificial flavorings must be used in moderation in baked items.
Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
The most important spices in the bakeshop are:
Poppy Seed
Use the best quality spices to get superior results.
Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
Chocolate and Cocoa
Dutch process cocoa is processed with an alkali.
Bitter or unsweetened chocolate is straight chocolate liquor.
Sweet chocolate is bitter chocolate with the addition of sugar in varying amounts.
Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate with the addition of milk solids.
Leavening Agents
Physical leaving= Air
Air is incorporated into a batter primarily by two methods: creaming and foaming.
This air expands during baking and leavens the product.
Creaming is the process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air.
Foaming is the process of beating eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.
28. Ingredients
Leavening Agents
Chemical Leaveners
Baking soda is the chemical sodium bicarbonate.
Baking soda + liquid + acid = reaction
Acids that react with soda in a batter include:
Honey, molasses, buttermilk, fruits, cocoa, chocolate, and Cream of Tartar.
The amount of soda used in a formula is generally the amount needed to balance the acid.
26. Ingredients
Leavening Agents
Fermentation: The process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates and changes them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
This release of gas produces the leavening action in yeast products.
The alcohol evaporates completely during and immediately after baking.
24. Ingredients
Eggs perform the following functions in baking:
Structure - proteins coagulate
Emulsification of fats - lecithin
Leavening - air whipped into eggs
Shortening action - fat in yolks break gluten strands
Moisture - liquid in eggs
Flavour - I think eggs are gross but some people like them
Nutritional value - eggs are good for you
Color - carbs + protein = maillard reaction and caramelization
Water is the basic liquid in baking, especially in breads.
Tap water is normally suitable for most baking purposes.
In some localities, the water may be hard, meaning it contains many dissolved minerals.
These minerals interfere with proper gluten development.
In these areas, the water may have to be treated for use in baking.
Honey and Malt Syrup
A natural sugar syrup.
Consists largely of glucose and fructose, plus other compounds that give it flavor.
Honey contains invert sugar.
Stays smooth and resists crystallizing.
Contains acid, which enables it to be used with baking soda as a leavening.
Malt syrup
Used primarily in yeast breads.
Serves as food for the yeast.
Adds flavor and crust color to the breads.
21. Ingredients
Corn Syrup and Glucose Syrup
Corn syrup is a liquid sweetener consisting mainly of a sugar called glucose.
It is made by converting cornstarch into simpler sugar compounds by the use of enzymes.
Glucose syrup resembles corn syrup but is colorless and nearly tasteless.
Regular Refined Sugars or Sucrose
We customarily use the term sugar for regular refined sugars derived from sugar cane or beets.
The chemical name for these sugars is sucrose.
Refined sugars are classified by the size of grains:
Granulated sugar
Confectioners’ or powdered sugar
The rendered fat of hogs.
Because of its plastic quality, it was once highly valued for making flaky pie crusts.
Since the development of modern shortenings, it is not often used in the bakeshop.
19. Ingredients
Butter and Margarine
Hard and brittle when cold
Soft at room temperature
Melts easily
Butter and margarine have two major advantages:
Melting qualities
Flours, Meals, and Starches
Sets up almost like gelatin when cooled.
Waxy maize and other modified starches
Used for products that are to be frozen.
Instant starches
Precooked or pregelatinized.
They thicken cold liquids without further cooking.
Flours, Meals, and Starches
Rye Flour
Rye flour
Does not develop much gluten.
Breads made with it are heavy unless some hard wheat flour is added.
Rye flour is available in three shades:
Rye meal or pumpernickel
A coarse meal made from the whole rye grain.
16. Ingredients
Flours, Meals, and Starches
White Wheat Flour
Bread flour: A strong flour.
Used for making breads, hard rolls, and any product that requires high gluten.
Cake flour: A weak or low-gluten flour made from soft wheat.
Used for cakes and other delicate baked goods that require low gluten content.
Pastry flour: Lower in gluten than bread flour but higher than cake flour.
Used for cookies, pie pastry, some sweet yeast doughs, biscuits, and muffins.
14. Ingredients
The change in texture and aroma of baked goods is due to:
Change in structure.
Loss of moisture by the starch granules.
Staling can be slowed by these techniques:
Protecting the product from air.
Adding moisture retainers to the formula.
Basic Principles of Baking
Mixing and Gluten Development
How does the baker control gluten?
Selection of flours: Wheat flours develop gluten.
Strong flour: Comes from hard wheat and has high protein content.
Weak flour: Comes from soft wheat and has low protein content.
- Shortening: Fat used in baking that shortens gluten strands.
- Liquid: The amount of water in gluten protein formula can affect toughness (too
much liquid) or tenderness (little liquid).
- Mixing methods: More gluten develops as dough/batter is mixed.
13. Basic Principles of Baking
Mixing and Gluten Development
11. What is Gluten?
Gluten is a protein found in flour.
12. There are 4 types:
- Glutenin - Gliadin - Globulin - Albumin

In order for gluten to be developed:
1. The proteins must first absorb water.
2. Once the dough or batter is mixed or kneaded, the gluten forms long, elastic strands.
3. As the dough or batter is leavened, the strands capture the gases in tiny pockets or
cells (also known as “rising”).
4. Once the product is baked, the gluten proteins coagulate and give structure to the
Basic Principles of Baking
Formulas and Measurement
Scaling: the baker’s term for weighing out ingredients.
The following ingredients may be measured by volume.
They weigh 1 pound per pint or 1 kilogram per liter.
All other liquid ingredients and all dry ingredients are normally weighed.
Basic Principles of Baking
Mixing and Gluten Development
What you need to know from the activity:
1. the darker the flour, the more proteins that are present.
2. the more proteins present, the greater amount of potential gluten.
3. in general, the more protein, the higher the water absorption.

Basic Principles of Baking
Formulas and Measurement
Selection of ingredients
Another basic rule of accuracy in the bakeshop is:
- Use the exact ingredients specified.
- Bakers’ formulas are balanced for specific ingredients.
- Different flours, shortenings, and other ingredients do not function alike.
Basic Principles of Baking
Flour is always 100 percent (if two kinds of flour are used, their total is 100 percent).
weight of ingredient × 100% = % of ingredient
weight of flour
Formulas and Measurement
Baker’s Percentages
Bakers’ percentages express the amount of each ingredient used as a percentage of the amount of flour used.
The percentage of each ingredient is its total weight divided by the weight of the flour, multiplied by 100 percent.
Basic Principles of Baking
Formulas and Measurement
Bakers generally talk about formulas rather than recipes.
The bakeshop is much like a chemistry laboratory.
Both in the scientific accuracy of all the procedures and in the complex reactions that take place during mixing and baking.
Basic Principles of Baking
The boring but necessary
part of baking

Oh help us all...
How "strong" is the flour?

Basic Principles of Baking
3. Find the weight
Bread Flour
500 grams
Basic Principles of Baking
3. Find the percentages
625 grams
375 grams
12 grams
22 grams
60 grams
60 grams
Complete #6 - 10 in workbook
Basic Principles of Baking
Scale out and bring back to class but DO NOT MIX:
Group 1
200 grams all purpose flour
120 water
Group 2
200 grams bread flour
120 water
Group 3
200 grams whole wheat flour
120 water
Group 4
200 grams semolina flour
120 water
Gather at back table.
1. Before: What do you think will be the difference in mixture consistency?
***Look at the colour and texture of the flour.
2. After: What is the difference in mixture consistency?
Full transcript