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Victimology - Week 7
Transcript of Victimology - Week 7
Child Physical Abuse Evolution of Child Protection in US Colonial times - "Honor thy mother and father"; "Spare the rod, spoil the child"
Early 1800s - House of Refuge movement intervened on behalf of beaten and neglected children; removed from home and placed with young juvenile lawbreakers
Late 1800s - ASPCA began rescuing children
Common practice to place abused children in institutions to prevent delinquency
Early 1900s - Child saving movement that focused on preventing future delinquency and violence later in life Non-sexual child abuse Includes:
e.g. punching, kicking, shaking, extended confinement
Failing to meet the follow three areas of need:
Physical needs (including inadequate supervision or medical care)
Emotional needs (denial of nurturing, extreme fighting in child's presence)
Educational needs (tolerance of chronic truancy)
e.g. emotional abuse Child Physical Abuse Prevalence
Numbers still relatively unknown
Study by Briere & Elliot (2003) estimates that 22.2% of males and 19.5% of females in a nationally representative survey had been physically abused
2010 Report on Child Protective Services shows nearly 1.4 million cases of reported abuse (of all types) (p.18) http://archive.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm10/cm10.pdf
American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) notes more than 3 million cases involve 5.5 million children Evolution (continued) 1960s - Pediatric radiologists notice patterns of abuse and began movement to protect children
1962-1966 - All 50 states pass laws against child abuse and mandatory reporting for those who work with children
1974 - Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (amended in 1978) which included neglect, physical abuse, and emotional abuse
1980s - Focus shifts from child physical abuse and maltreatment to child sexual abuse Risk factors Male children more likely than female children
Children of single parents
Low income families, high poverty rates
Low levels of social control and organization in neighborhoods
Other violent relationships in home
Parents will low-self esteem, limited impulse control, mental health problems, or symptoms of antisocial behavior
Parents with uninformed or unrealistic expectations about child development Reporting in NJ Professionals who work with children and bound by state and employers' guidelines for reporting
As with child sexual abuse, all people in the state of NJ are mandated reporters
To report: Call 1-877-NJ-ABUSE
Provide who, what, when, where, how
No need for proof and can remain anonymou
NJ State law says:
Any person who knowingly fails to report suspected abuse or neglect according to the law or to comply with the provisions of the law is a disorderly person and subject to a fine of up to $1,000 or up to six months imprisonment, or both. Other forms of child abuse Psychological abuse (Kairys & Johnson, 2002)
Exploiting/corrupting that encourages inappropriate behaviors
Denying emotional responsiveness
Can result in many of the same effects as physical abuse
depression and self-esteem issues, aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems
What might be indicators for this type of abuse? And should it be reported and addressed by state agencies? Long term consequences Aggressive and violent behavior
Non-violent criminal behavior
Self-harm and suicidal tendencies
Emotional problems, including anxiety and depression
Academic/vocational difficulties Moderator Variables Characteristics of the maltreatment
e.g. age of onset and termination, frequency, severity, etc.
e.g. gender, developmental level, biological/cognitive/emotional factors
e.g. extended familial distress or events
e.g. therapy, supportive relationships
Interaction effects of any of the above (Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993) A word of caution... Researchers debated the "abused turned abuser" phenomenon.
Though there is often inconsistent research findings, there is a consistent theme:
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF ABUSE DO NOT ABUSE THEIR CHILDREN. RATHER, THEY ARE AT AN INCREASED RISK OF DOING SO. Reasonable Suspicion
(Levy & Portwood, 2011) Importance of semantics
"Belief" used in 22 statutes; "suspicion" used in 28 states
What are the implications of this? Thresholds?
How do people (including non-professionals) make judgments about when to report child abuse?
How could information be disseminated? Final Notes Come see me to get your reactions papers and/or proposals
Contact me with questions or concerns about midterm.
START READING AHEAD FOR REACTION PAPERS! YOU ONLY HAVE FIVE OPPORTUNITIES LEFT!
Need to see student volunteers