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on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of MEMORY

active system
3 processes of memory
Models of Memory
Information Processing Theory
Sensory memory
1st Stage
info enter the nervous sytem through the sensory systems
info is encoded into sensory memory as neural messages
memory=neural messages traveling through the system.
receives info
puts info in usable form
organizes it for storage
retrieves the info
mental operations at people perform on sensory info to convert that info into a form that is usable in the brain's storage system.
different ways of encoding will be discussed later...
holding onto info for some period of time.
*The stage of memory determines the period of time.
getting info, you know you have, out.
Biggest problem!
Most comprehensive
Most influential
3 stages
covered in detail later...
length of memory retention is dependent on the depth to which the info is processed.
Parallel Distributed Processing
deeper processing=longer retention
simultaneous processing of info
across multiple neural networks
Allows you to retrieve many different aspects of a memory all at once.
Model for artificial intelligence in computers.
Memory works like a computer.
Cognitive Psychology
Ever did a "double take"?
Your brain knows you saw something...
Icon means image
Experiments by George Sperling
everything that can be seen at one time.
masking: iconic memory is pushed out very quickly by new info.
eidetic imagery: access visual memory for a long period of time. "true" photographic memory.
look at a page in the text, look at a blank wall. can you "read" every word of the text?
pg 224-225
.25 seconds
2-4 seconds
If you're not listening during class, then I say your name...listen for the echo in your head. you may actually know what I asked.
Only what you can hear in one moment.
Short-term Memory (STM)
moves from sensory memory to STM by selective attention (ability to focus on 1 stimuli)
Most STM is encoded in auditory form.
We "talk" in our heads.
Attention is important for memory
Working Memory
Thing or place memory is stored.
active system processing info for STM
examples of STM & WM on page 227-228.
George Miller: "The Magic # 7, plus or minus 2"

Chucking: reorganizing info to hold more in STM......phone #'s.
STM lasts 12-30 secs without rehearsal.

Maintenance rehearsal: say it over and over in your head to maintain it in STM
Interference=memories lost
Counting & someone interrupts
exceeded STM capacity--push out old info to take in new info
Memory (LTM)
3rd stage
permanent-physical change in brain
usually encoded in meaningful form
memory may be available, but no accessible.
Rote learning (maintenance rehearsal) may get info into LTM. but it must be retrieved like it went in.
-----18th letter of the alphabet?
No clue till you sing the song, right?
Elaborative rehearsal: transfer info from STM to LTM by making it meaningful
Types of Long-Term Information
Procedural (Nondeclarative) LTM
Skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. This LTM is stored in amygdala (emotional associations) and cerebellum.

Anterograde amnesia-new LTM's cannot be formed due to damage to hippocampus. Procedural LTM is not affected.
Also called
implicit memory
because not easily retrieved into conscious awareness.
Declarative LTM
facts and info that you know
general facts, personal happenings
Knowledge of meanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, etc.
Info you learn in school, in a book.
relatively permanent
autobiographical memory
Personal knowledge of your daily life and personal history
Constantly updated and revised
you keep meaningful memories in LTM
Also called explicit memory...can easily be made conscious and brought from long-term storage to working memory.
Long-Term Memory Organization
Organized according to meanings and concepts.
Semantic Network Model
info stored in connceted way
explained by the Parallel distributed processing model
Echoic memory is to Iconic memory as:

A. sound is to sight
B. rehearsal is to encoding
C. short-term memory is to long-term memory
D. working memory is to sensory memory
E. sight is to sound
When individual items are grouped into larger units that have meaning, this is called:

A. Encoding
B. Chunking
C. Elaborating
D. Mapping
E. Schemas

Retrieval Cues
The more cues, the easier it is to retrieve!
stimulus for remembering
Encoding Specificity
Connection between surroundings and remembered info.
memory is improved if the physical surroundings are the same when the memory was formed as when it is retrieved.
That is MY desk!
State-dependent learning
memories formed in a certain psychological or physiological state will be easier to remember in that state.
Types of Memory Retrieval
little to no external cues
match a stimulus to stored info
TOT phenomenon: can't recall. forget about it. Your brain will keep trying to find it. The it just "pops out"
Serial Position Effect:beginning and ending of info remembered more accurately than middle. Ex: a song
-Primacy Effect: remember info at beginning better than the rest.
-Recency Effect: remember info at the end better than info proceeding it.
very accurate for images
False positive: think you recognize a stimulus that is not actually in memory.
-eyewitness testimony
Automatic Encoding
Info that enters LTM with little to no effort
passage of time, knowledge of physical space, frequency of events
Flashbulb Memories
strong emotional associations. major emotional events.
Emotional reaction stimulate release of hormones thought to enhance formation of LTM
*Elizabeth Loftus
Constructive procssing of Memory
As new memories form, old memories can be altered.
Memories are "built" from pieces stored away at encoding
Each time a memory is retrieved it may be revised in some way to include new info or info may be left out.
-Hindsight bias: falsely believe the you could have predicted an outcome once you learn the outcome.
"yeah, I knew that was going to happen..."
Memory Retrieval Problems
Misinformation Effect
misleading info given after event can alter memory of it.
False Memory Syndrome
creating false memories through the suggestion of others, usually when under hypnosis.
For a false event to be interpretted as a true memory:
1. plausible
2. personal info given to make individual believe the event
could have happened to them.
A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess?

a) primary memory
b) sensory memory
c) long-term memory
d) short-term memory

You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?

a) condensed
b) permanent
c) elaborative
d) maintenance

“The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related
to the similarity of cues present when the memory
was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved.”

What concept does this statement describe?

a) memorability
b) registered learning
c) encoding specificity
d) accessible decoding

John can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone.

This is an example of the _____________.

a) encoding specificity effect
b) serial position effect
c) TOT effect
d) reintegrative effect

Do this face recognition test and see how accurate your are!
The Forgetting Curve
non-sense syllables
Forget the most within the first hour.
Disturbed Practice
space out study session
instead of cramming in 4 hours of studying. study 1 hour, then break, then 1 hour, then break....
Encoding Failure
info never gets past sensory memory.
Memory Trace Decay Theory
Interference Theory
physical change in brain may decay if not used
"use it or lose it"
other info interferes with retrieval
Proactive interference:previously learned info with retrieval of newly learned info.
Retroactive Interference: newer info interferes with retrieval of older info.
Physical Aspects of Memory
Procedural Memory: cerebellum,
STM: Prefrontal Cortex, Temporal Lobe
LTM: Frontal, Temporal Lobe
not same place as STM
Memories of fear
stored in amygdala...
Memory Formation
Consolidation: changes in neural activity and structure as memory forms.
LTM formation happens in the hippocampus
*H.M.had hippocampus and
amygdala removed. No new declarative memories could be formed.
Procedural memory intact.
Loss of memory from injury backwards.
Loss of memory from injury forwards
Infantile Amnesia
Usually don't remember things before age 3
Memory is implicit
Explicit memory begins developing around age 2...
hippocampus nearly fully formed, verbal skills increase.
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