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78 Things Every World History Student Needs to Know before the CST

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geva clemens

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of 78 Things Every World History Student Needs to Know before the CST

By: Geva Clemens My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Aristotle
Definition:
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.)
numbers among the greatest
philosophers of all time.
Judged solely in terms of his
philosophical influence, only
Plato is his peer 78 Things Every World History Student Needs to Know Before the CST My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Roman
Definition:
The Romans established a
form of government — a
republic — that was copied by
countries for centuries In fact,
the government of the United
States is based partly on
Rome's model. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Greeks Idea of Democracy
Definition:
The Greeks in their high stage of
civilization had gotten rid of almost all the
primitive notions, individual property had
been developed, a fixed and settled form
of marriage, a monogamous family, the
recognition of the citizen’s duties to his
country, to his family, to his fellow
citizens, had all become clear. Individual
liability for individual acts had been made
plain. The laws, as providing for all these
relations, were well recognize My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Judeo Christian
Definition:
of or pertaining to the
religious writings, beliefs,
values, or traditions held in
common by Judaism and
Christianity My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Athens (Individual worth & dignity)
Definition:
Athens of the fifth century B.C. The
significance of the Greek
achievements lies not so much on
what the Ancient Greeks did or
how they.did it, as in the
motivating factors that led them to
the new things and perfected their
thought and inventions My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Separation of Powers (Branches
Independent)
Definition:
This relationship is described as
one of checks and balances, where
the functions of one branch serve
to contain and modify the power
of another. Through this elaborate
system of safeguards, the Framers
of the Constitution sought to
protect the nation against tyrann My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Representative Democracy (U.S.A.)
Definition:
The United States of America is a
representative democracy, also called a
democratic republic, which is a form of
government in which the people elect
officials to represent them. This is
different than a pure democracy where
all citizens are able to assemble and
vote directly on government matters My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Direct Democracy (Greeks
Definition:
One of the hallmarks of GREEK
CIVILIZATION was the polis, or city-state.
The city-states were small, independent
communities which were male-dominated
and bound together by race. What this
means is that membership in the polis was
hereditary and could not be passed on to
someone outside the citizen family. The
citizens of any given polis were an elite
group of people – slaves, peasants,
women and resident aliens were not part
of the body of citizens. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Constitutional Monarchy (Spain)
Definition:
Alfonso insisted that the official
status of the church be confirmed
constitutionally, thus assuring the
restored monarchy of conservative
support. My understanding of this term:
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Term:
1215 Magna Carta (1st, Limited Power of
King
Definition:
What is the Magna Carta? The Magna
Carta is a document that King John of
England (1166 - 1216) was forced into
signing. King John was forced into
signing the charter because it greatly
reduced the power he held as the
King of England and allowed for the
formation of a powerful parliament.
The Magna Carta became the basis for
English citizen's rights My understanding of this term:
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Term:
1689 English Bill of Rights
Definition:
The Bill of Rights was passed by
Parliament on 16 December
1689.[2] It was a re-statement in
statutory form of the Declaration
of Right presented by the
Convention Parliament to William
and Mary in March 1689, inviting
them to become joint sovereigns
of England. My understanding of this term:
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Term:
1791 U.S. Bill of Rights
Definition:
The first 10 amendments to the
Constitution make up the Bill of Rights.
Written by James Madison in response to
calls from several states for greater
constitutional protection for individual
liberties, the Bill of Rights lists specific
prohibitions on governmental power. The
Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by
George Mason, strongly influenced
Madison. My understanding of this term:
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Term:
1789 Declaration of the Right of Man
Definition:
The Representatives of the French
people, organized in National
Assembly, considering that ignorance,
forgetfulness, or contempt of the rights
of man are the sole causes of public
miseries and the corruption of
governments My understanding of this term:
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Term:
18th century
Definition:
European movement in which
thinkers attempted to apply
the principles of reason and
the scientific method to all
aspects of society My understanding of this term:
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Term:
John Locke
Definition:
Believed that all humans
had the right to life, liberty
and property. “natural
rights” My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Montesquieu-
Definition:
Believed in “Separation of
powers” to control the
government and protect
freedom My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Rousseau
Definition:
wrote the Social Contract
and believed the only
legitimate government
had to have the consent of
the people. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Reasons why colonists wanted Independence
Definition:
Britain was in debt. Britain expected the colonists
to pay this debt in the form of taxes. Stamp Act
led to “no taxation without representation.”-
Were not given the same rights as people in
Britain. Import tax on tea protest- lead to the
“Boston Tea Party” –threw British tea into the
harbor. King George III was angry- British troops
occupied the city. Other colonies protested the
treatment of Boston and formed the 1st
Continental Congress. They were ignored and
then set a plan for revolution- The revolution
began in Lexington in 1775 under the command of
George Washington. Some colonists were loyal to
Britain and wanted to remain part of Britain.
Enlightenment ideas influenced independence. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Main Causes
Definition:
Widespread Poverty, France was home
to thinkers who taught the importance
of freedom. “Enlightenment Ideas”,
Example set by the American
Revolution, Discontent of the Third
Estate, King Louis XVI could not solve
France’s problems. “weak leadership My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Reign of Terror
Definition:
Period of time from 1793-1794 under
the Jacobin ruler, Robespierre. The
committee of public safety task was to
protect the revolution from its enemies.
Thousands of political leaders and
ordinary citizens were executed mainly
by the guillotine. Louis XVI and Marie
Antoinette were also beheaded. Ended
with the beheading of Robespierre My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Immediate Causes
Definition:
The King and Queen refused to economize and called upon
the Estates-General for money. The Third Estate asked for
reforms before giving money. They wanted taxes to
become fair, Privileges for Nobles to cease, freedom of
speech and press, government to leave business alone,
constitution guaranteeing the rights of the people. The
Third Estate was out voted in the meeting and so they
declared themselves the National Assembly and took the
Tennis Court Oath. They swore to not disband until they
got a constitution. The King refused their demands and on
July 14, 1789 members of the Third Estate stormed the
Bastille (prison). Led to the establishment of a temporary
government until Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Napoleon Bonaparte
Definition:
Takes over in 1799 by Coup d’ etat (seizure of power). He kept
many changes of the revolution. Strengthened central
government, stabilized economy and equality of taxation.
Dismissed corrupt officials, set up public education, created code
of laws, appointed officials by merit, religious tolerance. Signs
concordat (agreement) with the Pope regarding church and state
relations. Church has no control over national affairs. Napoleonic
Code-Uniform set of laws for the country- promoted order and
authority over individual rights. 1804 he decides to make himself
emperor- French supported him. Didn’t want to just be the master
France, but control the rest of Europe. Early 1800’s Napoleon had
control over much of Europe. Did not control Britain. Eventually
lost at the battle of waterloo and was exiled to Elba where he later
died My understanding of this term:
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Term:
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Definition:
Europeans met to discuss plans to establish long lasting
peace and security in Europe. Austrian Prince, Klemens von
Metternich was the most influential representative. His
goals were to prevent future French aggression, restore
balance of power and restore Europe’s royal families to the
throne.

Tennis Court Oath demanded drafting a new constitution
The Fall of the Bastille was the first act of popular French protest
Napoleon seized control because weakness of the French
government
Congress of Vienna ensured the balance of power between
nations My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Industrial Revolution
Definition:
England was the first country to
industrialize. Why? England had all of
the factors needed to industrialize first.
(Factors of Production: Land, Labor,
Capital $$) My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Industrial Inventions of the Era
Definition:


Agricultural changes produced more food with fewer workers
Louis Pasteur’s germ theory proved cleanliness helps prevent
infections
Charles Dickens’ novels describe the horrors of the Industrial
Revolution
Populations rose due to industrial growth
Labor unions responded to wages and working conditions
Owners invested in more machinery
1700s trade in Great Britain led to the capital for entrepreneurs to
open factories
Europeans turned to Egypt & India for cotton during the American
Civil War
Romanticism was a reaction to Enlightenment/Classicism focus
on reason My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
What is Imperialism
Definition:
the takeover of a country or territory by
a stronger nation with the intent of
dominating the political, economic, and
social life of the people of that nation

-one nation taking over another My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
What motives caused the nations of Europe to engage in Imperialist
activities?
Definition:
-Nationalism: pride in one’s own nation; empire building was a
measure of greatness
-Economic: the Industrial Revolution provided European countries
with the need for new markets and sources for raw materials
-Ideological/RACISM: many Europeans felt they were better than
other cultures; this is known as Social Darwinism
-Missionary work: missionaries wanted to spread Christianity and
“civilize” foreign people My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
What are the forms of imperial rule?
Definition:
-colony: a land controlled by a distant nation
-protectorate: a country or territory with its own internal
government but under the control of an outside power.
-sphere of influence: a foreign region in which a nation has
control over trade and other economic activities
-economic imperialism: independent but less developed
nations controlled by private business interests rather than
by other governments My understanding of this term:
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Term:
GREAT POWERS
Definition:
Britain, Russia, Germany,
France, Italy, Austria-
Hungary My understanding of this term:
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Term:
BALKANS
Definition:
Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria,
Greece My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I:
Definition:

MANIA (Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism. Imperialism, Assassination )

MILITARISM
- by 1914, all of the Great Powers except Britain had large armies (Britain had the largest Navy and Germany challenged
Britain through building up their Navy)

- European arms race


ALLIANCES
- (1879) DUAL ALLIANCE = Germany and Austria-Hungary

- (1882) TRIPLE ALLIANCE = Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

- (1887) Germany makes a treaty with Russia

- (1892 & 1894) military alliance between Russia and France

- (1907) TRIPLE ENTENTE = Britain, France, and Russia

***2 RIVAL CAMPS IN 1907: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy VS. Britain, Russia, France***

IMPERIALISM
- nations of Europe competed for colonies in Europe and Asia My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
most of the fighting during WWI was carried out by land armies in Europe
(Western & Eastern Fronts/Africa/Atlantic/Pacific)
Definition:PHASE 1: Bid for quick victory. First Battle of the
Marne/Entry of Ottoman Empire/Japan declares war on Germany
PHASE 2: Deadlock. German unrestricted submarine
warfare/Gallipoli Campaign/Italy and Bulgaria enter WWI/Battle of
Verdun/ First Battle of the Somme/Battle of Jutland (British navy
VS. German navy)
PHASE 3: The Tide Turns. U.S. enters war/Russian Revolution-
Russia leaves WWI(Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany)/the
British fight the Ottomans in the Middle East (Mesopotamia,
Palestine, Gaza)
PHASE 4: Period of Decision. Germany shifts troops from Eastern
to Western Front once Russia leaves war/Second Battle of the
Marne/Sept. 12, 1918 was the beginning of the end for Germans in
the west
WWI ENDS-November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the
11th month of 1918 My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
Definition:
A large period of stalemate
ended because of Russia’s
withdrawal from WWI (largely
due to the Russian
Revolution) and the U.S.’s
entry into WWI. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
THE RUSSIAN
REVOLUTION
Definition:
Germany was able to send
most of its troops to the
Western Front because
Russia exited the war My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
THE RUSSIAN
REVOLUTION
Definition:
The U.S. brought energy
and soldiers to WWI and
helped the Allies win. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
HUMAN RIGHTS
VIOLATIONS
Definition:
1890’s – Turkish troops
killed tens of thousands of
Armenians My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
Definition:
After WWI, the Turks
deported 2 million Armenians
(more than 600,000 died of
starvation or killed by Turkish
soldiers) My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (Jan 18,
1919):
Definition:
the Big Four (Woodrow Wilson – US,
Georges Clemenceau – France, David
Lloyd George – Britain, and Vittorio
Orlando – Italy met at the Palace of
Versailles in France. Clemenceau and
Wilson had conflicting views.
Clemenceau wanted to punish
Germany harshly while Wilson
supported a just and My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Definition:
signed June 28, 1919. Germany returns Alsace-
Lorraine to France and the French border
extended to the west bank of the Rhine River.
Limits were placed on the size of the German
army, Germany was prohibited from
manufacturing weapons or war material, and they
were forbidden to build or buy submarines or
have an air force. Germany was given sole
responsibility for the war and forced to pay $33
billion in war reparations over 30 years. LEAGUE
OF NATIONS created. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Definition:
international peace keeping
organization. Members
included Allied war powers and
32 Allied and neutral nations.
Germany and Russia not
included My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
FOURTEEN POINTS
Definition:
a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace
written by Woodrow Wilson. 1-5 = end to secret
treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced
national armies and navies, and the adjustment of
colonial claims with fairness towards colonial
peoples. 6-13 = changing borders and creating
new nations. SELF DETERMINATION-allowing
people to decide which government they want to
live under. 14 = “general association of nations”,
LEAGUE OF NATIONS was created My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
THE EFFECTS OF THE WAR
Definition:
The Ottoman Turks gave up most of
their empire – they kept the country of
Turkey. The Allies created the following
mandates instead of independent
nations: (BRITISH CONTROL)Palestine,
Iraq, Transjordan (FRENCH CONTROL)
Syria and Lebanon

Visual My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Rise of Totalitarianism/Russian Revolution
Definition:

After being sentenced to 9 months in prison, Hitler laid out his plans for the
German nation in his book called…(Mein Kampf)
What was the name of the democracy in Germany that was blamed for
post WWI problems? (Weimer Republic)

Before WWI, how were most European nations governed? (by monarchies)

Leader of the Communist Bolsheviks movement in Russia…(Lenin)

A system in which the gov’t makes all economic decisions…(Command
economy)

Describes a gov’t that takes total, centralized control over every aspect of
public and private life…(Totalitarianism)

Name 2 leaders that used totalitarian governments…(Stalin, Hitler,
Mussolini)

A 19th century German philosopher, argued that the workers of the world
would one day overthrow the ruling class and share equally in society’s
wealth…(Karl Marx)

Stalin took over 25 million privately owned farms in a brutal campaign
agricultural revolution. Called? (Collective fa My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Rise of Totalitarianism/Russian Revolution

Definition:Hitler claimed Germany needed more lebensraum, or this…(living space)

What document was the source of Hitler’s fury, think of war reparations, and war-guilt...(Treaty of
Versailles)

Who was forced to make Hitler chancellor of Germany; the second most powerful position in the
German nation in 1932? (Hindenburg)

What was the name of Hitler’s elite, private protection squad? (SS, Schutzstaffel)

Hitler used his fiery speeches and Stalin used art to spread their messages. This is referred to
as…(propaganda)

This was the symbol for German fascism…(swastika)

The Sudetenland had a high concentration of Nazi supporters. What nation was it a part
of…(Czechoslovakia)

When Hitler invaded Austria, instead of declaring war, Britain and France used this policy, hoping
Hitler was satisfied with his land gains…(appeasement)

What nation invaded and successfully defeated, Manchuria, Korea, and China, and the U.S. at Pearl
Harbor…(Japan)

Name two groups of people which Hitler blamed for Germany’s problems…(Jews, communists)

The stock market crash in the U.S. in Oct.1929 caused economic systems of the world to collapse,
this caused…(The Great Depression) My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
the causes and consequences
of World War II.
Definition:
Where was World War II
fought?
There were two different
“theaters” of the war
Pacific (mainly U.S. vs. Japan)
Europe (Allies vs. Axis powers) My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
the causes and consequences of World
War II.
Definition:
Which countries fought in World War II?
There were two sides: the Allies and the
Axis Powers.
The main Allied countries were the U.S.,
Britain, France, and the Soviet
Union.
The main Axis countries were Germany,
Italy, and Japan. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
the causes and
consequences of World
War II.
Definition:
Who won World War II?
The Allies My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term: PACIFIC THEATER
Definition:What led up to the start of war in the Pacific?
a. Japanese aggression
i. The Japanese invaded and conquered the Chinese province of Manchuria then brutally
invaded China itself.
b. The League of Nations was powerless to stop them.
c. The United States protested by cutting off trade (particularly oil) to the Japanese thereby
causing conflict between the two nations My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term: PACIFIC THEATER
Definition: What event started the war in the Pacific? a. The Japanese surprised the U.S. by bombing the American naval base at Pearl Harbor,
Hawaii on Sunday, December 7, 1941. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term: PACIFIC THEATER
Definition: What happened in the early years of the war in the Pacific? a. The Japanese dominated early battles after gaining a big advantage after the success of the
attack on Pearl Harbor. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term: PACIFIC THEATER What was the turning point in the Pacific?
Definition: What was the turning point in the Pacific? a. The U.S. defeated Japan at the Battle of Midway and began pushing the Japanese west using a
technique called “island-hopping.” My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term: PACIFIC THEATER
Definition: How did war in the Pacific end? a. After the U.S. defeated the Japanese at Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the United States dropped an
atomic bomb on two Japanese cities—Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9,
1945). Japanese surrendered. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:EUROPEAN THEATER
Definition:59. What led up to the start of war in Europe?
a. German leader Adolf Hitler consistently went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (the
document written at the end of WWI) by building up his military and demanding land
throughout Europe.
b. He took over Austria then demanded the Sudetenland, a region in Czechoslovakia.
c. France and Britain, hoping to avoid a conflict, followed the policy of “appeasement” (which
means giving in to demands to avoid a conflict) and said he could have it if he made no more
demands. Hitler agreed and this agreement became known as the Munich Pact.
d. He then broke the Munich Pact by taking over the rest of Czechoslovakia. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:EUROPEAN THEATER
Definition:What event started the war in Europe?
a. Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 after he signed the Non-Aggression Pact with
Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union. In the pact, the two countries agreed to not attack
each other. See cartoon above. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:EUROPEAN THEATER
Definition:What was the turning point in Europe?
i. D-Day Invasion (June 6, 1944): In the west, the U.S. and Britain led an invasion of
France along the Normandy coast to forced the Germans to retreat east.
ii. Battle of Stalingrad: In the east, Hitler broke the Non-Aggression Pact and invaded
the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany in 3 major battles—Moscow,
Leningrad, and Stalingrad and force the Germans to retreat west. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Containment – a foreign policy established by Pres. Truman, blocking Soviet influence and
preventing the expansion of communism. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Truman Doctrine – a doctrine supporting countries that that rejected communism (not supported by
the American people). My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Marshall Plan (1947) – Americans would give aid to foreign countries to battle hunger and poverty. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Cold War – growing diplomatic hostilities between the U.S. and the Soviet Union My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:1949 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a. defense pact that allowed for military cooperation among its members
b. to prevent aggression, American troops and nuclear weapons were kept in W. Europe My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Warsaw Pact – (Soviets viewed NATO as a threat) so they established an alliance with Poland, E.
Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albany and Czechoslovakia called the Warsaw pact. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition: (SEATO) Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was organized by the United States to stabilize
military aggression in Korea and Indochina. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition: brinkmanship – the U.S.’s willingness to retaliate instantly and to go to the edge or “brink” The
Soviets prove to do the same in the “Arms Race” My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:The United States supported the Nationalists in China led by Jiang Jieshi, while the Soviets
supported the Communists led by Mao Zedong. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Mao Zedong’s, Great Leap Forward (collective farms and communes) and Cultural Revolution
(society of peasants and workers) failed to create a powerful socialist nation. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:The Korean War destroyed their land and over 5 million people died. North and South Korea
remained divided at the 38th parallel. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition: In the Middle East, there was conflict between the traditional Islamic values and embracing those of
modern Western materialistic values. Shah Pahliv of Iran supported it and the Prime Minister,
Muhammad Mossaddeq, forced the shah to flee. The U.S. then had him arrested. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:The Soviet Union supported the Cubans by building 42 missile sites in Cuba, in response to the U.S.
supported Bay of Pigs incident. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:After WW II, the Soviet Union didn’t allow Eastern European countries to run their own economies
and promoted only the development of industries necessary to them. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Plato
Definition:
 Plato (429–347 B.C.E.) is, by
any reckoning, one of the most
dazzling writers in the Western
literary tradition and one of the
most penetrating, wide-
ranging, and influential authors
in the history of philosophy My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Rule of Law
Definition:
 Nearly 2,400 years ago, the
Greek philosophers Plato and
Aristotle explored political
philosophy. Aristotle concluded
that “it is evident that the form
of government is best in which
every man, whoever he is, can act
best and live happily.” My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
Parliamentary Democracy (Britain)
Definition:
democratic form of government in which
the party (or a coalition of parties) with the
greatest representation in the parliament
(legislature) forms the government, its
leader becoming prime minister or
chancellor. Executive functions are
exercised by members of the parliament
appointed by the prime minister to the
cabinet. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
What was the Berlin Conference (1884-85)?
Definition:
 -gathering of 14 European nations in which they laid down the
rules for the division of Africa
 -agreed that any European country could claim land by notifying
other nations of their claim and by showing they could control the
area

conference
-no African representative was present at the

-by 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remained My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
Definition:
 By the 1880’s, about 2.5
million Christian Armenians in
the Ottoman Empire begun
to demand their
independence My understanding of this term:
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Term:
1776 Declaration of Independence
Definition:
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson
between June 11 and June 28, 1776,
the Declaration of Independence is
at once the nation's most
cherished symbol of liberty and
Jefferson's most enduring
monumen My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:EUROPEAN THEATER
Definition:What happened in the early years of the war in Europe?
a. Germany dominated by conquering most of Europe. Though they failed to defeat Britain in
the Battle of Britain, they did conquer most of France, splitting that country into 2
governments. Vichy France was controlled by the Germans while Free France was a rebel
government lead by Frenchman Charles de Gaulle. My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:EUROPEAN THEATER
Definition:How did war in Europe end?
a. The Allies closed in on Berlin, the
German capital, and the Germans
surrendered (May 1945). My understanding of this term:
4 3 2 1
Term:Countries: U. S. vs. Soviet Union
Ideological War: Capitalism vs. Communism

Definition:Iron Curtain – a phrase used by Winston Churchill to describe the division between Western Europe
(mostly democratic) and Eastern Europe (communist)
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