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WH Unit 2 - Ancient Greece

Fits NC Essential Standards

Joyce Pevler

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of WH Unit 2 - Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
Focus Question #12

What is a minotaur?
Have you ever heard of the
myth of the minotaur?
What happened?
Shaped Greek life

No major rivers
Over 2,000 islands
Mountains made transportation & communication among cities difficult

Small, independent communities developed

Poor resources spurred growth of colonies

Poor food production limited population growth
United parts of Greece

Sea trade was important as Greece had few natural resources
Moderate climate allowed for an outdoor lifestyle, open-air discussions
Know through archeological facts and from Homer
Archaic Greece
2000 - 1400 BCE
1700BC at its height

Developed on the island of Crete

Capital - city of Knossos
Discovered by: Sir Arthur Evans

Unearthed the palace at Crete

Named the civilization Minoan after the legendary King Minos
Minoan World
Cannot read their writing

History known only through their ruins
Early Writing System:
"Linear A" (Undecipherable)
Background &
The Beginnings . . .

Extensive Trade Network
Traded with Egypt and Asia Minor
Became very wealthy
Minoan Trade
Developed an advanced navy
Leisure society

Sports important
Women experienced freedom
Social equality
Served as administrators in government
Active participants in sports activities
High positions as priestesses
Bull Cult
Test of both courage and agility
Both male & females participated
Bull Jumping Fresco
The Queen had her own bathroom with toilet facilities (the small opening in the center is to her bathroom)
Minoan Technology
Palace had an underlying plumbing system of terra cotta pipes.
Hot and Cold running water
Constructed multi-room & multi-storied buildings for even the poorest part of society
First to produce art for pleasure alone
Wall-size paintings portraying daily life
Aerial View of Knossos
Palace at Knossos
Covered 6 acres
Housed royal family
Knossos Recreated
Knossos Recreated
Palace of King Minos North Entrance
Inside the Palace
King Minos' throne
What caused
the end of the
Minoan Civilization?
Earthquake around 1700 BCE

Volcanic Eruption around 1500BCE
Tidal Waves following eruption
Natural Disasters Strike
Santorini = Atlantis ??
of the Minotaur
Minotaur's Labyrinth --
Or Real??
1400 - 1200 BCE
Mycenean World
In 1870

Amateur archeologist
Discovered by:
Sir Heinrich Schliemann
Developed on the mainland of Greece
Located on a steep rocky ridge
Extensive trade network - Egypt, Asia Minor, & Sicily

Became very wealthy

In competition with Minoans
Ruins of the great Megaron
Megaron Recreated
They built compact citadels, orderly plans and fortified by huge walls
These walls took the name of “Cyclopean” for the reason that people thought that only Cyclopes could lift the stones
Lion’s Gate Entrance to Mycenae
Primarily Geometric patterns
Some influence from Minoans
Gold Working
Decorated daggers & swords

Possible reason: Trojan War

mid-12c BCE
Troy located in modern-day Turkey
Bronze Age Enemies: The Trojan War
City Plan of Troy
mid 12c BCE
What were the
real & mythical
causes of the Trojan War??
According to Homer, cause was Helen
Most likely due to competition for trade & fishing
War lasted 10 years
War won by Greeks

Used deceit – the Trojan Horse
Had a debilitating effect on culture
"Dark Ages"

1100 - 750 BCE
Dawn of the "Dark Age"
All Mycenaean palaces destroyed around 1250 BC

Trade Network collapsed
Art and culture lost
Except one at Athens
Survivors moved to Attica or overseas
By 1200BC Greece contained 10% of former population
Greece entered a period of severe economic, social, and technological backwardness
Renewed Greek contacts with Middle East through trade
Greeks adapted Phoenician alphabet
End of the Dark Age
Greece broke out of its narrow isolation due to influence of Phoenician merchants around 800 BC
Stimulated another wave of migration - Greek migrants founded hundreds of new sites along Black Sea, the Adriatic, and western Mediterranean
Population of Greek world began to grow rapidly around 800 BC
Archaic Greece Assessment
1. The possible real reason for the Trojan War was a) the abduction of Helen b) to conquer Troy c) to conquer Sparta d) over trade rights

2. The Minoan civilization was located a) in Mycenae b) on the island of Crete c) on the island of Knossos d) in Troy
1. The possible real reason for the Trojan War was a) the abduction of Helen b) to conquer Troy c) to conquer Sparta d) over trade rights

2. The Minoan civilization was located a) in Mycenae b) on the island of Crete c) on the island of Knossos d) in Troy
Archaic Greece Assessment
Goddess-based religion

Resulting in the Dark Ages
Focus Question #13
“In other cities whenever someone displays cowardice, he merely gets the name of coward; yet the coward – if he wants to – goes out in public, and sits down, and takes exercise in the same place as the brave man. But at Sparta everyone would be ashamed to be associated with a coward…. When sides are being picked for a ball game, that sort of man is often left out with no position assigned. And in the dances he is banished to the insulting places. Moreover, in the streets he is required to give way, as well as give up his seat, even to younger men. The girls in his family he has to support at home, and he must explain to them why they cannot get husbands. He must endure having a household with no wife, and at the same time pay a fine for this.”
- Xenophon, historian and soldier

What does this quote tell you about life in Sparta?
Obj. 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9
City and surrounding lands
Greek = polis
Division among Greeks

Different forms of government developed
Types of Government
Monarchy - Ruled by a king

Aristocracy - Government ruled by a small group of landowning nobles

Oligarchy - Government ruled by a few powerful people

Tyrant - Wealthy citizens would seize power, not harsh or cruel,
provided jobs for supporters

Democracy - Government ruled by the people
Ancient Athens
Development of Democracy
Developed legal code
All Athenians equal under the law
Death punishment for almost all crime
Upheld debt-slavery -- Work as a slave to pay off debt
* Outlawed debt slavery
* Citizens organized into 4 social classes
Based on wealth
Only highest 3 classes could hold political office

* All citizens could participate in assembly
* Introduced concept of citizens bringing charges against wrongdoer
*Increased power of the Assembly

*Created council of five hundred
Proposed laws and counseled the Assembly
Members chosen at random
*Citizens organized into 10 social classes
Based on where they live -- not wealth

Allowed citizens to submit laws for debate
Limited democracy
*Citizenship restricted
Adult male
Property owners
Born in Athens
*Women, foreigners, slaves excluded
Spent time in the fields, overseeing or working the crops, sailing, hunting, in manufacturing or in trade
For fun, enjoyed wrestling & horseback riding
Ran the government
Spent a great deal of their time away from home
Had very limited freedom outside the home
Their job was to run the house and to bear children
Could attend weddings, funerals, some religious festivals, and could visit female neighbors for brief periods of time
* Could attend certain festivals, funerals, and visit neighbors for brief periods of time
* Job was to help their mother
* Many learned to read and write at home
Stayed at home until they were married
Not educated at school
Purpose of education:
to produce citizens trained in the arts
to prepare citizens for both peace and war
When young, boys stayed at home
Helping in the fields, sailing, & fishing
Taught at home by mother or a male slave until 6 or 7
From age 6 to 14 -- went to school
Then attended a higher school for four more years
At 18 -- they entered military school for two more years
Slaves cleaned and cooked, worked in the fields, factories, shops, in the mines, and on ships - Even the police force in ancient Athens was made up of slaves

Could not go to school, or enter politics, or use their own name

Became slaves when captured in battle; children of slaves
Ancient Sparta
No walls surrounded the city
Columns of soldiers marched through the streets
* Important decisions made by the Council of Elders
To be elected to the Council of Elders, men had to be at least 60 years old and from a noble family
Once elected, they served for life
* Two kings
Inherited position & shared power
Didn’t have enough land to feed all its people, so Spartans took the land that they needed from their neighbors
Used slaves and non-citizens to produce needed goods
Relied on farming and on conquering other people
Turned conquered neighbors into slaves, called helots
Slaves -- Helots
Continued to live in their own villages
Had to give half of all the food they grew to the Spartan citizens -- could sell extra crops.
Had some rights
Could marry whomever and whenever they wanted
Could pass their names on to their children
If they saved enough money, they could even buy their freedom
Seven times as many helots as citizens in Sparta
Were afraid the helots would revolt, so they treated them harshly
Such as -- shoes, red cloaks for soldiers, iron tools like knives and spears, and pottery

with other city-states for items that Sparta could not provide for itself
Called perioikoi
Were free men -- not slaves
Might serve in the army when needed, but could not take part in Sparta's government
Made necessary items

Conducted trade
Feared contact with other city-states would lead to new ideas and weaken their government
Also difficult because of its system of money
Didn’t have coins
Against the law for Spartan citizens to own gold or silver
Used heavy iron bars as money
Could even marry another man if their first husband had been away at war too long
Ran household
Tested at birth

If not healthy -- left to die
They lived, trained and slept in their the barracks
Spartan boys were sent to military school at age 6 or 7
The boys were not fed well, and were told that it was fine to steal food as long as they did not get caught stealing
If they were caught, they were beaten
Taught to take pride in the amount of pain they could endure
At school, they were taught survival skills and other skills necessary to be a great soldier
Courses were very hard and often painful
Students were taught to read and write
Skills were not very important to the ancient Spartans.
Only warfare mattered
At 18, Spartan boys became military cadets

At 20, they joined the state militia

in which they served until they were 60 years old
and learned the arts of war
--a standing reserve force available for duty in time of emergency--

Military service did not end until a Spartan male reached the age of 60

At age 60, a Spartan soldier could retire and live in their home with their family
Even if they were married, they did not live with their wives and families . . . they lived in the barracks
Led to the development of sophisticated armies and navies
On lower legs wore guards called greaves
Elite foot soldiers
For protection wore a cuirass (bronze and leather plate for the breast and back)
Carried a bronze & leather shield
Short iron sword
Long spear
Wore a bronze helmet adorned with horsehair
Battle formation
Long block of soldiers eight ranks deep
Stood side by side, holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other
Shields formed a wall that protected them
Fast ships used in battles
Named derived from three rows of rowers
Wooden ram (7ft long) stuck out in front and covered in bronze
Used to punch holes in the enemy ships to make them sink
Speed of up to 9mph
120 ft long and 18ft wide
Persian Wars
499-448 BCE
Series of wars between Greek city-states & Persian Empire
Persian Empire
Greatest empire in the world at this time
Tried to gain allies
No one dared to openly oppose Persia
Sparta supportive, but not active
Athens saw War as Inevitable
Asking for Submission
Darius sent heralds to the Greeks
The heralds, as was the custom, asked for "earth and water" as a token of submission.
Some of the Greek city-states gave up but many did not, including the two most important, Sparta and Athens
The Athenians threw the heralds off the Acropolis

The Spartans threw them down a well where there was plenty of "earth and water"
Reponse to the Envoy
First Battle:
Battle of Marathon
490 BCE
Persians vs. Athenians
At Marathon
Phidippides Runs First Marathon
Had first been sent to seek aid from Sparta
Ran non-stop there and back - 145 miles each way, in 2 days

Ran entire distance 26.2 miles
Sent to take word to Athens
Upon arrival in Athens, gasped “Rejoice, we conquer” and died

Greek army arrives soon after

Persians see entire force & leave
Second Battle:
Battle of Thermopylae
Persians vs. Greeks
At Thermopylae
Faced with the Persian threat, the Athenians and Spartans forgot their differences

Army united under a Spartan command
Greeks Unite!!
The Greek army was led by King Leonidas of Sparta
Was about ten thousand strong and in position at Thermopylae, when the Persians arrived
Held the pass with only three hundred other Spartans
Third Battle:
Battle at Salamis
Persians vs. Greeks
At Athens
The lighter Greek ships rowed out in a circular fashion and rammed the front of their ships into the Persian vessel
Xerxes sure of victory . . .
200 Persian ships sunk!!
Fourth Battle:
Battle at Plataea Plain
Persians vs. Greeks
Results of Greek Victory
The victory over Persia was the greatest of all victories won by the Greeks

Meant that Greece would stay Greek and not be absorbed into the Persian Empire

Meant that Greek influence would live and grow

Delian League formed – alliance of Greek city-states
City-State Assessment
1. Government ruled by a small group of landowning nobles is called
a) a monarchy
b) an oligarchy
c) A democracy
d) an aristocracy

2. Government in which the people rule is a) a monarchy
b) an oligarchy
c) a democracy
d) an aristocracy
“Instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all.”

What does this quote by Pericles mean?
Focus Question #14
Golden Age of Greece
Obj: 2.7
Leader of Athens
Fostered the power of democracy
Responsible for many great building projects which include most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon)
Strengthen Athens’

Increased number of paid officials, increased citizen participation
Glorify Athens:

Hired artists, built architectural projects and the Parthenon
Hold and
strengthen empire:

Built navy through Delian League’s funds, protected overseas trade
Athens Became an exciting and vital place where new ideas were welcome
Freedom cherished
Believed that life was empty unless people tried to gain new knowledge and lived freely
Under Pericles
Rebuilding Athens
City destroyed during Persian Wars
Created a project to beautify the city, exhibit its glory, and give work to the people

Greek word meaning "high city."
The Acropolis
Hill-top fortress
Citizens of Athens met to discuss the affairs of their community
Site of religious and political activity
The Parthenon
The greatest monument that was ever built in the Greek world
Built in 477-438 BC
Took approximately 10 years to construct
Largest building on top of the Acropolis
No true straight horizontal lines
All of the exterior columns incline slightly inward
The effect makes the temple appear more symmetrical than it actually is.
Is 65 feet high at its apex
Is by far the most important surviving form of Ancient Greek art, although only a small fragment of Greek sculptural output has survived.

Human form was the most important subject
Theater of Dionysus in Athens
Theater began as festivals in honor of Dionysus, the god of theater.

Women did not act in Greek plays
The fifth century Greece produced some of history's finest playwrights.
They include Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides (the tragedians) and Aristophanes (the comic poet)
Greek amphitheaters were designed so that even a whisper could reach the seats farthest from the stage
Some of these theaters are over 2500 years old

and still used today for outdoor plays.
Means "lovers of wisdom"
Focused on logic and reason
(470-399 BCE)
Taught Greeks to question themselves

“The unexamined life is not worth living”
"Socrates said he was not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world."

1. Leave Athens in EXILE

2. Drink POISON
Brought to trial for corrupting the youth of Athens
Socrates chose poison . . .
Student of Socrates
Wrote down conversations of Socrates
His perfect society was not democracy
Founded the Academy
School lasted 900 years

His writing dominated political thought in Europe
Student of Plato

Opened his own school, the Lyceum

Created foundation of the scientific method used today

You reject the idea that truth can ever be found, so you doubt everything

You believe that we are powerless to control the world, therefore you reject all civilization and want to return to a state of nature

You believe in complete self-control and accept everything that life brings to you since you believe that you cannot control fate

You believe that one should seek pleasure and avoid anything that is unpleasant, no matter what the consequences are

You believe that pleasure is good, but one must balance it with work and learning to lead a successful life.
What's YOUR Philosophy???
After Socrates died many other philosophies evolved that may describe a person’s outlook on life.

Read the following descriptions of the philosophies. Which one best fits your attitude towards life? Why?

Write an essay explaining your reasoning




Athens grows in wealth, prestige, and power
Hostility emerges between Athens and Sparta

War breaks out

Athens falls – end of Golden Age
City-states severely weakened
Peloponnesian War
324 - 100 B.C.E.

In 336 BC Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter

After Philip's death, the army proclaimed
Philip II
Alexander, at 20, the new king of Macedon
356-323 B.C.E.
Alexander the Great
Was one of the most successful military commanders in history
Before his death, he conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks
Aristotle was Alexander's tutor
Gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric & literature
Stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy
Alexander integrated foreigners into his army, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion"
He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners

Various theories have been proposed for the cause of his death which include poisoning, sickness that followed a drinking party, or a relapse of malaria
Died just one month shy of 33
His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and cultural influence over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age, a combination of Greek and Middle Eastern culture
Although generally isolated and backward, the Dark Age did see some technological and cultural innovations that would create foundation for future Greek civilization
For example, iron came into general use for weapons and agricultural implements
People who fled Greece settled on Aegean Islands, coast of Asia Minor, and elsewhere, forming base for prosperous city-states that would develop there later.
Greek City States
Obj. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
Two main city-states: Athens and Sparta
Social Structure
Buildings were simple & plain
Free to speak to men
Lived the same simple life as men
Could own and control their own property
Trained in gymnastics and running
City-states often rivals
Would unite when threatened by a foreign invader
Spartan Life
War with Persia
Greeks WIN!! AGAIN!!
Persians are DEFEATED!
Athens, Sparta, or Both
3. Girls had freedom
4. Boys in the military
5. Had a great navy
6. Had a great army
7. Why was it important that the Greeks defeated the Persians?

8. Pick 4 characteristics of civilization and provide an example of the characteristic from Athens or Sparta. (Use each one at least once)
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