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THE EFFECTS OF FLIPPING AN UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH COURSE ON S

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S.S Al Wahaibi

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Transcript of THE EFFECTS OF FLIPPING AN UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH COURSE ON S

THE EFFECTS OF FLIPPING AN UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH COURSE ON STUDENTS’ AUTONOMY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Suad Saleh AL Wahaibi
MAJOR SUPERVISOR:

ASSIST PROF. DR. SULAIMAN HASHIM
CO-SUPERVISORS:
ASSIST PROF. DR. MOHD SHUKRI NORDIN
ASSOC. PROF. DR. MOHD BURHAN IBRAHIM



all sides of humans' life
no exception
It plays a crucial role in making education more productive and effective. It can provide new ways of teaching and learning (National Research Council, 1995).
It helps to improve the quality of education (Tinio, 2002).
Flipped Classroom Approach
Flipped classroom is one of the educational concepts that were brought to life by technology.

Flipped classroom also known as reversed and inverted classroom is defined as a classroom in which events that were done outside the classroom are taken place inside it and vice versa
(Lage et al, 2000).


Although flipped classroom approach is gaining popularity among educators all over the world, its implantation is limited
(Sahin, Cavlazoglu & Zeytuncu, 2015; Basal, 2015; McLean, Attardi, Faden & Goldszmidt , 2016).

Most of the limited research conducted tend to be in the fields of STEM subjects; science, technology, engineering and math

(Berrett, 2012; Engin, 2014; Hung, 2017).

The research on flipping English language classes is rare
(Engin, 2014; Egbert, Herma & lee, 2015; Basal, 2015; Han, 2015; Hung, 2016; Wu, Chen Hsieh, and Yang, 2017).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
G1527928
By:

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims at:

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:




STUDY HYPOTHESES


This study employs
a triangulation mixed methods research design,
the most well-known approach of all mixing methods of research (Creswell, Plano Clark, et al, 2003).

More comprehensive understanding of the investigated phenomena (Creswell, 2013).

“obtain different but complementary data on the same topic” (Morse, 1991, p, 122).
The rationale for collecting data about learner’s autonomy in two different types is the complexity and multidimensionality of autonomy. In this study autonomy will be addressed from three angles; they are students, the teacher and the online system used. Students will be given a learner autonomy questionnaire (quantitative), the teacher will be interviewed (qualitative) and student’s logs to “more practice Section” provided on the online system will be counted (quantitative). The data that will be collected from these different angels will be interpreted to have a better vision of students’ autonomy.
ROLE OF FLIPPED TEACHER
The role of the teacher is reshaped to that of facilitator and guide (Nworie & Haughton, 2008)



They have also to be more committed, spend more time and effort, and reflect
more on their students’ work ( Ocak, 2011).

They have to mediate the educational environment for the students and correct misconceptions and clarify unclear points (Johnson & Renner, 2012).
They also encourage students to collaborate, interact with the content and utilize
their upper level of thinking skills, provide them with authentic content, widen their horizon beyond what is normal and provide them with timely support and feedback (Bennett, Kern, Gudenrath, and McIntosh, 2011; Fulton, 2012).

The first impression one might get is that flipped classroom has
lessen the teacher’s work as the teacher is not lecturing anymore during the class time. The truth is the opposite; the demands that flipped classroom require are much more than that of a traditional approach ((Hamdan et al. 2013).

Flipped Classroom Theoretical Framework
The conceptual framework for this study
The conceptual framework for this study (Brief)
In this type of mixed methods design, the researcher collects quantitative and qualitative data at the same time during the study and then combines the data to interpret the overall results (Creswell, 2013).
Sultan Qaboos University
Rationale for choosing this course
The only English course Ss have for this semester.
There is no Moodle for this course.
Content based
outcome based
Quantitative data
Qualitative Data
(Reichardt, 2009)
semi structured interview
Study Tools
Learner Autonomy Questionnaire
Pre- Post Test

Flipped environment

In-Class Activities

Flipped classroom implementation phase guide (PAAA)

Teacher’s guide

Phase (1): Translating LAQ

Phase (3): Validity
The two versions were then compared by another English translator who has a master degree in English translation.
The two versions are found almost the same. Table 3.6 shows some compered questionnaire items.

Data Analysis

Phase (4): Piloting LAQ

Reliability focuses on the potentiality of having similar results when repeating the study (Netemeyer, Bearden, & Sharma, 2003; Johnson, 2005).
To examine the reliability of the instrument, the questionnaire was first piloted on a group of students who are studying the same course in the Spring semester (2016/2017) and having the same characteristic as the target sample of the study. Thirty nine participants filled in the questionnaire. The other two purposes of piloting the questionnaire besides examining its reliability are (i) to know how long the questionnaire takes and (ii) to report any notes about general linguistic clarity and the content of the questionnaire.

Phase (5): Reliability of LAQ
Reliability of the questionnaire was examined using Cronbach’s Alpha test.
Cronbach’s alpha, also known as coefficient alpha, examines the internal consistency of the instrument and shows how well the questionnaire items correlate to each other. It measures the average intercorrelations among the questionnaires’ items. According to Priyatno (2012), Cronbach’s alpha of less than 0.6 is considered poor, falling between 0.6 – 0.7 is considered acceptable, above 0.7 is considered good and 0.8 and more is preferable as shown in table 3.7.

Both Cronbach’s Alpha produced for the two parts of the questionnaire were above .70 which is good based on (Priyatno, 2012; Sprinthall, 1997).
In addition, the acceptable values of Cronbach’s alpha should be more than (60%) according to (Sekaran, 2006). Since the value of Cronbach’s Alpha was above 0.7, the questionnaire items were deemed to be reliable and ready to be used.

PRE- POST TEST
The test used in this study is designed by the researcher based on test specifications provided by the Center for Preparatory Studies (CPS) (FPEL Curriculum Document 2012-2013).
The test was face and content validated by a panel of English language experts including LANC1026 course coordinator, LANC1026 exam specialist, specialists at CPS and other experts.
Phase (3): Reliability of the test

Teacher's Guide

Research Design
Phase (1): Preparation of Achievement Test:


Reliability Coefficient (r) is .863
FLIPPED CLASSROOM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE GUIDE (PAAA)

In-class Activities

Examining if there is a significant difference between male and female students in terms of (i) academic achievement and (ii) autonomy.

Examining if flipping the English course affect language skill components differently.
Determining if there is any significant
difference in academic achievement between students who learn in flipped environment
and those in traditional.


Testing if using this strategy will affect
students’ autonomy.
1- Is there any significant difference in academic achievement between students who learn in flipped environment and those in traditional?


2- Does flipping the English course affect students’ autonomy?
3- Is there any significant difference in achievement
among students who learn
in a flip environment in terms
of gender and learner autonomy?

4- Does flipping the English course affect the components of language skills differently?
H3: There is a significant difference between students who are less autonomous and those who are more autonomous in term of their achievement.



H4: Flipping the English course affects components of language skills differently.


H1: Mean post-test results of the students’ academic achievements differs between the experimental
and control groups.


H2: There is a significant difference between male and female students in terms of academic achievement.
Blended learning
Horn and Staker (2012) define blended learning as a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace and at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home.





Flipped classroom
Flipped classroom also known as reversed and inverted classroom is defined as a classroom in which events that were done outside the classroom are taken place inside it and vice versa (Lage et al, 2000).


Active Learning
“Students doing things and thinking about what they are doing” (Bonwell & Eison, 1991).

Definitions of Terms
Student-Centered learning
Focusing on student learning rather than teacher teaching (Brandes & Ginnis, 1996).






Autonomy
The learners’ ability to take charge of their own language learning process (Holec, 1981).


Achievement Tests
Achievement tests are tests that measure the amount of learning that students gain as a result of instruction. They are based on course objectives and are given at the middle or at the end of the course (Alsagoafi, 2013).
Definitions of Terms (CON)
Significance of the Study
The implementation of flipped classrooms in English language instruction is rare and for the researcher's best knowledge this study is the first at the center of prep studies at Sultan Qaboos University.
The results of Study are expected to contribute to the body of knowledge on this particular area.
This study may attract other reasearchers' attention to conduct similar studies on the various disciplines of education.
The results of this study may provide a source of information for the stakeholders at the Minstry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education (whether to embrace or not such educational trends).
The Materials produced for this study may be useful for teachers, students and parents targeting the same topics.

There is no Moodle for this particular course so SQU can benifit from the created one.
Participants
Two groups of students studying LANC1026
Study Steps
Flipped Classroom
Implementation
Phase Guide (PAAA)
Learner Autonomy Questionnaire by Zhang and Li (2004)
Phase (2): Back Translation
Phase (4): Piloting LAQ
Phase (5): Reliability of LAQ
Test-retest method was used
Phase (2): Validity of the Test:
According to (Netemeyer, Bearden, & Sharma, 2003), if r (Reliability coefficient) > .80, the measure is considered reliable
Augmented Reality
This research is going to answer the following
questions:
Online Environment
LANC1026
LANC1026_Practice
Provide teachers with information about FC in a new, fun and attracting way so they don't feel bored learning about it.
Save teachers' time and effort that they will put into searching the web trying to understand more about FC by providing them with the information needed within these no more static papers.
Avoiding confusion by the resources on the web.
As FC is new to the teacher, this guide creates a chance where the teacher experience to be a part of a flipped classroom as they have to read the quide and watch the videos provided then discuss that with the researcher.
Why!
1. individual Activities
2. Group-Based Activities
Resources

Student's book, Workbook and Internet

"Work (righteousness): Soon will Allah observe your work, and His Messenger, and the Believers"
QUR'AN CHAPTER 9: AL-TAWBA (REPENTANCE) Verse 105
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