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4.4 and 4.5 Biomes and Aqatic Ecosystems
Transcript of 4.4 and 4.5 Biomes and Aqatic Ecosystems
About 2 meters of rain a year (80-100 inches)
Tall trees form a canopy
Shorter trees and vines form the understory
Organic material is recylced quickly
Forest floor is not very rich in nutrients Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Hot and wet year-round
Nutrient poor soil
Soil subject to erosion Plant life
Understory plants have large leaves
Tall trees have buttress roots for support
Epiphytic plants grow on trees
Active all year
Camouflage to hide from predators
Canopy animals adapted to jumping, climbing and/or flight Biomes and
Aquatic Ecosystems Tropical Dry Forest Rainy seasons alternate with dry seasons
Average yearly rainfall is 55 mm Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors Warm year-round
Soil subject to erosion Plant life
Seasonal loss of leaves, deciduous
Extra thick waxy layer on leaves
Reduce water loss and store water
Animals reduce need for water by entering into estivation
Others move from place to place to find water Tropical Grassland Savanna
Average yearly rainfall is 50 to 88 mm
Spotted with isolated trees
Frequent fires Abiotic Factors Warm
Frequent fires Biotic Factors Plant life
Similar to those in the tropical dry forest
Grasses have high silica content
Plants grow from bases
Migrate during dry seasons
Smaller animals burrow Desert Less than 25 centimeters of rain annually
Extreme temperature changes Abiotic Factors Little rain
Soils rich in materials
Soils poor in organic matter Biotic Factors Plant life
Minimal leaf surface
Have modified leaves (cactus)
Get water from the food they eat
Many are nocturnal
Large ears for heat loss Temperate Grassland Plains and prairies
Ideal for crops
Fires and heavy grazing
Average rainfall is 55 to 90 cm Abiotic Factors Warm to hot summers
Occasional fires Biotic Factors Plant life
Grasses grow from base
Dispersal of seeds by winds
Predation a constant threat to smaller animals
Camouflage and burrowing Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Open woodlands
Large areas of grasses and flowers
Average rainfall is 40 to 70 cm Abiotic Factors Hot dry summers
Cool moist winters
Periodic fires Biotic Factors Plant life
Woody plants with waxy leaves
Contain flammable oils
Animlas are browsers
Camouflage is important Temperate Forest Made up of deciduous and coniferous trees
Coniferous trees have needles and cones
Humus is a rich form of soil made by decaying leaves and organic matter
Average yearly rainfall is 76 to 150 cm Abiotic Factors Cold to moderate winters
Fertail soils Biotic Factors Plant life
Must cope with changing weather
Some either hibernate or migrate Northwestern Coniferous Forest Moist air from Pacific Ocean influences heavy rainfall
Variety of conifers, giant redwoods, spruce, fire, and hemlock trees
Moss covered tree trunks
Sometimes called a temperate rain forest
Average rainfall is between 250 and 350 cm Abiotic Factors Mild temperatures and abundant precipitation
Cool dry summers
Rocky acidic soils Biotic Factors Plant life
Less diversity than tropical rain forest
Ample water and nutrients
Trees here are among the world's tallest
Camouflage helps insects and ground animals
Many animals are browsers Boreal Forest Dense forests of coniferous evergreens
Also called the taiga
Winters are bitterly cold
Summers are mild enough for ground to thaw
Average precipitation is 38 to 50 cm Abiotic Factors Long cold winters
Short mild summers
Acidic, nutrient poor soils Biotic Factors Plant life
Shape helps shed snow
Dark colors absorb heat in winter
Staying warm is a challenge
Some migrate in the winter Tundra Permafrost is a layer of permanently frozen soil
During short, cool summer, soil only thaws a few centimeters
Plants roots are crushed so the plants are small
Very poor soil
Average precipitation is 76 to 100 cm Abiotic Factors Strong winds
Long wet winters
Permafrost Biotic Factors Plant life
Mosses and other low plants
Seed dispersal by winds
Many animals migrate during winters
Adaptations to stay warm Aquatic Ecosystems Photic Zone:
The sunlit region near the surface in which photosynthesis can occur .
Can be as deep as 200 meters in tropical seas,
Or a few meters deep or less in rivers and swamps. Photosynthetic algae, called phytoplankton, live in the photic zone.
Zooplankton—tiny free-floating animals—eat phytoplankton. This is the first step in many aquatic food webs. Aphotic Zon:
Below the photic zone where photosynthesis cannot occur.
Benthos live or in, rocks and sediments on the bottoms of lakes, streams, and oceans. Organisms need oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus to live.
The availability of these substances vary within and between bodies of water, affecting the types of organisms that can survive there. Freshwater Rivers and Streams Often originate from underground water sources in mountains or hills.
Near a source, water has plenty of dissolved oxygen but little plant life. Freshwater Lakes and Ponds Water flows in and out of lakes and ponds and circulates between the surface and the benthos, distributing heat, oxygen, and nutrients. Freshwater Wetlands Water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year.
Water may flow through
freshwater wetlands or stay in place.
Wetlands are often nutrient-rich
and highly productive.
Freshwater wetlands purify water
by filtering pollutants .
Three main types are freshwater bogs, freshwater marshes, and freshwater swamps. Estuaries A special kind of wetland, formed where a river meets the sea.
Contain a mixture of fresh water and salt water
One of the largest salt marshes in America surrounds the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Organisms
Submerged in seawater at high tide and exposed to air and sunlight at low tide.
Subjected to regular and extreme changes in temperature
Are battered by waves and currents. Intertidal Zone Coastal Ocean Tend to be highly productive.
Kelp forests and coral reefs are two important coastal communities. More than 90 percent of the world’s ocean area
Most photosynthesis on Earth occurs in the sunlit top 100 meters of the open ocean.
The open ocean is divided into two zones based on light penetration—the photic and aphotic. Open Ocean