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Physics of Flight

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Alasdair Duncan

on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of Physics of Flight

The Physics of Flight
Catherine Daly
,
Rupesh Pandya
,
Yuen Zhou,
Alasdair Duncan.

Team Review Project
18th February 14:45

Natural World

Basic Physics
"The knack lies in learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss."
Douglas Adams, Life, the Universe and Everything
Newton's Laws
I: Unless acted upon by an external force, a body will remain at rest or will continue in a straight line with constant velocity
II: The acceleration acting on a body is equal to the force divided by the object's mass:
a = F/m
III: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Lift will occur if and only if the trailing edge stagnation point is such that there is a downwards flow of air
Higher velocity = lower pressure
The History Man-Made Flight
The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, but the direction of flight depends on the wind.

Aerodynamic flight
Fixed-wing aircraft
Rotary-wing aircraft
Boeing CH-47 Chinook, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter
Conclusion
Tower Jumping
Balloons, Kites, Gliders and Rotary flight
Wright Brothers
Development of technological flight
Fighter, passenger, transport and drone
Insects
Pterosaurs
Birds
Bats
Ballistic Flight
Unpowered flight
Experiences gravity and air drag
Space Flight
Centripetal force
balances weak gravity


No air resistance

Efficiency and the Future
Lighter Aircraft
Electrical systems
Paint
Structure
Powering the Future
Engines
The Albatross
Single Flap Cycle
Gliding and soaring
Improving efficiency
Dynamic soaring
Wave soaring
Multi Wing
The Dragonfly
Asynchronous muscles
Dynamic Stall
Ornithopters and Biomimicry
Flapping Wing vs Rotary wing

The Future
Natural Flight
Man-made Flight
Buoyant Flight
Buoyant flight creates static lift
by exploiting the density difference between a lower-density gas and the denser air in the atmosphere.

Sky lanterns
Ancient Chinese invented sky lanterns to use strategically in wars.

History & Evolution
Blimp
Hot air balloon
The hot air balloon is the
oldest successful human-carrying flight technology.

Think about if ideal gas contained in the hot air balloon
Gliding and multi component wings
Flapping with multiple elements
Bumblebees
Bernoulli's Principle
Aerofoil
Kutta condition
Impossible?
References
Powering the Future
Fuel - why not diesel or biofuel?
Engines
http://physics911.net/technical-reference-library-aircraft-design-structure/
http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/311/notes/aero/node4.html
http://www.aviation-history.com/theory/airfoil.html
http://avioners.net/2012/04/nice-inverted-maneuver-of-prowler-ea-6b.html/
Dole, Charles E., Flight Theory and Aerodynamics, 1981, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY, 1981.
http://hd-hdwallpapers.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/House-with-Balloons-Wallpapers-1680x1050.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1c/Goodyear_Blimp_-_Spirit_of_Innovation.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Yi_peng_sky_lantern_festival_San_Sai_Thailand.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/04/LK_03_loy_krathong_yi_peng_san_sai.jpg/800px-LK_03_loy_krathong_yi_peng_san_sai.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Ballooning_Away_in_Maasai_Mara.jpg/800px-Ballooning_Away_in_Maasai_Mara.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Balloon_fuel.jpg/400px-Balloon_fuel.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a3/Blank_ship_in_Flight.JPG/400px-Blank_ship_in_Flight.JPG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/63/Collection_of_military_aircraft.jpg/748px-Collection_of_military_aircraft.jpg 
http://tomtdowling.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/ur-82060-antonov-airlines.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RAN_squirrel_helicopter_at_melb_GP_08.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Dg800.jpg
http://www.dutchops.com/Portfolio_Marcel/Articles/Aerodynamics/Forces/Images/Ground_effect_ground.jpg
http://s3.amazonaws.com/dk-production/images/26364/large/800px-737-NG_winglet_effect_(simplified).svg.png?1365004750
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/Images/winglets.jpg
http://demigodllc.com/~zak/firearms/dial.png
http://luckybogey.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/gpw-200911-nasa-s129-e-009327-international-space-station-over-cloudy-earth-20091125-large.jpg
http://www.dailygalaxy.com/.a/6a00d8341bf7f753ef01538f559f2b970b-pi

Jet Engine
Downwash
Low pressure
High pressure
Reducing Downwash
Re-imagining of Wright Brothers 1st flight
http://www.fineartamerica.comfeaturedpaper-flight-fantasies--wind-tunnel-jerry-taliaferro.html
Simple Flight
http://www.webdesignshock.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/wright-brothers-first-flight-randy-steele.jpg
Albatross over Blue
http://ava7.com/birds/albatross/albatross-shy-flight-bird-wallpaper.htm
Laysan Albatross on takeoff
http://www.arkive.org/laysan-albatross/phoebastria-immutabilis/photos.html
Wandering Albatross
http://shorebirder-waderworld.blogspot.co.uk/2011_03_27_archive.html
Dragonfly
http://fineartamerica.com/featured/dragonfly-jane-brack.html
Flight of the Bumblebee
http://i1.treknature.com/photos/7669/0517b_173_flight_of_bumblebee.jpg
Flight of an Insect sized Ornithopter
http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1885258
Double Bubble
http://sitelife.aviationweek.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/11/10/6b04dce8-3b06-4391-9a60-145896576a74.Full.jpg
Jet Engine
http://node1.ecogeek-cdn.net/ecogeek/images/stories/OrbitingCombustor.jpg
Delta Wing Aircraft
http://www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/tech_ops/read.main/171364/
Crow Hitching a Lift
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1322433/Hitching-ride-Crow-gets-lift-owl-way-Veolia-Environnement-Wildlife-Photographer-Year-prize.html
Discovery Shuttle's Final Journey
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/04/space-shuttle-discoverys-final-flight/100281/
Full transcript