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Clonal selection and grapevine diversity

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Angeliki Tsioli

on 30 December 2015

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Transcript of Clonal selection and grapevine diversity

Private clonal selection
Sanitary selection for masses of clones
example of Mercier nursery:
Prospecting the vineyard (in situ)
old (>20-30 years)
Clonal selection protocols and grapevine diversity
Conserving the clones
Pre-propagating the clones
100-300 vines per clone (pre-multiplication material)
stock nurseries
controls of varietal identity and viruses (Elisa, indexing)
Institutional Grapevine collections
3 x year
100-150 vines are retained => candidate clones
most harmful viruses checked
clones with the best score from 1st evaluation
2 different locations
2 different rootstocks
small number of clones, many repetitions (100 plants)
min. 1 control clone
50 l /clone
controls like the first evaluation, plus wine quality
min. 3 years
3 years
5 years
3-5 years
greenhouse clones (25.000 clones in France)
national collections
national conservatory
regional conservatories
Limits:
not enough compared with the grapevine variability
public sector financing, susceptible public cuts
increased risk of accidents
example : Vassal
land, where vines were
never
grown before...
also possible
in vitro
grafted on same rootstock
each variety max. 50 clones
each clone about 10 vines
controls of virus and other infections (Fravescence dorée, Crown Gall and Pierce disease)
one location
one rootstock
no
Xiphinema
spp.
observations of
phenological data,
yield parameters (harvest weight)
quality parameters (sugar content) and
resistance traits
I resist to draught
Visual inspections

variety identification
morphological traits
agronomic performance
sanitary status
I resist mildiou
I mature late
I produce less sugar
I produce more sugar
I have more acidity
Nemea
Agiorgitiko
high variability
high % of virus infections
Sanitary selection
Comparison Study
difficulty in retrieving the Protocols!
based on information available online and personal contacts
countries included: Australia, New Zealand, USA, France, Italy, Portugal, OIV Resolution VITI 1-1991, EU Directive 68/193
Results
Levels of difference

WHO is responsible for the Selection?
aims and thus controls are different!
How strict is the protocol in terms of viruses control?
Only viruses?
Which diagnostic tools are used?
Experimental schemes (
France
very precise and detailed Protocol)
the last "step" of the clonal selection is the conservation of genetic ressources:
Historical data - Beginning of Clonal Selection in the world
1876 (Germany)
1920s (Switzerland)
1946 (France)
1950s late (South Australia)
1960s (Italy)
Angeliki Tsioli
Agronomist - Enologist
“In summary, the challenge and target of future research is not so much the development of more refined and
highly perfoming techniques for the recognition and elimination of viruses but, rather, the design of dependable strategies
for
preventing a quick sanitary deterioration of vineyards planted with costly certified materials

Maliogka et al., 2015
Clonal selection programs of
Australia
are undertaken via regional or industry groups, and some private company selection, since state governments largely withdrew from undertaking what was seen as "private benefit" activity 10-20 years ago (Peter Hayes, personal communication)

In
France
: National network coordinated by IFV. Domaine de l'Espiguette and partners for the conservation of plants

National program with the support of the universities and the wine industry in
Portugal
(PORVID)
Clonal selection is a kind of certification of propagating material
Protocol 2010 in
USA
: not clonally selected, but certified and trueness-to-type material controlled for 38 viruses, phytoplasmas and A. vitis

Australian
standard: certified vines free from A. vitis, GLRaV-1, -3 and GVA and GVB)

Italy
: in addition to GFLV and GLRaV-1 and -3: absence of GLRaV -2 and GVA and GVB are required
First evaluation of the clones
In France, there are a national and 117 regional conservatories with 18.000 clones of 105 cultivars
Second evaluation of the clones
initial material
pre-multiplication
Propagating the clones
nurseries
distribution to the vine growers
grafted-rooted or ungrafted-rooted
multiplication
basic material
certified material
what about other pathogens than viruses?
Portugal
ex situ conservation of ancient varieties
representative sample of the intravarietal diversity of the variety
mass selection <polyclonal>
multi-environmental trials
5% of planted surface in France
similar procedure
13.500 euros/ha (5 days) for mass selection
65.000 euros/ha (23 days) for clonal
government help (free technical support)?
conserve and exploit genetic variability

high genetic gain (and economic!)
healthy plants
infected
treatment of virus-infected clones
hot water treatment
micro-grafting and

meristem culture
in vitro
current methods used (Elisa, indexing)
in future RT-PCR
Required
1. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV)
2. Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)
3. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus -1,-2,-3 (GLRaV -1,-2,-3,)

Recommended
4. Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV)
5. Corky bark (GVB)
6. Rupestris stem pitting (GRSPaV)

Other
7. Grapevine vein mosaic (GVM)
8. Grapevine vein necrosis (GVN)
The International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG) recognizes
over 75 infectious agents
(viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas) affecting grapevine
(ICVG Recommendation, 2013)
There are
30 or so recognised
virus and virus-like
diseases of grapevines
, which are characterized by a variety of symptoms
(Martelli, 2014)
what about verifying identity (ampelography, molecular markers)?
what about verifying identity (ampelography, molecular markers)?
Full transcript