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NV Baseball

The non-verbals of baseball.

Lindsay Hunter

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of NV Baseball

To make the game of baseball fair umpires are on the field calling the rules.

As a player you need to know: what the rules are and what the signals for those rules are.

As a high school athlete you will have at least two umpires one will be behind the plate and one will be on the field.

The Plate Umpire
The plate umpire, the umpire in chief, is located behind home plate. This umpire is responsible for calling balls and strikes. This umpire also makes calls regarding the batter, fair and foul balls inside of third and first base, and plays around home plate.

Field Umpire
Field umpires are usually placed in between the infield and the outfield. They make calls that are too far for the chief umpire or plate umpire to see. If there is a conflict ultimately the chief umpire decides the final action. This umpire will move throughout the game to acquire the best judgement to make the best possible call.
Play Ball
Do Not Pitch
Fair Ball
Foul Ball Tip
Time Out
Using Baseball signals as a Catcher
1 Finger = Fast Ball
2 Fingers = Curve
3 Fingers = Slider
4 Fingers - (as you wiggle them) = a Change Up

Kal Com
We are KalCom Communications and our company focuses on the training of young athletes, specially players that are transitioning from middle school to high school play. This work shop will take place before entering the proceeding school year, during summer recess. Our company's primary objective is to teach these young men the importance of non verbal communication within the sport of baseball. Today we will be presenting our training module for these young individuals. This work shop will span over the course of two days, in four hour segments.
The art of Stealing
You might recognize this jersey from the movie Moneyball, it belongs to the Oakland A's Coco Crisp. He is one of the veterans playing the game today. He has an nack for stealing bases and was so kind to break down his style to reporter Jonah Keri, in the article Grand Theft Baseball.

It is an art, stealing, you must be in tune to all of the factors around you which are mainly non-verbal. It goes way beyond the chuck-and-duck or grip-it-and-rip-it styles. Its all about looking for that one moment that you are clear, that one moment when you have deceived your opponent and take the chance to gain a step closer to home. There is an interplay with the pitcher and the base runner. With the pitcher it's in the way he holds the ball, and the allotted time he takes to look over his shoulder. With the base runner its the amount of lead you give off how much space you leave between you and the safety of the base you are occupying at the time. In determining how much of a lead you should give off should coincide to how fast you really are. If you are actually planning on stealing the next base you shouldn't take to much of a lead off to give away your plans and you should leave enough room in between you and the safe base to return in enough time if the pitcher decides to call you out.

Our mission is to create a fun environment for young male athletes to improve their nonverbal communication skills in baseball.
Our training module will be placed inside and outside – Located at Kalamazoo Central High School Baseball Field and Gymnasium.
This Module is for Middle School athletes who are transitioning into their High School careers and lack nonverbal communication skills in terms of baseball. In order to take part in this training module, participants must have a basic understanding of baseball, have graduated from middle school and are planning to play at the high school level.
We will be teaching these youth nonverbal communication within the game baseball.
This training module will take place prior to the school year a summer weekend or work day depending on the schedules of the coaches and facilities.
This training module will commence over two days with two four hour workshops.
Nonverbal expression is never really taught effectively or sufficiently in baseball at this level as it should be so we are here to impose the nonverbal skills to these young individuals.

Right field, Center field, Left field
As an outfielder in baseball you need to have a communication base with your teammates, the main communication that you need to share is who is going to catch the ball when it comes into the outfield. There are a few non-verbal cues that you can look for to define who is going to make the play.
Fist where is the ball going? Is it going towards right field, center field, or left field you must signal with your pointer finger where the ball is going.
Next you must motion towards the direction the ball of the ball this indicates that you are aware and involved in the play.
If you are unsure of where the ball is going look to your teammates and see where they are facing / motioning
If the ball is in between two or more of your players, acknowledge who motioned towards it first, kinesics and chronemics. Then decide if you are that person what to do next, how are you going to let your teammates know that the ball is yours and you are willing to do whatever it takes to catch the ball, to your best ability.
Vocalics, you care going to call for the ball. When you call for a ball the way in which you say it says multiple things about what is going to come up off of the play next. If you say it loud, sternly and with confidence, your players are going to let you have the ball and be ready to anticipate with ease what is going to happen next. If you do not vocalize the decision with persistence then you will not have a positive effect on your teammates. They will motion towards your distress and prepare for the worst to happen.

In order to communicate effectively with your teammates you must have an understanding meaning of what these non verbal ques are. This video is a perfect example of what to do as an infielder. You need to have signs and signals on what to do and be able to mask them so the other team does not know what you are signaling. One universal sign that is implemented by the players of the infield is always how many players are on the base, and how many outs there are. When there is a runner on first the first baseman signals a one sign to the short stop, when there is a runner on second the second baseman signals a one sign to the third baseman, if there is a runner on third base the third baseman signals to the catcher the one sign. After every play how many out is always signal by holding up that amount of fingers.
As a catcher there are signs and signals that you need to establish with the pitcher. This video is a perfect example of what you are going to need to know, learn, and practice.
As a catcher you and the pitcher must have an understanding meaning of what pitch to throw. This pitch is usually picked by the coach, signed to the catcher, then signed to the pitcher.
All of this needs to be known before a game setting occurs and must be applicable within seconds.

Non Verbal Communications Basics
Defining nonverbal communication:
All forms of communication cues that do not rely on words or any linguistic systems

Intent, Consciousness, and Awareness
Source Orientation
Receiver Orientation
Message Orientation
Communication includes only those messages that the source intends to send.
A sender must direct a message toward someone and a receiver must attend to and comprehend that message.
Some messages are planned and sent with a high degree of conscious awareness while others seem more casually prepared; some messages are designed to look casual or unintentional while others are more reflexive, habitual, or expressive.

Anything that a receiver interprets as a message is communication, regardless of source intent or awareness. “All nonverbal behavior is communicative”.
Accidental and unintended behaviors are included as long as a receiver chooses to read something into them.

Distinguishes between nonverbal communication and nonverbal behavior and views communication as both intended and received.
- Communication is viewed as only including those behaviors that form a socially shared coding system.

Includes behaviors that:
1. Are typically sent with intent
2. Are used with regularity between members of a given social community, society or culture
3. Are typically interpreted as intentional
4. Have consensually recognized meanings

Signs are things that stand for something else and produce at least some of the responses that the referent produces.
- Include language (linguistic signs) as well as referents that are natural and intrinsic representations of what they signify.
- May be an attribute of a larger entity and index its presence or index the relationship between the meaning and form.
- Symbols are arbitrarily assigned representations that stand for something else.
- Nonverbal symbols include things such as: a hitchhikers thumb gesture, the cleric’s white collar that signifies a religious occupation, and the “give me five” hand slap used as a congratulatory gesture which is very common in baseball and other athletic competitions by athletes as well as fans.

Symbols and Signs
Body movements that are used to convey messages.
- Facial expressions- Gestures
- Head movements - Posture
- Eye behavior - Gait
- All of these nonverbal communication cues play a paramount role in baseball in not only defense but offense as well, no matter what position you play on defense or what number you are in the batting order.
- The body itself is also a vehicle for conveying messages through:
- Physical appearance
- Adornments
- Olfactics
:Grooming, hair styling, clothing, adornments such as tattoos, personal artifacts such as jewelry, and use of body odors and fragrances all play a vital role in your nonverbal cues that you are sending to your opponent whether they realize it or not.

Kinesics/Body Language
In baseball its all about time, time decides how much emphasis is put on a play. How much time you give to the other team to try and decide what pitch or play you are going to call. Everything in baseball is always defined by time. Every single aspect, it is related to how little and how much. It affects the play on how much you use time, to catch the ball, to decided where to throw it next. Even how long the pitcher holds the ball on the pitching mound plays into account when or if a player on base is going to steal or not. Time deals with the use of time to communicate, also plays a fundamental role in baseball in terms of the time a pitcher takes as well as the time a batter takes in between pitches.
Eye Contact
For the most part, in our culture the majority of people are taught to look at people who are speaking especially when the person who is speaking is of high status, therefore giving direct eye contact to a speaker is considered a sign of attentiveness and respect. With this being said, we want to teach you young men the importance of always making eye contact not only with your coaches and the umpires, but especially with your teammates when you are on the field as well. Eye contact as well as your facial expressions can play a vital role in terms of nonverbally communicating with your teammates during a game and could easily prove to be the difference between winning and losing a game.
Relaxation and composure are communicated nonverbally through a set of behaviors that includes asymmetrical leg and arm positions, leaning, swiveling, gesturing, and an assortment of movements. Therefore, nonverbal behaviors that combine to show openness, expressiveness, lack of nervousness, and positive affect communicate relaxation and poise which are all imperative especially while on the mound.
Emblems are gestures that substitute for language, they are applied to just about every aspect of baseball.
While there are clearly many common gestures performed in our culture, other emblematic gestures are only understood within certain ethnic groups, clubs, families or circle of friends. Therefore, it is for that reason that using emblems and gestures while playing baseball can prove to be crucial in terms of communicating with teammates in a number of different circumstances throughout the game. For instance, holding up your index finger after making the first out on defense communicates to your teammates that there is one out, just as holding up two fingers would mean two outs and so forth. Gestures such as these are vital in making sure that every player on the team is on the same page and up to date with what is happening before and after each play on defense.
The waving of the arms is another crucial gesture while on defense which is used to call for the ball and demonstrates to your teammates that you have the best chance at getting underneath the ball and making the play on the pop up or fly ball and for them to stand down which facilitates in avoiding collisions or miss communication especially when playing in the outfield

The basic environment of a high school baseball field is that of chain link fences that enclose the outfield and infield to create a close space. The layout of the field includes artifacts such as pads/bases to mark the pitcher’s mound along with all three bases and home plate. The crowd, both on the visiting and home sides, sits opposite each other.

The weather, especially when inclement or even really bright out, can affect the teams and the way they play. If the playing field is all muddy and uneven, players cleats could easily get stuck in or make them slip in the mud or grass. The sport is nothing like golf, but there is also a sense of when it is time to cheer and a time to remain silent to not throw off the players’ game.

Artifacts and Objects – Which is the use and arrangement of the physical environment and objects to communicate also plays a foremost role in baseball in terms of how the stadium is set up which could be anything from where the scoreboard is placed to where the dugouts and bullpens are placed in regards to the field.

Be quiet
The players and fans are strategically placed on the same side of each other.
Functions and Processes
Functions are the purposes, motives, or goals of the communication, whereas the processes are the patterns of behavior between interactants and across time.
Expressing emotions concerns the ways in which nonverbal cues transmit our emotions and mood states to others. Kinesics, vocalic, and haptics all play a role in expressing peoples various emotions.

- Individuals vary substantially in their encoding and decoding abilities.
- Better encoders tend to be better decoders and vise versa.
- Encoding ability in a given channel is positively related to decoding ability in the same channel.
- Encoding and decoding abilities are positively related to a variety of personality traits.

1st, 2nd, 3rd, and Short Stop
There are ways in which one should be able to differentiate between players, coaches, umpires and crowd members. Spectators usually attend games wearing their team’s colors or even apparel specifically made by the school they are supporting. Obviously, if I wear a Red Sox jersey to a Chicago Cub’s game when they play each other, people will know who I am cheering for based on what I wear. The same goes for high school sports. We manage our identity in this way nonverbally so we can control how we want others to perceive us.
The umpires who make the calls in the games wear their own specific uniform to stand out to both players and coaches. The outfit worn by them is usually a dark polo shirt with gray pants and black shoes that are comfortable to stand in for the duration of the game. They have little bags that hang on their belts that hold assorted penalty flags, a base brush to wipe off dirt from home plate and usually a towel to keep hands free of sweat.
The team uniforms are pretty similar to an extent as well. Typically, pants and a short sleeve jersey are worn with long socks and a hat that all have the team colors/logo present for the spectators to be able to differentiate between the two teams. The pants are built to allow movement, but still have some coverage for when it comes to sliding on the ground or to bases. Players may also wear batting gloves when they are the team at bat. Since this is also an active sport, players may also wear sweatbands on their wrists to keep sweat from their eyes. To also keep a sense of uniformity, players should wear similar footwear, mostly black shoes instead of something bright and flashy as that can be a possible distraction for the opposing players. Sunglasses are also acceptable to utilize during games, especially for the pitcher and umpire so they won’t miss any part of the play being implemented.

Fly Balls
During a pop up or fly ball, many things can happen. It is the potential of getting an easy out, but it's not always so easy. A play like this is described in the diagram to the right. Where ever the ball may be the player within that zone has the right to the ball. This player is the go to to catch the ball and make the play. The non-verbals that coincide with this are that it is all about proxemics, and vocalics. Without proxemics and vocalics catching a pop fly ball would be almost impossible and highly confusing.Thankfully this diagram indicates who's territory is who's to catch the ball. During a pop fly every player on the field has a number, and and a territory. It should be known what this number is and where each territory resides.

Change up Pitchers
The non verbals that occur to bring in a new pitcher are of follows:
The coach will touch his left hand to signal to bring in a left handed pitcher.
The coach will touch his right hand to signal to bring in a right handed pitcher.
When the new pitcher is ready the guy in the bowl pin will signal so, with a wave of his hat.
Positions and Numbers During a Fly Ball
Pitcher = 1
Catcher = 2
1st Base = 3
2nd Base = 4
3rd Base = 5
Short Stop = 6
Left Field = 7
Center Field = 8
Right Field = 9
This is what we don't want to happen!
It is essential for you and your teammates to express feelings of happiness and encouragement through touch. High fives and the occasional but pat to convey a job well done is encouraged but we believe that every player on the team should have at least one “special handshake” with another team member.
This kind of touch is known as appreciative and congratulatory touch and is imperative in terms of communicating positive messages of gratitude. So over the next 5-10 minutes I want each one of you to group up with one of your teammates and create a special handshake that is specific to you two that both of you will remember and that you two can use throughout the rest of this workshop over the next two days. We believe that this will bring you closer with your teammates and promote a heightened level of closeness and togetherness which will carry over onto the field.
Signal #7

Signal #5

Signal #4

Signal #3

Signal #2

Signal #1

#1- Fair Ball
#2- Play Ball
#3- Safe
#4- Time Out or Foul Ball
#5- Out or Strike
#6- Foul Tip
#7- Do Not Pitch


Signal #6

What are these Signals?

Coaching Signals for the Pitch
When a pitch is decided it is almost always chosen by the coach. The coach signals the pitch by using some form of haptics on his body he will use the same signals in different sequence to disguise them from the opponent. Examples of this are showed in the diagram below. If a fast ball is the pitch being chosen the coach will signal to the catcher by touching his nose first. he will then touch his chin and then his left and right ear to throw off the other team and never allow them to distinguish a pattern. This is different from coach to coach and team to team but this is what we will be teaching these young athletes in this training camp to prepare them for play that the next level.
Fast Ball - Touch Nose
Curve Ball - Touch Chin
Slider - Touch Right Ear
Change up - Touch Left Ear
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