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Solar Powerplants

Exposé DD - M2

tanguy letailleur

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Solar Powerplants


Generalities about renewable energies

Non-concentrated solar Power Plants

Concentrated solar Power Plants

Balance sheet

Future prospects and limits

sustainable development Tanguy LETAILLEUR
Master II - GE THERMODYNAMIC SOLAR POWER PLANTS http://en.esstatic.us - 10/01/12 Gemasolar - Seville, Spain Constant increase of the world's energy consumption in conjunction with the scarcity of fossil energy A worrying energy situation Over 300 years , men consumed about half of the known energy reserves Heavy reliance on coal and oil as energy sources
Insufficient energy supplies generate poverty 1. Solar radiations concentrated in the receptor 1. 2. Hot salt storage 2. 3. 3. Heat exchanging 4. 4. Cold salt storage Principle Parabolic cylinder collector technology Parabolic collector technology Central receiver technology Absorber tube Curved mirror Receiver Receiver Example of Gemasolar - Seville http://www.torresolenergy.com - 10/01/12 World's first concentrated solar thermal Power Plant
2.650 heliostats for 185 hectares
Energy production 24/7
20MW --> 25.000 homes
< 20 kg CO /MWh 2 2 Environmental balance sheet Solar belt > 2000KWh/(m2.year) Includes more than 70 cities > 1 million people
Includes emerging cities Concentrated solar Power Plants > 2000KWh/(m2.year) direct sunlight
Easy electrical connection
Water supply
Cost -> current crisis slow down projects Limits Future prospects Middle east --> 100 MW
US --> 150 MW
Researches on a mix with wind and hydro/biomass energy Wind energy
Geothermal energy
Solar energy Photovoltaic
Solar thermal Different power generation technologies Non-concentrated solar PowerPlants concentrated solar PowerPlants http://en.esstatic.us - 10/01/12 http://climatetechwiki.org - 10/01/12 http://www.torresolenergy.com - 10/01/12 http://www.torresolenergy.com - 10/01/12 http://www.torresolenergy.com - 10/01/12 http://www.torresolenergy.com - 10/01/12 However, it appeared since few years :

An increase in different parts of world about the development of alternative energy sources

A growing awareness A growing awareness From the end of 2004, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60% annually for many technologies. A bit of history

1931 : Hanns Günther published a description of a solar chimney power plant

1975 : Robert Lucier applied for patents on a solar chimney electric power generator which were granted in different countries later

1978 : A German professor of Stuttgart suggested that power could be produced by a hybrid solar system (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATED BALANCE SHEET COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT COSTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATED COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATED A bit of history 1903 : Isidor Cabanyes, a Catalan colonel first proposed a solar chimney power plant in the magazine "La energia electrica" 1981 : MANZANARES : The first prototype built in spain under the direction of German government Experimental model of a solar chimney power plant - Manzanares Small-scale experimental model -> 50 Kw of electricity
Materials low cost
Operation time : 8 years
Height : 195 m Stopped in 1989, due to a cost per Kw five times higher than a conventional thermal power plant Principle Principle Three physical principles combined : - The greenhouse effect
- The chimney effect
- The wind turbine The solar updraft tower is a proposed type of renewable energy power plant The collector -> Glasses The solar chimney system consists of three parts : The chimney The turbines Can produce electricity during the night, if heat is stored inside the collector during the day Characteristics The efficiency is proportional to the height of the chimney www.acccessscience.com The different projects Advantages Costs Ciudad Real
(Spain) Namibia Australia first kind in the European Union

Height : 750 m

covering an area of 350 hectares

Energy production : 40 Mw Government project proposed in 2008

Called The "GreenTower"

Height : 1500 m

Diameter : 280 m

base : 37 km²

Investment : ~ 1 Billion $ Renewable energy company, Enviromission set to build tower in Australia

Known as Solar Tower Buronga

Height : 990 m

Collection Area : 65 m

Energy production : 200 Mw Solar heat radiation

Ground air : 30°C

Top of the tower : 20°C

Down of the tower : 70°C

Air Flow : 15 m/Sec The present status of the project is uncertain -> Crops can be grown More investment is important at the outset, more it's profitable after use

Investment costs for a solar updraft tower are significantly higher than for a fossil fuel power plant

Operating costs for a solar power plant are considerably lower as there are no costs for combustibles large scale facilities can thus make a significant contribution to the global, clean and cost-efficient supply of energy Disadvantages Suitable for generating electricity in deserts and sun-rich wasteland

It provides electricity 24 hours a day from solar energy alone

No fuel and no cooling water are needed

reliable compared with other power plants

materials to build towers are everywhere in sufficient quantities

No ecological harm and no consumption of resource The cost of generating electricity from a solar chimney is five times more than a gas turbine

High capital cost

Structure itself is massive and requires a lot of engineering expertise and materials to construct Social & Economical benefits Solar towers built in the desert creates plant growth

Condensation created at night makes humidity

Collection areas add water to otherwise unproductive land
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