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Transcript of Graphic Design
The earliest examples of visual expression.
Ancient artists depicted scenes and important events.
Over time, images became more symbolic, representing
objects, ideas and concepts.
Egyptian hieroglyphics were a writing system that
contained elements of pictures and letters.
Writing styles continued to advance, and pictures were replaced by symbols representing letters and sounds.
The Phoenician alphabet developed distinct,
individual forms for each letter.
The Greeks refined and adapted the Phoenician style,
adding symbols for vowel sounds.
The 26-letter alphabet used today was adapted from the
Greek by the rulers of early Rome.
Scrolls were used to keep records and write down stories.
Book of Kells
Scrolls were difficult to store and read, and eventually
were replaced by codices, bound volumes of pages like
this one from the ancient Book of Kells.
Scribes produced books and manuscripts by hand to record transactions, literature and sacred texts.
A scribe could produce complex, beautiful work mixing
text and illustration.
Movable type, first used in Asia, represented an improvement over woodblock printing, allowing for faster typesetting and better durability.
Johannes Gutenberg invented a metal movable type system that started the printing revolution in Europe.
Gutenberg's movable type was used with a printing press, which allowed for rapid, mass reproduction of books.
The Gutenberg Bible, praised for it's artistic and aesthetic qualities, was the first book mass produced on a printing press.
To take advantage of the new printing technology, and
to produce more legible type, designers looked to classic Roman letterforms in designing new typefaces.
The next great advances in technology would come in
the 19th century. Using light to capture images, photography produces durable reproductions.
The printing process known as lithography simplified
the use of multiple colors in a single image and would become the most common form of printing technology.
The lithographic process lent itself to areas of large, flat color and led to an explosion in vivid poster art.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec became one of the best known poster artists in Europe with his unique style and brilliant use of color.
Arts & Crafts Movement
The Arts & Crafts Movement sought a return to more traditional craftsmanship and artistic styles.
William Morris founded the Kelmscott Press to produce books using traditional methods and styles, echoing typefaces and art from the 15th century.
Art Nouveau sought a new style that emphasized natural, organic forms and curved lines.
As the 20th century began, new movements in art and design emerged. Futurism embraced the idea of progress and technology in bold new forms.
Dada was a cultural and artistic movement that opposed war and made use of abstract and surreal visual elements.
Bauhaus took its name and ideals from a German art school that emphasized simplicity and functionality.
Mondrian was a proponent of the Dutch De Stijl group of artists, and his expression of order and simplicity in form and colors continue to influence design to this day.
Art Deco was an eclectic style that borrowed from many classic sources and was defined by linear symmetery and glamorous elegance.
Constructivism emerged in Russia as a social and artistic movement that aimed to engage the viewer. Alexander Rodchenko provides a colorful example.
Like the other Constructivists, El Lissitzky sought to comment on and affect social change through his work promoting Russian socialism.
The use of communication to influence the attitudes
and beliefs of the viewer is called propaganda,
designed to deliver a message or idea.
Though many styles may come under the umbrella term modernism, it is specifically used to refer to a style of art and design that is forward-looking and experimental.
Advertising design following WWII
emphasized all things new and modern
with slick, creative images and type.
Business in America was booming, and
businesses increasingly sought designers
who could provide unique visual logos.
Paul Rand was responsible for some of
the most well known logos ever.
The center of the advertising world was Madison Ave. in New York, where ideas and designs came together.
For advertising to truly make an impact, creativity was key.
With television and movies, design moved off the page and onto the screen.
Saul Bass' unique, innovative movie posters and title sequences pushed the envelope and wowed audiences.
Designers had a great number of tools at their disposal.
Computers changed the way designers work in dozens of ways. Art and type were now readily available at the click of a mouse, and long, tedious paste up work was replaced by layout and design on the screen that could be printed out and ready to go.
Computer programs like Photoshop gave designers unprecedented control over their work.
Designers continue to seek new, innovative forms. Stefan Sagmeister explores and explodes boundaries in his work.
David Carson's experimental use of type and photography
were widely influential in the 1990s.
Chris Ware uses precise, geometric layout and
vintage typestyles and design to evoke memory
Web Design and Beyond
Creative, expressive design remains vital in every medium, from print to film to the web.
Woodblock printing in Asia transferred images and text
onto textiles and, later, paper.
Tell me the answer in inches and show/explain your work.
Ex: 792/72 = 11
I divided 792 by 72 and got 11….
A web graphic measures 720 pixels by 288 pixels.
How many inches will this web graphic measure?
Hint: A web graphic is 72ppi or dpi (pixels or dots per inch)