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The Montessori Method
Transcript of The Montessori Method
What does it look like? Montessori 1870-1952 "It is necessary for the teacher to guide the child without letting him feel her presence too much, so that she may always be ready to supply the desired help, but may never be the obstacle between the child and his experience."
~Dr. Maria Montessori Followers of the Montessori method believe that a child will learn naturally if put in an environment containing the proper materials. A typical classroom consists of readily available games and toys, household utensils, plants and animals that are cared for by the children, and child sized furniture. The role of the teacher Classrooms guide and observe Goal:Intervene less and
less as child develops build an atmosphere of order
calmness and joy in the classroom encouragers Knows when to observe
and when to intervene. With younger students,
the teacher is more active,
demonstrating use of materials
and presenting activities Child designed classrooms developmentally appropriate materials Hands on Mixed-age, developmental groupings The End These materials, suited to a child's abilities and interests, are set up by a teacher-observer who intervenes only when individual help is needed. Muiltiple strategies of instruction Individually paced, therefore, no compeition A Prepared Environment program participants work, not play KEY COMPONENTS and CHARATERISTICS A HOLISTIC CURRICULUM incorporating physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development Maria Montessori believed that children’s learning characteristics occur in developmental cycle of three years; hence, the typical classroom has a three-year age span. It is child-centered NO TESTING, NO GRADES self-motivation observation and indirect teaching No prizes for being good, no punishment for being bad Montessori believed that all children go through sensitive periods, in which their minds are open and reception to learning; Montessori said that children should not be held back by forced, rigid curricula or else the child’s creativity and absorbent mind will be stifled. The children are given three hours per day to work without interruption. The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say “The children are now working as if I did not exist.”
—Maria Montessori Ratio
1:1 and 1:30+ Repetition:
The child repeats activities; this aids concentration, skill, practice, and mastery. Movement:
The child can move freely around the room. Movement aids in learning of the materials. Choice
The child may chose the activity he or she wants to do. PRACTICAL LIFE physical coordination, independence, and care of self and environment SENSORIAL size, color, shape, and dimension LANGUAGE develop the use of basic skills to understand written language CULTURAL SUBJECTS geography, science, music, and art Montessori believed it is
through the senses that a child takes in
all the information around him or her. Even though the child may choose his or her own activities, a child cannot use material that he or she does not know how to use. Lary Page & Sergey Brin:
Founders of Google Will Wright:
Creator of “The Sims” video game FAMOUS
GRADUTES Anne Frank (deceased),
famous diarist from World War II Sean “Puff Daddy” Combs:
Music producer/entrepreneur Jeff Bezos:
Founder & CEO of Amazon.com Prince William and Prince Harry: English royal family David Blaine:
magician Dakota Fanning:
Academy Award nominated actress Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (deceased), editor, former first lady Jimmy Wales:
Founder of Wikipedia FAMOUS
SUPPORTERS Thomas Edison: scientist,
inventor and founder of a Montessori school Erik Erikson:
noted anthropologist, author
and trained Montessori teacher. Jean Piaget:
noted Swiss psychologist and
head of the Swiss Montessori Society. Mister Rogers:
children’s television personality and
strong supporter of Montessori education HISTORY PHILOSOPHY STAFFING NEEDS and REQUIREMENTS CURRICULUM "The secret of good teaching is to regard the child's intelligence as a fertile field in which seeds may be sown, to grow under the heat of flaming imagination. Our aim is not only to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorize, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his innermost core. We do not want complacent pupils, but eager ones. We seek to sow life in the child rather than theories, to help him in his growth, mental and emotional as well as physical, and for that we must offer grand and lofty ideas to the human mind."
- Maria Montessori First woman in Italy to receive a medical degree Worked in the fields of psychiatry, education, and anthropology Founded Casa dei Bambini, “House of the Children” in 1907 Nominated twice for the Nobel Peace Prize Dr. Montessori was exiled from Italy during World War II because of her antifascist views and lived and worked in India She believed each child was born with a “unique potential to be revealed” rather than a “blank slate.” with one non-teaching assistant "FOLLOW THE CHILD" For the educational method to be successful, Montessori believed it must address the nature of the child. Through her observations, Dr. Montessori constructed her beliefs about the inner nature of the child: Children are dynamic and curious Children use their senses to learn about the world The child is auto-educated (the child constructs knowledge by physically manipulating the environment) The child learns that which is of personal interest (therefore they should be allowed to select activities that are of high interest) The child repeats activities until they are fully mastered The child is orderly and focused Based on her observations, Dr. Montessori believed that the role of the teacher was to: Observe the child (to determine what interests the child) Prepares the environment (to meet the observed need of the child). Level Ages Hours Tuition
Primary– Half Day 3 to 5 yr olds 8:30 am to 11:45 am $6,600.00 annually
Primary–Full Day 5 to 6 yr olds 8:30 am to 2:45 pm $7,608.00 annually
Lower Elementary 6 to 9 yr olds 8:30 am to 2:45 pm $8,496.00 annually
Upper Elementary 9 to 12 yr olds 8:30 am to 2:45 pm $8,496.00 annually This does not include before and after care, which adds an additional $2,100 per year. Some schools also charge uniform fees, material fees, lunch fees, etc. Montessori is available and appropriate for all types of learners: rich > middle class > poor gifted > learing disabilties > physical disabilities Montessori education is good for students who are "all kinds of smart": Even though Montessori is for every type of learner, tuition costs exclude most children: Occasionally, scholarships, vouchers, and public Montessori may be available. many people feel that the benefits far outweigh the cost The two major organizations offering Montessori training in the United States are the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI, with a U.S. branch office called AMI-USA) and the American Montessori Society (AMS). Most training centers require a bachelor's degree for admission. Training ranges from 200 to 600 pre-service contact hours and covers principles of child development and Montessori philosophy as well as specific uses of the Montessori classroom materials. The Montessori teacher spends a lot of time during teacher training practicing the many lessons with materials in all areas. She must pass a written and oral exam on these lessons in order to be certified. She is trained to recognize a child's readiness according to age, ability, and interest in a specific lesson, and is prepared to guide individual progress. Standards for teacher training vary widely by school, state, and country. There are actually 2 types of Montessori: AMI (Association Montessori Internationale) - was established by Maria Montessori and her son, Mario in 1929 and has international headquarters in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In AMI schools, Montessori philosophy and curriculum are implemented in a way that is consistent with the original approach of Maria Montessori. The Montessori materials are used precisely in the manner used by Dr. Montessori without deviation or extensions; preserving what proponents of this interpretation believe is the purity of the method. AMS (American Montessori Society) - In the late 1960 Nancy McCormick Rambusch, an AMI Montessori trained teacher founded the American Montessori Society (AMS). She firmly believed that aspects of the Montessori method had to be modified to accommodate the culture in America. In AMS schools, teachers continue the methods developed by Dr. Montessori while bringing in outside resources, materials, and ideas to extend or supplement the Montessori curriculum. Examples include the use of technology and current events. Because the title "Montessori" is not trademarked,
anybody can open a school proclaiming to be a
Montessori School, but may not be practicing the
methods Maria Montessori envisioned. Therefore, it is up to the parents to educate themselves as to the correct methodologies of Montessori. Montessori curriculum considers education of character equally as important as acedemic education. Montessori education is based on the belief that children are individuals with their own strengths, needs, likes and learning styles, therefore the teacher needs to guide each child through the learning process by using materials that fit their specific needs and pace. "Teach by teaching, not by correcting" The practical application of the Montessori Method is based on human tendencies: exploration movement sharing imagination abstraction concentration repitition creating order hard work decision-making “I hear, and I forget.
I see, and I remember.
I do, and I understand.”
Maria Montessori Maybe Mark Zuckerberg, the creator of Facebook Montessorians beleive that there are 3 stages of learning: Stage 1 Introduction to a concept by means of a lecture, lesson, something read in
a book, etc. Stage 2 Processing the information, developing an understanding of the concept
through work, experimentation, creation. Stage 3 "knowing," to possess an understanding of, demonstrated by the ability
to pass a test with confidence, to teach another, or to express with ease an integrated, thematic approach ties the separate disciplines together into studies of the physical universe, the world of nature, and the human experience materials are used as tools to help children work and learn at their own pace Each material isolates one concept or skill. Materials also help children to see abstract ideas in a very concrete, three-dimensional way. Each material has also been designed so that a child can normally check his or her own work. The transformation of children from birth to adulthood occurs through a series of developmental planes. Montessori practice changes in scope and manner to embrace the child's changing characteristics and interests. The first plane of development occurs from birth to age six. At this stage, children are sensorial explorers, constructing their intellects by absorbing every aspect of their environment, their language and their culture. The second plane of development occurs from age 6 to 12; children become conceptual explorers. They develop their powers of abstraction and imagination, and apply their knowledge to discover and expand their worlds further. The third plane of development occurs between 12 and 18; the children become humanistic explorers, seeking to understand their place in society and their opportunity to contribute to it. The fouth plane of development occurs between 18 to 24; as young adults, they become specialised explorers, seeking a niche from which to contribute to universal dialogue. guide and observe The role of the teacher knows when to observe and when to intervene Goal: Intervene less and less as child develops. build an atmosphere of order, calm, and joy in the classroom encourages demonstrates use of materials facilitator also called a "guide" or "directress/director" teach by teaching, not correcting plans meaningful activities The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist."
~Maria Montessori nurture, love, and respect