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Oppression, Marginalisation and Pedagogical Counteracts to Social Class Exclusion

Introduces concepts of marginalisation in schooling, particularly schools as factories and the impact of social class on education in Australia

Daniella Forster

on 12 August 2013

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Transcript of Oppression, Marginalisation and Pedagogical Counteracts to Social Class Exclusion

Pedagogical Counteracts to Social Class Exclusion
Your Turn...
Language and Cultural Capital
How will you practice inclusively for all social groups in your classroom?
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
copy paste branches if you need more....
Defining social class
Indexes of social class
Social differences become stratification when people are ranked hierarchically along some dimension of inequality....Stratification systems can be founded on a variety of social characteristics; for example, social class, race, gender, birth or age...Modern societies are likely to emphasize economic characteristics, while traditional, ancient or feudal societies will be founded rather more on status characteristics. (Abercrombie, Hill & Turner, 2000, pp. 346-347)
Social stratification
What does social class mean?
Segments of the population sharing broadly similar types and levels of resources, with broadly similar styles of living and (for some sociologists) some shared perception of their collective condition.” (Upton, n.d., para 4)
Social class involves grouping people together and according them status within society according to the groups they belong to. For class, this is often according to four dimensions:
Occupation, Education, Income, Wealth
Blue collar, White collar and "no collar" workers (Aronowitz, p109).
Social class can change, and this is referred to as social mobility. This is because social classes (in contemporary times) are far more fluid than they have been previously.
What is Exclusion?
Causes of social exclusion
Freire's empacipatory program
Why focus on social exclusion?
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Freire argues that “...the oppressed are not ‘marginals’, are not men living ‘outside’ society. They have always been ‘inside’—inside the structure which made them ‘being for others’. The solution is not ‘integrate’ them into the structure of oppression, but to transform that structure so that they can become ‘beings for themselves’.
Marginalisation that can be experienced when people are unable to participate fully in the society in which they live.

It also refers to the processes involved in feeling disconnected oneself or disconnecting others from fully appreciating opportunities available in society.

The causes of this disconnectedness are myriad, but include poor physical and mental health, disability, family breakdown, lack of education and skills, and low income.
Three types of attitudes and social practices that lead to exclusion:
1.Mobilisation of institutional bias
2. Social closure
3. Unruly practices

In your notes, which groups are most likely to be marginalised in Australia?

“The Australian Government’s vision of a socially inclusive society is one in which all Australians feel valued and have the opportunity to participate fully in the life of our society.”

This definition is then expanded to include the following explanation:
"Achieving this vision means that all Australians will have the resources, opportunities and capability to:
Learn by participating in education and training
Work by participating in employment, in voluntary work and in family and caring
Engage by connecting with people and using their local community’s resources and
Have a voice so that they can influence decisions that affect them."

(Source: http://www.socialinclusion.gov.au/Pages/default.aspx)
poor health, education, employment and social outcomes-all of which can have considerable adverse economic impacts.

The impacts of social exclusion include:
health costs needed to manage poor health and chronic illness;
welfare costs required to address social and family disasters;
police costs to combat the impact and fear of crime and violence;
justice and corrections system costs in response to higher crime rates;
a less skilled workforce and poor productivity;
lack of confidence due to divided communities and declining suburbs;
lost customers, markets and international partners;
decreased competitiveness of the economy on a global level.
The Effects of Social Exclusion
some statistics..
Freire states "the oppressed are not 'marginals', are not...living 'outside' society. They have always been 'inside'...the solution...is to transform that structure so that they can become 'beings for themselves'" (2009, pp. 53-54)

Social exclusion:

"Marginalisation and exclusion occur when people are systematically excluded from meaningful participation in economic, social, political, cultural and other forms of human activity...and do not have access to the fruits of membership of the wider society." (Baatjes, 2003, pp. 180-181)

occurs through oppression and exclusionary practices
Source: Kabeer, N., 2000, ‘Social Exclusion, Poverty and Discrimination: Towards an Analytical Framework’, IDS bulletin, 31(4)
Social class is now far more complex than the four dimensions of class. It can also be associated with many other indicators:
(Young, 2006, p. 6)
From your own experiences, the readings and what you have learned so far in this lecture, do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain.
1. Australia is a society characterised
by equality....

Bernstein (1971, 1977, 1990) identifies the difference between
The restricted code is context-dependent, characterised by implicit meaning. The elaborated code is explicit, more abstract, “context-independent”. Success in formal education requires movement between the two.

3. Social class is not just about money,
it is about culture and lived experience.
Education for social justice must move
forward through cultures of
Social Exclusion In Australia
Social Class
Marx- the struggle between 'haves' and 'have nots'
Critical theory- schooling as an ideological 'filter'; passing dominant ideology as unquestioned fact (Apple)
Forms of capital - The more complex picture (Bourdieu)
2. Schooling success is only about individual ability
In your teaching preparation, instead of focusing on 'banking' knowledge into students, incorporate context dependent language and unpack the dispositions, skills and conduct that characterise a 'learning community' to build a bridge between 'restricted' and 'elaborated' code and the kinds of cultural capital linked to academic and schooling success more broadly
•Learn the concepts of oppression, exclusion and marginalisation and their inter-relatedness;
•Analyse the concept of social class beyond money and learn about class disadvantage

•Consider inclusive teaching practices that work against the marginalisation subordinate social classes

Where have you encountered these concepts elsewhere in your degree?
EDUC2103 (functionalist vs conflict/critical theory), EDUC1008 (Remember The Pedagogy of Poverty?)
So far in EDUC3195
Introduction to critical pedagogy as a 'liberating pedagogy'
Next week: Critical Thinking, Social justice, dispositions attitude and critical praxis
Many opportunities are available on the Teach Outreach Blackboard site – just look under the Opportunities tab for activities offered in your location: Port Macquarie, Central Coast and Callaghan.

Or email the Teach Outreach Coordinator, Dr Daniella Forster on teach-outreach@newcastle.edu.au
INTERESTED? Go to Teach Outreach on Blackboard
Teach Outreach | email teach-outreach@newcastle.edu.au
Teach Outreach is a volunteer placement program run by the School of Education. Schools, early childhood centres and community organisations need YOU to assist them in educational activities like sports carnivals, refugee homework sessions, literacy and numeracy programs and HSC support.
Teach Outreach | email teach-outreach@newcastle.edu.au
You benefit from involvement in activities that will enhance your professional knowledge, skills, and confidence. Your involvement is recorded on AHEGS and you receive a certificate.

You know you’re helping our Community by assisting them in implementing valuable activities.

Teach Outreach forges closer links with local schools, centres and community groups.
Teach Outreach | email teach-outreach@newcastle.edu.au
Adapted from lectures prepared by Dr Heather Sharp, Debra Hely and Elizabeth Preston
A meritocratic system sees “social positions in the occupational structure...filled on the basis of merit, defined in terms... of achievements, rather than ... criteria such as age, sex or inherited wealth” (Abercrombie, Hill & Turner, 2006, p. 223)
What factors in your life do you believe have helped/hindered your successful progress to tertiary education?
Bourdieu's Forms of Capital
1. Economic Capital: wealth
2. Cultural Capital
Embodied: behaviour
Objectified: eg technology
Institutionalised: qualifications
3. Social Capital: network of relations
4. Symbolic Capital: prestige/rank
Full transcript