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Transcript of Biology
Using technology, DNA is extracted from people.
Sample is analyzed creating a DNA profile We want to hear from you! Two collections:
Crime Scene Index
DNA from crime scenes
Convicted Offenders Index
Electronic DNA profile database
DNA from criminals and law offenders
Biological samples from convicted offenders are collected by "peace officers."
Many matches between obtained DNA from the scene and the offender has been made No individual has the same fingerprint as another
Fingerprints have become a useful tool for police to identify many criminals
Genetic scientists have discovered other methods of distinguishing people based on the originality of each person's genes.
The differences in genetics are the result of the variation among people. Traits can be very obvious such as hair color and eye color, or less obvious variations like genetics disorders: such as hemophilia. References: By: Elena, Lilianne, Tuqa, and Gabriela. Case 1.
•In 2008, a woman was brutally, robbed, beaten, and sexually assaulted
•She did not remember her attacker's appearance
•DNA testing lead to a match, and this was extremely useful Successful Cases/Results Case 2
•A woman was murdered in 1984, but the case went cold for 23 years
•A DNA sample retrieved, matched another, and this information was sent to NDDB.
•Brought justice and closure to the woman’s family Case 3.
•279 churches were robbed in Ontario
•A blood sample was obtained from a broken window
•A Match was made from a separate conviction
•Man serving six-year sentence
• A jewelery store was robbed by three hooded thieves in Windsor, Ontario
• Blood samples were found on a smashed glass case and stored in the Crime Scene Index
• Four years later, the match was made by a new DNA sample sent to NDDB Jeeg, 2012 Case 4.
• A woman was attacked on a popular Thunder Bay trail during broad daylight
• The woman scratched the attacker, but was thrown down, choked unconscious; and the attacker threatened to kill her
• A sample from under the woman’s nail was obtained and the DNA was profiled by NDDB
• A match was made, and the man was sentenced to three years in prison Problems with DNA Data Banks Do DNA Databases violate privacy rights?
Should all citizen's DNA be in the/a data bank? Index History of genetic fingerprinting In the early 1980s, a scientist called Professor Alec Jeffreys and his assistants at Leicester University (England), were studying DNA to see how it differed from person to person, to try and track diseases.
He was using an X-ray film to look at the DNA and saw patterns in the DNA.
He then realized that these patterns could be used to identify people.
In 1987, the first criminal was caught using DNA fingerprinting, and two years later, someone was freed from prison (he was wrongly imprisoned). July, 1995
Bill-C 104 amends Criminal Code and the Young Offenders Act to enable a judge to issue a warrant allowing police to detain DNA evidence from suspects. This was Phase I of the Canadian Government's DNA Strategy.
Phase II of Canada’s DNA strategy begins with nation-wide consultations to establish NDDB.
Bill- C 104 enables the creation of Canada’s Nation DNA Data Bank.
Construction begins to establish NDDB in a rigorous 18 month schedule June, 2000
National DNA Data Bank begins collection samples.
July 6-7th, 2000
First crime scene DNA profile and convicted offender sample received.
October 13th, 2000
First match between convicted offender and crime scene.
April 25th, 2002
RCMP signs an agreement with Interpol to share DNA information internationally. On the 14th of May, the first international match in the Crime Scene Index was made and on November the 13th, the first match in Convicted Offenders Index was made.
April 19th, 2007
Over 7000 DNA matches have been made between the Crime Scene Index and the Convicted Offenders Index. The National DNA Data Bank of Canada (NDDB) is an organisation operated by the RCMP to assist the police in solving criminal cases within Canada. Almost done... :) Main issue with DNA databases= Personal Privacy
If your DNA was put into the system, and you are technically innocent, your DNA profile would remain in the system. This makes people worried about their privacy rights. Human error could also lead to the contamination of the evidence or samples obtained. This could lead to a false conviction, which could affect a person's life forever. Even though everybody's DNA code is different, (except for identical twins) the DNA code between the individuals of a family are similar.
Familial DNA Databases help investigators search for genetic near matches that can help solve crimes by the relatives of individuals int he database. Some people are also worried that the government could learn everything about a person from looking at their DNA, which in turn- threatens privacy rights. Biological samples can be obtained by body fluids (or fingerprints), but mainly by:
Blood: using a sterile lancet to prick the fingertip, or by collecting bloodstains onto a prepared sample card.
Buccal: the inside of the mouth is rubbed with some foam to obtain cells. Some facts about the NDDB of Canada. Hair: 6-8 pieces are pulled out with the root sheath attached. 1) CSI gather evidence from crime scene
2)They separate DNA from the evidence sample
3)The DNA is cut into fragments with enzymes
-Every human has unique fragments except for twins
4)The negatively charged DNA is separated in a gel using an electric charge How it works 5)The DNA is transferred from the gel to a membrane sheet
6)Then the DNA is separated based on which DNA fragment is needed to match the suspects
7) The fragments are then compared to the suspects, victims and officers.
8) If the DNA matches several times,then it is likely that they have solved who was in the crime scene 279 293 DNA profiles in NDDB
214 789 DNA profiles in the Convicted Offenders Index
64 504 DNA profiles in the Crime Scene Index
21 006 investigations assisted by the NDDB (since 2000)
239 assisted in 2010- 2011
*2010-2011 Data. DNA analysis was first used in 1989 by the RCMP to convict a criminal.
Convicted offender samples are put into the NDDB, which are then processed into DNA profiles. These are loaded onto the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), which is a software that stores and compares samples.
This software was developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the US Department of Justice, and was provided to the NDDB for free. The information on the NDDB is also shared with Interpol. Another method is the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), which uses small sequences of DNA (STRs= short tandem repeats).
PCR uses special enzymes to duplicate more of the DNA, which helps scientist find the STRs that are unique to a person. The patterns of the DNA can also be placed on an x-ray. Not easy:
There are 3 billion DNA bases pairs in everyone, about and we share 99.9% of these pairs with everyone. But only 1% is different which is 3 million base pairs. What is the NDDB?
how it works
Successful cases (using NDDBs)
Problems (with NDDBs)
References Bellamy-Royds, A., & Norris, S. (2009, March 3). New Frontiers in Forensic DNA Analysis: Implications for Canada's National DNA Data Bank/prb0829e. Parliament of Canada Web Site - Site Web du Parlement du Canada. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0829-e.htm
Can DNA Demand a Verdict?. (n.d.). Learn.Genetics™. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/gel/forensics/
Case closed! [Photograph]. (2010, January 26). Retrieved from http://www.writeonnewjersey.com/2010/01/case-closed/
DNA fingerprinting. (2007). In Gale. Retrieved from Gale Science in Context database. (Accession No. GALE|CX2830700031)
DNA Puts Man Behind Bars for Brutal Sexual Assault - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2011, October 17). Royal Canadian Mounted Police - Welcome | Gendarmerie royale du Canada - Bienvenue. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/nddb-bndg/ann-10-11/sec-8-eng.htm
Familial DNA Database Searches. (n.d.). District Attorney Home Page. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from http://www.denverda.org/dna/Familial_DNA_Database_Searches.htm
Forensic DNA testing (2007). In Gale. Retrieved from Gale Science in Context database. (Accession No. GALE|CX2830700035)
Forensics uses of DNA [Video file]. (2010, December 9). Retrieved from Genetic fingerprinting. (2007). In World of Health. Gale. Retrieved from http://ic.galegroup.com:80/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?
Group discussion [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.linkingsky.com/government-exams/bank/Group-Discussion-Tips-Topics.html
History - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2008, November 20). Royal Canadian Mounted Police - Welcome | Gendarmerie royale du Canada - Bienvenue. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/nddb-bndg/histo-eng.htm
How and why I became a fingerprint expert? [Photograph]. (2012, April 15).
Retrieved from http://fingerprintexpert.blogspot.ca/
Is forensic DNA 100% accurate? [Photograph]. (2012, April 19). Retrieved from http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/blog/post/Is-Forensic-DNA-10025-Accurate.aspx
Jeeg. (2012, April 29). Council For Responsible Genetics Blog | Is Forensic DNA 100% Accurate?. CRG - Council for Responsible Genetics. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/blog/post/Is-Forensic-DNA-10025-Accurate.aspx Langley (2012, March 6). CGS : The Case Against DNA. CGS : Center for Genetics and Society. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6109
RCMP: A brief history [Photograph]. (2005, June 22). Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/rcmp/
Sharma, A. (2007). DNA profiling: Social, legal, or biological parentage. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, 13(3), 88. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA174736513&v=2.1&u=ko_pl_portal&it=r&p=SPJ.SP09&sw=w
Success Stories - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (n.d.). Royal Canadian Mounted Police - Welcome | Gendarmerie royale du Canada - Bienvenue. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/nddb-bndg/ann-08-09/sec-12-eng.htm
Success Stories - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2010, October 20). Royal Canadian Mounted Police - Welcome | Gendarmerie royale du Canada - Bienvenue. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/nddb-bndg/ann-09-10/sec-3-eng.htm#a
The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2009-2010. (n.d.). RMPC. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/nddb-bndg/ann-09-10/ann-09-10-eng.pdf
The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2010-2011. (n.d.). RMPC. Retrieved October 24, 2012, from www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/nddb-bndg/ann-10-11/ann-10-11-eng.pdf
Uncertain future for a controversial database [Photograph]. (2008, February 27). Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/feb/27/dna.background The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2010-2011 The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2010-2011 The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2010-2011 The National DNA Data Bank of Canada Annual Report 2010-2011 The Guardian, 2008 Langley, 2012 Group-Discussion-Tips-Topics, n.d. writeonnewjersey.com, 2012 cbc, 2005