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Evidence for Evolution

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April Clark

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Evidence for Evolution

Where did Darwin collect his evidence?
On the Galapagos Islands (and other places)
Darwin collected the following evidence:
- fossils
- noticed a geographic distribution of species (why are there only a few types of animals on these islands?)
- adaptations of species that appeared to come from a common ancestor
Alfred Wallace
Charles Darwin
Wallace - also collected a lot of evidence; shared is information with Darwin
Darwin and Wallace

- believed the diversity of life that they observed
was due natural selection
- thought that all life came from a common ancestor and branched into the life forms we see today
In Darwin's "Orgin of Species"
he presents the evidence he collected
that supports his two theories.

Lets look at this evidence....
Galapagos Islands had species not found
anywhere else on his travels

Galapagos tortoise - all had different structures that appeared to help them survive in their environment
Galapagos finches - same observation - they had beaks that were suited for the food they ate and appeared to come from a common ancestor on the South American continent
Darwin noted that humans have been
manipulating their own type of evolution for hundreds of years - artificial selection
Through artificial selection you can get a species with the traits you desire in a short period of time
Fossil evidence showed evidence of
how current species changed from an
ancient ancestor
"Transitional Fossils"
- link gaps in the fossil records
Homologous structures - characteristics with a similar origin
Vestigial structures - greatly reduced from its original form and function
Embryonic similarities among animals
What did Darwin not understand?

The genetics behind his observations

Modern Synthesis - bringing together genetics and evolutionary evidence
As you watch this video, answer the following:

What genes were the scientists researching?
What was the evidence and results of their research?
What did the genes that they researched "turn on"?
- looks at the developmental relationships between organisms to determine their relatedness
As you watch this video, answer the following questions:

1. What are regulatory genes? Give examples.
2. What are Hox genes?
3. What activates regulatory genes?
4. Explain the "messed up" experiment with the fruit fly.
5. Do birds have genes for teeth?
Hox genes - control the body plan of an organism
Pax 6 gene - important in eye development
Because there are common Hox genes (or body plan genes) in all animals.......
...a common ancestor (yet to be discovered) should have similar body plan genes...

Based on this evidence....what are the possibilities that humans have a common ancestor with other animals?

What evidence do we have?
Fossil evidence?
Homologous structures?
Vestigial structures?
Embryo evidence?
Genetic evidence?
This video shows some evidence as to how our skulls, jaws, and brain may have changed over time.

As you watch, answer the following questions:
1. Explain what the researcher studied.
2. How are humans today different from our possible ancestors?
3. What evidence did the researcher find?
4. Why is a large jaw not important for humans?
Full transcript