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Classical Culture and Religion WHAP
Transcript of Classical Culture and Religion WHAP
China's Search for Order
After the fall of the Zhou, China fell into a period of civil turmoil known as the Warring States Era.
Three different philosophies came about as a way to resolve the turmoil in China.
Han Feizi- Legalism
Founder: Han Fei(zi)
Main ideas: people are evil and need strict rules to clear the disorder.
Promoted farmers and soldiers b/c useful.
Led to reunification of CH w/ Qin Dynasty.
Confucianism- this is sups important.
Main ideas (there are a lot b/c it impacts the rest of CH history)
Need superiors to protect and support the inferiors in society --> obedience. Family = ex.
Filial piety- defined role of relationships. --> women subservient to husbands.
Human improvement thru lib arts educations.
Wen (mind) and Wu (physical) ideals for men.
Led to Civil Service Exam to allow all (hypothetically) men to compete, and best earn gov't positions.
Not a religion, a philosophy.
Daoism aka Taoism
Text: Daodejing (The Way and Its Power)
Main ideas: Dao- the way of nature that governs all natural phenomenon. Focus was disengagement w/ public and withdrawal to nature.
Promoted abandonment of education
Family is central, but was more balanced b/t genders.
Daoism does extend into religion, as some try to tap into the Dao for spiritual reasons. (Also, Yellow Turban Rebellion used it as justification).
Texts: the Vedas and the Upanishads
Main beliefs: ultimate goal of achieving Moksha, escaping the cycle of reincarnation based on karma.
Gender roles clearly defined, as women were under control of me (Manu), but women were also deities.
Founder: Siddartha Gautama
Four Noble Truths
1. Life is suffering
2. Life is suffering due to excessive wants
3. To stop suffering means to stop desires
4. The way to stop suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Goal is to achieve enlightenment (nirvana) to escape reincarnation.
Similar to Hinduism: karma, reincarnation, and goal of release.
However, major difference is the challenge of caste system.
Not a religion... UNTIL Mahayana Buddhism which views the Buddha as a deity.
Monotheism in the Middle East
Main beliefs: deity Mazda as source of truth and goodness, in struggle against Mainyu, the force of evil.
Did not spread far beyond Persian Empire, and decline with the future spread of Islam.
Main beliefs: monotheistic deity, Yahweh. Spread through migrations (enslavement in Egypt, Babylonian Captivity, Diaspora)
Became the foundation for Christianity and Islam.
Main thinkers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Apply rational thought nature and medicine.
Focused on logic.
Plato: wrote the Republic, and said society should be run by a philosopher-king.
Greek philosophy spreads to the East and reemerges much later in Europe.
Buddhism and Christianity: A Comparison
How do the Terra Cotta Soldiers represent Legalist ideas?
Does this sound