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Copy of Chapter 7,Cultural Changes and Identity.
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 7,Cultural Changes and Identity.
Change in Filipino Name
The Positon of Women
Influenced of Spanish Language
Efforts to quell the early uprising and revolts by force and imposition of the principal of "divide-and-rule",were it is not enough to keep the filipino people peace and loyal to spain.
Spanish influence made its impact on the indigenous culture through the change in Filipino names,intermarriages,the plaza complex,fiestas and other religious rituals,form of amusements,attire and ornaments,house styles,painting and engraving,religion, and education.
The spanish brought the Filipino into contact with Western culture. In particular, the spanish way of life introduced: their clothing, cooking, eating habits, forms of amusement, Spanish words, and Christianity, and all of these resulted in mixing of Spanish and Filipino culture elements.
The combination of this two culture became dominant culture, we Filipinos borrowed so many things that Spanish had been introduced to us, but in time those borrowed are no longer Spanish vut something having the both characteristics.
Spanish did not intermarry Filipinos, there are instances or exceptions and it lead to limited intermarriages between Filipinos and Spaniards.
The child of the marriage Filipino and Spaniard was called as "Spanish mestizo". At the end of Spanish period, the qualify word,"mestizo" as also referred to the children of a male chinese and a native woman, as in "Mestizo de Sangley" and the same happend to the blending of Spanish with Chinese mestiza. Those who belonged to the pure indigenous stock was called as "Indios" and "Indias".
The social life of Christian community during Spanish times revolved only in the church because of the friar-curate was the all powerful person in the community. What he wanted was all followed. The church was found in the best part of the town and beside of the church, wa s the "Municipal building" called the "tribunal" where the gobernadorcillo or the capitan was held. The gobernadorcillo that time cannot do anything without the knowledge of the friar-curate.The fiesta was always as honoring the town patron saint.
Filipinos learned Spanish language through their direct contact with the Spaniards even if the Spanish administrators and friar-curates did not teach them to.
•Through this, it led to adoptions among many Filipino languages.
•Spanish words like silla, mesa, cama, and many more,were incorporated into Philippine languages like Hiligaynon, Sugbuhanon, Bicolano, Tagalog, Ilocano, and others.
•Tagalog was especially influenced because the Tagalogregion was, and still, the center of the social, political,cultural, economic setup of the country.
Before the Filipinos has no surnames. The name of a boy or a girl was taken to his/her physical appearance or from natural event or object. Thus,when Spanish record referred to Cigala, it should actually ba spelled as Si Gala. Then Spanish made a little change in Filipino names, thus who has christian names chose Spanish name that usually name of a saint such as Santo Tomas, San Gregorio, San Andres. But many Filipinos did not change their name but they chose to used such name as Magtanggol, Bayani, Gatmaytan, and others. For the reasons that many filipinos has the same surnames, it brought confusion to Spanish authorities and they released an appeal in 1849 allowing Filipinos to change their names.
Printing by woodblocks was introduced by Dominican missionaries to published the first books in the Philippine, the Doctrina Christiana, one in Tagalog and one in Chinese.
•Printing by typography was introduced later.
•Tomas Pinpin was one of the earliest printers.
•He was called “The Prince of Filipino Printers” because of the many books he printed for the Dominicans.
•Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay was another Filipino printer who became famous. He was not only a good printer but a good engraver also.
Printing and Engraving
During the early period of Spanish rule, education wasnot available to the majority of Filipinos.
•But on the second half of the 19th century, primary andsecondary schools were opened to Filipinos.
•Despite of this, many Filipino children are afraid to go toschool because the teachers were oftentimes brutal.
•With the rise of middle class, many Filipinos were able togo to colleges like San Juan de Letran, San Jose, and Ateneo Municipal.
•Later these Filipinos were admitted to University of Sto.Tomas where they finished courses in law, medicine,pharmacy, and surveying.
Before the Spaniards, Filipinos had no surnames.
Names were taken from physical appearance or any natural event or object.
Governor-General Narciso Claveria
issued a decree in 1849 allowing Filipinos to change their names.
Clavería issued a decree sending a long lists of Spanish and local surnames to the chiefs of the provinces. These were sent out to the different towns, and given to the locals who had no surnames. In many towns, all the names for people in that town began with the same letter of the alphabet.
The Spaniards as a rule did not intermarry with Filipinos.
The child of the marriage of a Filipino and a Spaniard was called Spanish Mestizo (mestizo Español)
Mestizo, toward the end of the Spanish period, was also used to refer to children of a male Chinese and a native woman, as in mestiza de Sangley.
Those who belonged to the pure indegenous stock were called Indios or Indias.
Intermarriage of native women and Spanish men or vise versa during the Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
They were two classes of Spaniards. The
who originally came from Spain to live and work in the Philippines; and the
who had been born and bred in the Philippines.
Wakes were held with playing cards, or with juego de prenda.
The ninth day after the death of a person was celebrated by staging duplo.
Duplo was a kind of debate in verse between two men or between a man, called bellaco, and a woman, called bellaca.
The loser was punished by making him/her sing, dance or simply let his/her palm hit lightly by an object or a piece of wood.
The social life in any Christian community during the Spanish times revolved around the church because the friar-curate was the all powerful person in the whole community.
Tribunal – The municipal building beside the church where the gobernadorcillo or capitan held office.
Fiestas were held in honor of the town patron saints. It gave the Filipinos a day or so od relaxation from their tolls in the farms.
Moro moro, comedia, zarzuela were plays which lasted for two to three nights were theatrical performances about the religious procession.
Before the Spanish times:
•Men and women were treated equally.Women during the Spanish times:
•Existed as dependents of men.
•Rights over property were curtailed.
•They could not sell property they inherited from their parents before their marriage without the consent of their husbands.
•The friar curates taught them to be very obedient to their husbands.
The friars taught them to prepare themselves for marriage.
•They were taught prayers and how to behave in public.
•They were taught how to use the fork, the spoon, andthe knife in formal dinners.
•They were not taught how to be independent.
•They lived to raise children.
•Treasurer of home; kept the money for the family.
Changes in Clothing
The barong, or what is popularly called today as barong Tagalog, began to be worn at this time by the ordinary menfolk.
Unlike the European and Spanish shirt that was tucked in, the barong was loosely worn to distinguish the natives from the foreigners.
The Filipino males wore putong.
The captain or gobernadorcillo wore a salakot with a silver top. They also wore coats over a long shirt and carried a gold-hilted cane as a sign of authority.
The well-do Filipinos wore slippers or shoes.
The poor Filipinos were barefooted.
The women still wore tapis and the patadyong.
They learned to wear the camisa in a Spanish way.
The camisa was made of fine material such as husi or pinya.
They also learned how to wear slippers and shoes.
The overall impact of cultural changes brought by Spain in Philippines may be classified as positive and negative.
Naming as "Filipinas" by king Philip II used to refer our country as one political unit with central government.
Christianity deepened spirituality and faith of Filipinos.
Because of the rule in education among Filipinos, the limited chance of education brought advances in travel and communication produced professionals and intellectual among middle class and through this, Filipinos became aware by asking reforms and right equal to Spaniards regardless of race and social status.
Pueblos/ town within geographic entity through plaza composition held and controlled by friars and gobernadorcillos.
Except for chosen ones, Filipinos had no rights and privilege of their own.
Through the colorful processions such as fiestas and pilgrimage, worsening of economic and political condition occur.
Religious traditions and activities kept Filipinos with long sufferings and obedient to friars.
Clothing styles and architecture of houses emphasized gap between the Indios and non Indios.
Intermarriage between Spanish men and native women resulted mestisajo widened the racism and gap between the indios and non indios.
concentration of well-preserved Antillean houses locally known as the bahay na bató, a mixture of pre-Filipino (or before the foundation of our country), Spanish, and Chinese architectural influences.
Bangguera: the ordinary Filipino house during the Spanish period where clean utensils are placed.
Balcon: the additional improvement in style of houses where sort of gallery of members of the family.
The word Filipino was originally used to describe the insulares born in the Philippines.
Many Spaniards married Filipino women. The descendants of these mixed marriages are known as
Religious societies were very active in the preparation of the fiesta and other religious events. The pista or fiesta give the Filipinos a day or a holiday, were even the poorest family in the town prepared plenty of food. Activities in the fiesta includes staging of plays called "moro-moro", "comedia", and later the Zarzuela that lasted in three nights; and the religious procession.
It was the Spain who gave us the idea of Lenten season. From Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday.
According to Antonio Pigafetta, cockfighting existed in the archipelago before the coming of Magellan.
But it was Spain who introduced cockfighting as legalized gambling.
Horse racing, popularly known as "the sport of kings" was introduced when the Manila Jockey Club was founded.
It was the past time of the governor generals, and other high officials, military and naval officers, society ladies, businessmen, and foreign merchants.
The Manila Lottery
Spain also introduced the lottery as legalized gambling purpose of government revenues.
It was established by Royal Decree of January 29, 1850 and was under management of Loteria Nacional.
The male jacket and bahag were replaced by Western coat and trousers.
The men began to wear hats instead of putong and used slippers and shoes for footwear.
The mestiza dress was worn by Filipino women married to Europeans and was definitely inspired by the Spanish dress. The mestiza dress was worn by Filipino women married to Europeans and was definitely inspired by the Spanish dress. They learned to use slippers, shoes, stockings, hair combs, mantillas and panuelos like the women in Spain.
Introduction of Latin Alphabet:
The introduction by Spain of the Latin alphabet and Spanish Language made
Filipinos closer to the Western world. This was an improvement of our lives because the West was the most advanced civilization in the world.
Only the Filipino upper classes and those who attended schooling learned how to speak Spanish. This is the reason why Spaniards did not make Spanish the national language of the Philippines.
Preserving of Philippine Languages:
The Spanish friars studied how to speak Tagalog to propagate the Christianity. By studying our native language, the friars preserved the Philippine native languages.
The early Spanish missionaries were the first to write the grammars and dictionaries of the Filipino languages. The first published Tagalog grammar entitled "Arte y reglas de la lengua tagala" was written by a Spanish Dominican, Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose. He was known as the "Demosthenes of the Tagalog Language".
The ancient Filipinos wrote on wood, bark, and leaves of trees but these materials did
not last. Thus, it pushed the Spanish colonizers and missionaries to learned how to publish a book.
The first Filipino press in the Philippines was established by the Dominicans in Manila in the year 1593. The publication was by means of old xylograhic method: printing by using engraved wood blocks.
The first Filipino printer was Tomas Pinpin, the "Prince of Filipino printers." He was also the first Tagalog author that published the book entitled "Librong pag-aaralan nang manga Tagalog nang uicang Castila" in Bataan in 1610.
The first newspaper was Del Superior Govierno / Of the Superior Government. It appeared from August 8, 1811 to February 7, 1812; published by Governor General Manuel Gonzales de Aguilar.
Spain introduced the European system of education in the Philippines. This was the formal schooling in different levels: elementary, secondary, and college. The first schools to established were parochial schools, with the Spanish missionaries as teachers. Thus, apart from learning how to read, write and count, a Filipino youth was taught the Catholic doctrine and prayers, Spanish history and languages.
The first college for boys was founded by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589. Originally called the College of Manila then changed to College of San Ignacio. They also founded the College of San Ildefonso in Cebu and the College of San Jose in Manila. In 1859, they took charge of Escuela Pia, a public school for boys in Manila and transformed it into the Ateneo de Manila.
The Dominicans who were equally good educators founded the College of Our Lady of the Rosary and was later change to College of Santo Tomas. In 1630, they also founded College of San Juan de Letran, the oldest ecisting college for boys in the Philippines.
The girls were given a special education during the Spanish settlement. Two kinds of schools for girls was established: the COLEGIO, a regular school and the BEATERIO, a combined school and nunnery. The schools for girls in Manila during Spanish period were the College of Santa Potenciana, College of Santa Isabel: the oldest existing college for girls, the Beaterio dela Compania de Jesus: founded by a Filipino nun, Sor Ignacia de Espiritu Santo was the only exclusively for Filipino girls and now called as St. Mary's College, Beaterio de Santa Catalina, Beateri de San Sebastian, College of Santa Rosa and the Assumption Convent School.
Economic changes by Spain:
New way of Land Ownership: the land was divided among the rich hacienderos, religious orders.
Encomendia System: An encomienda was money from tribute upon a conquered territory. It was given by the king to a Spanish colonizer as a reward for his services. But due to abuses, the system was abolished and the money went to the Spanish government.
Polo / Forced Labor: Filipinos from 16 to 60 y.o were forced to work for the government for weeks. This forced labor was called polo. A polista/forced laborer could get out of work by paying a sum of money or hiring somebody to do his polo.
Galleon Trade and Subsidy from Mexico: The svanish colonial government could not afford to pay for its expenses. So, the king sent royal subsidy/real situado from Mexican viceroy.
introduction of new plants and animals introduction of new industries
economic society and royal company
opening of the Philippines to trade and foreign investments
rise of banks
improvement in transportation and communication.
Philippine History and Government, Gregorio Zaide and Sonia Zaide
The Philippines: A Unique Nation, Sonia Zaide
Philippine History, Agoncillo&Mangahas
Malimban, Rosvelle M.
Reyes, Shannen Alice