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History and Theory in Education
Transcript of History and Theory in Education
History and Theory in Education
John Henry Newton was an English sailor and Anglican clergyman. Starting his career at sea at a young age, he became involved with the slave trade for a few
John Newton was born in Wapping, London, in 1725, the son of John Newton Sr., a shipmaster in the Mediterranean service and Elizabeth the only daughter of Simon Scatiff an instrument maker from London. Elizabeth was raised as a nonconformist Christian and died of tuberculosis in July 1732. Two years later John went to live in Aveley, the home of his father's new wife. At age 11 he went to the sea with his father. His father made plans for him to work at a sugar plantation in Jamaica. Instead he signed on with a merchant ship sailing to the Mediterranean Sea. In 1743, while
on the way to visit some friends, Newton was captured and pressed into the naval service by the Royal Navy. He became a midship aboard HMS Harwich. At one point, newton attempted to desert and was punished in front of the crew of 350 and was reduced to the rank of a common seaman.
Following that disgrace and humiliation, Newton initially contemplated murdering the captain and then committing suicide by throwing himself overboard. later while Harwich was en route to India, Newton transferred to Pegasus, a slave ship bound for West Africa. The ship carried goods to Africa, and traded them for slaves to be shipped to England and other countries.
Newton proved to be a continual problem for the crew of Pegasus. They left him in West Africa with Amos Clowe, a slave dealer. Clowe took him to the coast, and gave him to his wife Princess Peye, an African duchess. Newton was abused and mistreated along with her other slaves. It was this period that Newton later remembered as the time he was "once an infidel and libertine, a servant of slaves in West Africa. Early in 1748 he was recued by a sea captain, he made it to freedom. In 1750 he married his childhood sweetheart Mary Catlett in St. Margaret's Church.
He sailed back to England in 1748 aboard the merchant ship Greyhound, which was carrying beeswax and dryer's wood. The ship encountered a severe storm off the coast of Donegal and almost sank. He awoke in the middle of the night and finally called out to God as the ship filled with water. After he called out, the cargo came out and stopped up the hole, and the ship was able to drift to safety.
It was this experience later marked as the beginnings of his conversion to evangelical Christianity. From that point on, he avoided profanity, gambling and drinking. Although he continue to work in the slave trade, he had gained a considerable amount of sympathy for the slaves. He later said that his true conversion did not happen until some time later: " I cannot consider myself to have been a believer in the full sense of the word, until a considerable time afterwards."
Newton returned to Liverpool, Enlgand and,
partly due to the influence of his father's
friend Joseph Manesty, obtained a position
as first mate aboard the slave ship Brownlow,
bound for West Indies via the coast of Guinea.
While he was sick with a fever, he professed
his full belief in Christ and asked God to take
control of his destiny. He claimed it was the first time he felt totally at peace with God. Still he did not renounce the slave trade until later in his life. He only gave up seafaring and his active slave-trading activities in 1754, after suffering a severe stroke, but continued to invest his savings in Manesty's slaving operations.
In 1755 Newton became tide surveyor (tax collector) of the Port of Liverpool. He became well known as an evangelical lay minister. In 1757, he applied to be ordained as a priest in the Church of England, but it was more than seven years before he was eventually accepted. Such was his frustration during this period of rejection. On 29 April 1764 he received deacon's orders, and finally became a priest on 17 June. As curate of Olney Newton was partly sponsored by an evangelical philanthropist, the wealthy Christian merchant John Thornton. He soon became well known for his pastoral care. Newton was instrumental in converting Scott from a cynical career priest to a true believer, a conversion Scott related in his spiritual autobiography The Force Of Truth (1779). Newton then became one of only two evangelical pre-
achers in the capital, and he soon found himself gaining in popularity amongst the growing evangelical party. many young churchmen and others about their faith visited him and sought his advice. William Wilberforce, who had recently undergone a crisis of conscience and religious conversion was contemplating leaving politics sought his guidance. But he encourage Wilberforce to stay in Parliament and "serve God where he was".
In 1788, 34 years after he had retired from the slave trade, Newton broke a long silence on the subject with the publication of a forceful pamphlet ' Thoughts Upon the Slave Trade" in which he described the horrific conditions of the slave ships during the Middle Passage.
He said that " it will always be a subject of humiliating reflection to me, that I was once an active instrument in a business at which my heart now shudders. Newton became an ally of his friend William Wilberforce, leader of the parliament campaign to abolish the slave trade. Newton has been called hypocritical by some modern writers for continuing to participate in the slave trade while holding strong Christian convictions.
Writer and hymnist
In 1767, William Cowper, the poet, moved to Olney. He worshipped in the church and collaborated with Newton on a volume of hymns. The volume included Newton's well known hymns like: Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken, How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds and Amazing Grace etc.
Newton married his childhood sweetheart
in 1750. After her death in 1790 he published
Letters to a Wife, in which he expressed his grief. Newton died on 21 December 1807 in London. He was buried beside his wife in St. Mary Woolnoth and both were reinterred at Olney in 1893.
John Henry Newton
was a renowned English philosopher and sociologist known for applying evolutionary theory to the study of politics and ethics. He coined the term "survival of the fittest"
before it was used by Charles Darwin. Spencer
prided himself on having developed insights into
systemic social development that did not include
the posting of a transcendent diving being.
Life and Works
Herbert Spencer was born in Derby, England on April 27, 1820, the son of William George Spencer a respected school teacher. He was encourage to learn at an early age. He studied Biology and Mathematics, but did little reading. When he was 13 his father sent him to live with his uncle the Rev. Thomas Spencer.
Herbert developed some of his earliest political and economic ideas in response to his uncle's radical reformist views, including protest against the Poor Laws that mandated governmental support for the poor, and the Corn Laws that taxed grain. At 16 his uncle obtained for him a job as civil engineer on a railway an experience that deterred him from pursuing a future in professions where he felt bosses exploited the labor of overworked staff.
At 22 he was encourage to send a number of letters on politics to a radical newspaper called the Nonconformist. This was the beginning of his involvement in both journalistic media and sociopolitical rhetoric and the letters would later be published at Spencer's expense as "On The Proper Sphere of Government".
He continued in his vein by developing a rationalist philosophy concerning the natural laws of progress. It was here that Spencer began developing his views of civilization as a natural and organic product of social evolution rather than an artificial construct of man. He began investing all his time towards writing professionally. In 1852 he wrote an essay "the Development Hypothesis" that set forth his views on evolution species.
In 1855 Spencer wrote the Principles of Psychology,
which explored a theory of the mind as a biological
counterpart of the body rather that as an estranged
opposite. In this model human intelligence is some-
thing that has slowly developed as a response to
its physical environment. During one of his trips, his health underwent a decline from which it never fully recovered. He suffered from a constant tiredness that made his sleeping patterns short and erratic and
prevented him from long periods of work. He blames stress and under d e v e l o p e d lungs and likely the result of a growing d e p e n d e n c y on morphine & opium.
Despite his growing weariness, he continued to write. Fortunately Spencer had endeared himself to the intellectual community of England and was able to secure an influential audience for voicing his views.
In 1862 Spencer was able to publish First Principles, an exposition of his evolutionary theory of the underlying principles of all domains of reality. He defined evolution as the ongoing process by which matter is refined into an increasingly complex and coherent form as the main cannon of Spencer's philosophy. By this time he was achieving an international reputation of great respect.
In his sixties Spencer's health continue to decline. In 1882 he attended the funeral of Charles Darwin, breaking a rule of his never to enter a church. In 1884, his work Man versus the State was published outlining his political philosophy. In 1902, shortly before his death, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature. He continued to write throughout his life, often by dictation in his later years u n t i l he
succumbed to his
poor health at the
age of 83.
In his writings, Herbert Spencer attempts to create a system of human ethics based on the idea of natural human progress. He sees progress as something innate in human
human beings that happens over the course of time and in response to a changing environment. In Social sta- tistics he stresses that this evolution is not something that can be simply imposed on an individual by the state or any force.
Thus, one of the most important factors to human development is the free exercise of natural human faculties. Spencer believed that the first principle of ethics was "the law of equal freedom" which states that "Every man has freedom to do all that he wills, provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other man". He believed that each person possesses a moral sense to not hurt others in the pursuit of their own happiness and that individual freedom naturally leads one to respect the individuality of others.
He argued that one could not adopt a belief in God or the divine without scientific proof of such a being.
An essay entitled The Man versus the State, Spencer presents his view on politics based largely on "the law of equal freedom". Here the priority is to ensure that individuals are allowed to act in their own best interest without government interference. He believed in a "laissez-faire" government whose laws protect the liberty of individuals rather that infringing on them. Spencer attacked the practices of elected parliaments and representative governments who, elected by the majority, acted as tyrannies to the minority without the consent of any of their citizens. He said
that the government should give way to private enterprises
that were much more capable
efficient and knowledgeable in their respective fields.
However he s t i l l believed t h a t governments must exist to protect the weak from the strong and to administer justice when wrongs are committed.
Spencer's work were widely read during his lifetime, and by 1869 he was able to support himself solely on the profit of book sales. His political and economic philosophy based on the "law of equal liberty" proved most useful for political conservatives. American supreme court of justices support his theories. His two main areas of influence were the scientific evolutionary ideas of "survival of the fittest" and his political ideas of liberalism.
Communist such as Lenin's mentor George Plekhanov emphasized that prior to reading Karl Marx, one needed to read Spencer to understand the depersonalized nature of capitalism.
Pedro Poveda, priest, martyr and founder of the Teresian Association.
Pedro Poveda was born December 3, 1874 at Linares, Spain. He entered the seminary in Jaen in 1889, and then transferred to the seminary of Guadix, Grenada, where he had offered a scholarship. Ordained on April 17, 1897 at the age of 23. He taught at the seminary, continued his studies and received his licentiate in theology in Seville in 1900.
In 1902 he was assigned to preach a Lenten mission in Guadix to a group of people so poor they lived in caves. He began Christian doctrine classes, then a school for boys and girls, a dining room and evening classes for adults.
He collected funds for the project until, through envy and jealousy, he became the target of accusations and gossip, to the point of mistrust by his own bishop. Things became so difficult that the young priest chose to leave, Guadix quietly and heartbroken.
His time in Gaudix had impressed Pedro with the need for education for the poor. He began to published articles and pamphlets on the question of the professional formation of teachers. In 1911 Pedro founded the Saint Teresa of Avila Academy, the foundation of Institucion Teresiana. He joined the Apostolic Union of Secular Priests in 1912, wrote on the need for more teachers and opened teacher training centers.
In 1914 he opened Spain's first uni-versity residence for women in Madrid.
He named his organization the Teresian Association, under the protection of St. Teresa of Jesus. In 1922 he was appointed to the Central Board Against Illiteracy and continued to work with the Teresian Association. I received papal approval i 1924 and then spread to Chile and Italy.
When the Civil War broke out, he was identified as an enemy by those who wished to dechristianize the schools. Before his death he wrote, "Now more than ever we must study the lives of the first Christians so as to learn form them how to behave in times of persecution. See how they obeyed the Church how they confessed Christ, how they prepared for martyrdom, how they prayed for their persecutors and forgave them. . ."
At dawn, on July 28th, 1936 a group of paramilitaries came to search his house. Fr. Pedro identified himself. "I am a priest of Christ". He was shot by firing squad for his faith and for the cause of Christian Education.
He was beatified by Pope
John Paul II at St. Peter's
Basilica on October 10
1993 together with Victoria Diez a member of the Teresiana Association. He was cononized on May 4, 2003 in Madrid Spain. His work is continued by the many men, women and youth on the 4 continents where the Teresian Ass. is.
humanitarian and educational task among the marginalized and the needy. He was. . . a teacher of the Christian life and of the relationship between faith and knowledge, convinced that Christians must bring essential values and commitment to building a world that is more just and mutually supportive. His life ended with the crown of martyrdom.
St. Peter Poveda, grasping the importance of the role of education in society, under- took the important