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Autonomy, Modernization, & Conflict in the Modern Middle East

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Jessica Friday

on 16 March 2015

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Transcript of Autonomy, Modernization, & Conflict in the Modern Middle East

Autonomy, Modernization, & Conflict
in the Modern Middle East

Israel
Arab Nationalism
Arab-Israeli Conflict
Iran
Zionism
Balfour Declaration (1917)
Holocaust
Arab Objections
Israel founded 1948
1. British gov't pledges to help esta.
national home for Jews in Palestine
2. Brit. gov't would not undermine
rights or status of Jews choosing
to live in new state
3. Brit. gov't would not harm the civil
& religious rights of Palestine's "existing
non-Jewish communities"
1. Arabs occupy 9/10 of the land
to become new state
2. No Arab voice in creation of
new Jewish state
3. Fails to mention the political
rights of non-Jewish Palestinians
Displaces Palestinian Arabs to Jordan, Lebanon, & throughout Mid. East
Arab nat.'lists (from Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon) & Zionists erupt in violence
Israeli victory - superior numbers, better organized, & supported by West
Palestinian Arabs forced into refugee camps...
1954 - Gamel Abdel Nasser leads Egyptian coup
1. Resist. to prolonged Brit. rule
2. Army humiliated by Israeli defeat
Nasser leads Arab nationalist movement
1. Seeks to free Nile Valley from British rule
2. Promotes modernization & a United Arab Republic
3. Stands up to West by nationalizing foreign-owned/controlled
industries & the Suez Canal
4. Strengthens ties to USSR which contributes technology, weapons,
and construction of the Aswan Dam
5. Expels Soviets when they try to exert to much influence
Egypt
Palestinian Liberation Organization (1964)
1. Founded by Yasser Arafat
2. Umbrella org. for all clubs, societies, & paramilitary groups serving Palestinian Arabs
3. Based on principle that Palestinians must fight to regain homeland
Strategic location & economic importance as a key source of petroleum
Contradictions between the urge to modernize & a desire to preserve traditions
Arab-Israeli conflict as a destabilizing force
Competition between US & USSR for influence in region during Cold War
Persistence of dictatorship, authoritarian rule, or human rights abuses...
What will come of the revolutions and uprisings in the region?
Lebanon
1956 - Israel, Britain, & France try to seize the Suez Canal
US/USSR force Israel, Britain, France to withdraw to avoid serious armed conflict
Israel must return Gaza & Sinai while Egypt made no concessions
Six Day War (1967)
Syria as most radical Arab nationalist state
Egyptian military blockades Israeli access to Gulf of Aqaba
Pre-emptive attack by Israel on Syria & Egypt
Israel captures Sinai & Gaza from Egypt, Golan Heights from Syria, West Bank from Jordan, E. Jerusalem from Palestinians
Yom Kippur War (1973)
Egypt & Syria attack Israel in order to regain lands lost in 1967
Extremely costly for all involved, threatens global stability, increased world oil prices
UN negotiates a cease-fire
Results in increased US involvement in region
1978 - Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt agrees to recognize Israel in exchange for the return of Sinai Peninsula
Camp David Accords (1979)
1993/94 - Israelis & Palestinians signed historic peace treaties
2001 - Peace efforts collapse
Patterns of Development
2011 - Palestinians seek recognition from United Nations
Turkey
Ottoman Empire
European Imperialism
Ottoman Empire dissolves after World War I
Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Ataturk) - establishes the Republic of Turkey on the Anatolian Peninsula
Kemal seeks to westernize and modernize Turkey
Remaining Ottoman lands divided up as MANDATES of France & Britain
Full transcript