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Ling101

lang and ling module 1
by

Natasha Smethurst

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Ling101

LING 101 Linguistics-evidence based
discipline. what is language? what is linguistics? 'sucks' -verb + 0 =(slang) meaning she's a rotten person
-verb + NP = meaning she sucks something
words +grammar+world knowledge= complex and precise communication system does any other species have anything like language? -we need to compare features of human language with communication system of another species
-animals can send signals about food, predators, mating,aggression
-animals use various modalities eg)sound, smell, electrical impulses, movement
-some key features of human language 1)abritrariness 2)displacement 3)structure dependence complex rules try explaining why we feel the structure of these sentences is quite different 1) his mother made him a sweater
2)his mother made him an idiot so where did language come from then? -is it an entirely different faculty?
-by standard evolutionary theory, lang must have come from somewhere ie. something pre existing in the animal world
-but Noam Chomsky says human lang has to be an entirely different faculty
-it's also entirely separate from any other human ability
-we're all equally good at processing and understanding lang
-Chomsky beleives we have a lang organ what happens when we acquire lang? -your 1st lang isn't explicitly taught to you
-we acquire lang not learn it
-chomsky beleives kids do not imitate and parents don't
teach lang
-corrections don't do any good what linguistics isn't -it's not solely the study of lang change, it's not
prescriptive in approach-it's descriptive what does description mean? -statements about generalisations or regularities currently occurring in lang useage
-we formalize this info into GRAMMAR
- a full grammatical description of the lang draws upon the regularities of many levels of language levels of language -sound-phonetics. a descrption of the articulation
of speech sounds eg) bath , butter
-articulation of consonants and vowels of a lang
-grammar
-morphology-a description of the properties of words eg)
some words change their endings I eat/ she eats (person)
chair/chairs (number)
sneeze/sneezed (tense)
new words: web + log= blog -syntax: riles for the combination of words into sentences -semantics or meaning: the study of systems of words in
a lang and the way meaning is structured so that groups of words can be seen related to: synonyms: want/desire , clinic/surgery
hyponyms: parent:mother, father
furniture: table chair, desc linguistics is scientific -human lang seems to be a differnt kind of
communication system from any other naturally
ocurring one
-we acquire it fast, and we process lang fast
-it's difficult to be explicit about the rules we're using,
but we have very clear intuitions about what's acceptable
and what is not
-linguistics is descriptive
-it's a scientific attempt to explain many facts about lang-how it
works grammatically, how we understand and use it, how we
acquire it morphology -morphology lies at the level of grammar
-its the study of the internal structure of words
-words are made up of morphemes
-morphemes are minimal units which we find occurring repeatedly with more or less the smae form, and more or less the same meaning some egs: boy-s, wall-s, morpheme-s the 's' added to the end of the noun
indicates plurality levels of lang linguistics is the study of language at 3 levels:
-sound
-grammar
-meaning free and bound some morphemes can stand on their own eg) bread, magic, hybrid other morphemes must always be attached to another
morpheme eg) in , s, ly content (lexical) and function morphemes -there's 2 different types of free morphemes:
-content morphemes aka lexical morphemes are
words we can look up in a dictionary eg) hunger, stray, lamp -function morphemes include: -prepositions eg) on, by, with, for, to
-articles eg) the, a, these, those
-conjunctions eg) and, but, because additive process -we usually think of morphemes as forms
which we add together eg) un-help-ful, un-achiev-able
pour-ed, walk-ed -same or similar form occurs regularly
with the same meaning stems - a root and affic together= a stem root- believable
stem- believ-able
word- un-believ-able not always regular what about... men, children, oxen, milenia, sheep derivational morphemes -derivational morphemes result in a new
dictionary word eg) critic-ize -ize turns a noun into a verb (critic-ize
-ize turns adjectives into verbs (final-ize)
ly turns adjectives into adverbs (slow-ly) inflectional morphemes -inflectional morphemes have a grammatical
funtion, tense, number, case plural- window-s
posessive- teacher's or teachers'
comparative- old-er
superlative- old-est
present- talk-s
past- talk-ed allomorphs -sometimes morphemes occur with the same meaning
but their shape, perhaps for ease of pronunciation cat-s, dog-z, hors-iz -the same meaning (plural) but a different
phinetic realisation simple and complex -words which are morphologically simple and
consist of just one morphems eg) ant, kitchen, triangle -words which are morphologically complex consist
of 2 or more morphemes ants-free lexical root + bound inflectional suffix
distasteful-bound derivational prefix + free lexical root
+ bound derivational suffix forming new words -we can borrow words from other langs, through translation-
loan translation/calques rule productivity -some of the rules that can take place to make new morphemes are productive so can be used freely. eg the suffix able seems to be able to be joined with any verb to derrive and adjective (breathable), (passable), (adaptable) -others can't be used freely eg) we can say unhappy but not unsad -there tends to be a continuum-some affixes are productive, some aren't making new words -words can be borrowed, words can be added together or blended to form new words -compounds-when 2 or more words join together to form a new word. In eng theres's many combinations eg) adj +adj-bittersweet, n+v-spoonfeed, v+v-sleepwalk, n+n-girlfriend compounds - when 2 joining words are in the same category the compound will remain in this category (girlfriend, Icy-cold)
-in eng the rightmost word in the compound is the 'head' of the compound that tends to be the word which determines the overall meanin of the compound and its grammatical category different types of compounds -a compound meaning is not necessarily the sum of its parts -endocentric compounds- the meaning is transparent from the form anf the rightmost component tends to identify the meaning eg dogfood-kind of food, caveman-kind of man - exocentric compounds-the meaning does not follow from the meaning of the parts eg) greenbottle isn't a type of bottle but an insect. Meaning isn't predictable -compounds have to be seen as words in their own right
-some of them can have word stress which is different in the compound to the phrase which is not a compound think blckbird vs black-bird, make-up vs make up derrivation derivation forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base through the addition of an affix. here's some egs: egs where a suffix -er has been added to a verb to form a noun woth the meaning 'one who does X': sell=sell-er, write+write-er, sing=sing-er other ways of forming new words -conversion-nouns can also be used as verbs without changing its form or using affixes eg the bottle (N) , the ban bottled his wive (V) -acronyms- these are words that are derrived from initials of several words. They can be pronounced as spelling indicates eg) AIDS, UNESCO, each letter can be sounded individually BBC, UCLA -initialisms is we spell letters as we say it eg) HIV -back formation-sometimes incorrect morphological analysis can lead to new words. peddle derrived from peddler on the mistaken assumption that -er was the agentive suffix and edit formed through editor -word manufacture of coinage-especially in trade and advertising new words are made up from product names and sometimes brand names come to be used as generic names kodac, teflon, hoover, kleenex, sellotape-generification -abbreviations can become lexicalized (forms of words in their own right) telly and fax are clipped forms of the original -eponyms are words derived from proper names come to be words in their own right eg)sandwich, jumbo, cardigan -blends= 2 words which can be combined to form blends breakfast + lunch= brunch they're similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted so they are less than full compounds - reduplication doesn't occur in english but is a process of forming new words by doubling an entirely free morpheme riff raff, flip, flop, ben ben morphological types -langs can be classified according to the way in which they put morphemes together to form words
-there's 2 basic types analytic and synthetic. Synthetic has several subtypes analytic-made up of sequences of free morphemes, so each word consists of a single morpheme. They don't use prefixes or suffixes to compose words synthetic-these langs use affixes or bound morphemes that are attached to other morphemes meaning that words can be made up of several elements which particular elements will add meaning to the root. grammar what is grammar? -for most grammar is the study of morphology
and syntax: -morphology is the study of the structure of words
eg unhappiness= un (prefix)-happi(root)-ness(derrivational suffix)
horses= horse(root)-s(inflectional suffix) -syntax-the study of how words are arranged to form sentences: eg he is leaving soon= declaritive, he is subject pronoun, is is the auxiliary verb, leaving is the main or lexical verb and soon is the adverb. subject pronoun has to be first unless it's an interrogative (qtn) -phonology is the study of how speech sounds function contrastively to convey differences of meaning Pin (voiceless sound of P), Bin (voiced sound of B where vochal chords move)
-Noam Chomsky extends the scope of the tesm 'grammar@ to inclide in addition to syntax:
-phonology the study of the sound system (not production of sound which is phonetics)
-semantics-study of linguistic meanings -goes beyond literal meaning. grammar phonology syntax semantics according to chomsky prescriptive vs descriptive grammar -prescriptive-the 'correct' and 'incorrect', 'good' and 'bad'
'should' and 'ought'
-prepositional rule: a sentence should never end in a preposition eg 1)this is the house whixh he lives in (in is a locative preposition)
2) this is the house in which he lives -for the prescriptivist 1) is incorrect and 2) is correct and what
pople should use -descriptive-varieties of grammar, actual use of grammar,
'do' and 'should do' looks at what people do use not should use
-split infinitive rule:you should never split the infinitive of a verb eg) 1) I want you to try really
2)I want you really to try
3)I want you really to really try (really is an lly adverb) -descriptivists study 3) a form that is actually used, but which
is prescriptively incorrect because we put the adverb 'really' before the verb 'try'. We split the infinitive. (the 'to' is the infinitive part of the verb noun phrases -any sequence of words in which the central element
is a noun (head) also a noun without other words: eg) [The children] are playing in the park
[Children] are playing in the park -structure of NP: the difficult(premodifier)patiend(head)in the waiting room(postmodifier) other terms:
B-R premodifier postmodifier
UCL pre head string post-head string
OTH pre head dependents post head dependents premodifiers:
-determiners-articles, 'quantity' words, numerals, pronouns eg)THE man, A pie, MANY books, ONE person, FIRST prize, MY dog, THIS tree -adjectives NEW houses, OLD church -Nouns
-participles
-genitive BRICK walls
LOOMING crisis, BROKEN promises
GENTLEMAN'S club -pistmodifiers:
-prepositions
-relative clauses
-infinitives
-participles
-adjectives students IN taxis
the car WHICH sue used to drive
a dog food TO tempt fussy eaters
children THROWING stones
boys KEEN on cricket verb phrases -any sequence of words in which the central
element is a main verb(head) also a verb without
other words: My daughter [cleaned the windows]
Tim [smiled] -structure of VP: deliberately(premodifier)poisoned(head)her
husband (postmodifier) premodifiers:
-negative forms
adverbs
-auxiliaries NOT go to school, NEVER washes the dishes PURPOSEFULLY hid the money BRUTALLY murdered the girl HAS BEEN defeated, WILL BE leaving postmodifiers:
-Noun phrases: monotransitive: bought A BOOK ditransitive: gave THE KEY TO THE BOY
complex transitive: found THE BOY FRIENDLY -adjectives
-adverbs
-prepositions
-clauses became ANGRY COPULAR VERBS
sounds GREAT speaks RAPIDLY stood ON the patio realised THAT nothing has changed verbs -finite and non finite verbs:
finite= tensed eg: she SPEAKS quickly (present)
He BROKE the glass (past) -non finite-untensed eg: they aimed to ARRIVE late (infinitive)
EXHAUGHSTED, she left early (past participle)
RISING to a challenge is difficult (present participle) -modal verbs: express-permission, obligation,
ability, prediction eg) you MAY travel with us (permission)
You SHOULD attend regularly (obligation) adjective phrases -any sequence of words in which the central
element is an adjective (head) also an adjective
without other words eg) Jill is[very smart], Sam is[weak], Dan is [particularly tall],
the children are [unwell] structure of Adjp: very(premodifier adverb)hungry(head adj)for a baby
(postmodifier prepositional phrase) good-absolute form of adj, better-comparative
form of adj, best-superlative form of adj
-premodifiers:
-adverbs VERY naughty, UNBELIEVABLY crowded, QUITE long postmodifiers:
-prepositions
-infinitives
-adverbs
-clauses large FOR A FROG, afraid OF THE DARK too sick TO EAT good ENOUGH better THAN HE THOUGHT, (comp)
angry THAT HIS SHIRT WAS STAINED prepositional phrases -some grammarians define ppas any sequence
of words in which the central element is a
preposition(head), other grammarians (eg
Burton Roberts)don't view the preposition as
the head because it cannot sland alone like
NPS, VPs and ADJps eg) the house is[beside the lake]
* The house is [beside] structure of pp: back(premodifier adverb)through(head-preposition)the tunnel
(postmodifier-noun phrase) premodifiers:
-nouns
-adjectives
-prepositions in LONDON, concerning THIS ISSUE, with A SMILE), on THE TABLE as INFERIOR from UNDER THE BRIDGE adverb phrases -any sequence of words in which the central
element is an adverb(head)also an adverb
without other words: eg)he drives[rather carelessly], she visits[often],
he drives [really recklessly], they will leave [soon] structure of advp's: too(premodifier adverb)quickly(head adv)for comfort
(postmodifier prepositional phrase) postmodifiers:
-prepositions
-clauses too quickly FOR COMFORT, unfortunatelyFOR HIM, rapidly THROUGH THE GATE, recklessly accross THE ROAD more quickly THAN WE HAD ANTICIPATED clauses -subordinate clause: describes a clause that
occurs within another, larger (matrix or subordinate clause) matrix clause sc1 sc2 I said that I believe he's gone into town -every clause must contain a main verb
-MC is not subordinate to any other clause therefore it's equi-
valent to a sentence
-superordinate: describes the relationship of any larger clause
(matrix or subordinate) to a smaller clause (subordinate clause) finite clause -a clause that carries a tensed verb form: eg) they TRAVEL abroad every year, they TRAVELLED abroad last year non-finite clause -a clause which contains a verb form that isn't marked for tense infinitive: she wants [to go home]
bare infinitive: Tom saw [Jill leave the club]
past participle: [postponed for 6 months], the show was at last
about to take place
present participle: [caring for a sick person] is very demanding I believe he said that she wanted to go to town MC SC1 SC2 SC3 -beleive is the main verb in MC, present tense finite verb
-said is main verb of SC1 finite clause past tense
-wanted is the main verb of SC2, past tense finite clause
-go is the main verb of SC3, non finite clause MC finite clause (beleive)
SC1 finite clause (said)
SC2 finite clause (wanted)
SC3 non finite clause (to go) finite clauses: -If/weather clause: IF the train leaves on time, I'll visit you
He asked WHETHER Fred was coming home. -that clause: John said THAT he travels alone. -relative clause: The woman WHO sings in the choir is ill. clauses -Nominal relative clauses: ('nominal' label comes from the NP the thing What he dislikes most is her temper the thing(NP)which he dislikes most(relative clause) is her temper. Beware of implicit items: Bill found the curry too hot
Bill found the curry TO BE too hot

I liked the film you chose
I liked the film THAT you chose

The book you recommended was great
The book WHICH you recommended was great keeping the meaning the same but changing the grammatical
structure of the sentence is called paraphrasing Semantics -semantics is the study of the meanings
of words and sentences -pragmatics is another type of language meaning can you pass the salt? (interrogative) -semantic meaning: do you have the ability to pass the salt
-pragmatic meaning:request to pass the salt the bull is in the field (declarititve) -semantic meaning:description of a state of affairs
-pragmatic meaning: warning
-semantics have a literal meaning, a referential meaning and a denotational/extensional meaning Jack is bald (declaritive)
Jack-proper noun, is bald-predicate ie tell you something about the subject of the sentence.
-proper noun- if you're picking out specific or individual things-referent
-predicate-set of bald things-extension is the extension of the predicate sense relations or lexical relations -more to semantics than reference... there's sense
-reference is external world and relates words to context
-sense is the relationship of words to each other -hyponymy, -antonymy, -homonymy, -polysemy
-synonomy, -meronolmy
-hyponomy is the relation of inclusion animal cat fish dog bird poodle, shitzu spaniel superordinate term;hypernym hyponyms different types of ^ hyponyms diff types of ^ -antonomy is the relation of opposition
-Binary or complementary antonyms: positive of
one term implies the negative of the other. Nothing in between:
eg dead/alive
-gradable antonyms:terms arranged along a continuum eg hot/cold (warm, tepid, cool) -reverse antonyms : one term describes movement in 1 direction and the other rerm describes movement in the opposite direction: eg) push/pull, up/down -converse antonyms:describe a relation between 2 entities from alternate viewpoints eg) own/belong -homonymy:unrelated senses of the same word eg)lap (circuit of a course), (part of a body) -polysemy:related senses of the same word drive (drive a nail) (drive a car) -synonymy: different words with the same or similar meaning eg) stubborn or obstinate, big or large -meronomy:part whole relationship between words eg) page is a meronym of a book: page is the meronym and book os the holonym preface, index, chapter transivity and meronomy -only some meronymic relations
are transitive: 'nail' is a meronym of toe and
'toe' is a meronym of soot, so
'nail' is a meronym of foot
(we can say a foot has nails!) -other neronymic relations are non transitive: 'tap' is a meronym of bath and
'bath' is a meronym of bathroom but
'tap' is not a meronym of bathroom'
(we cant's say a bathroom has a tap) -don't confuse meronomy with metonomy
-metonomy describes raferential starategy in which a speaker
refers to an entity by naming something associated with it: eg)crown used to refer to monarchy
two uniforms arrived on the scene (2 uniformed police
officers) entailment and transitivity and hyponomy transitivity animal dog poodle hypernym hyponym hyponym - the transitivity of hyponymy is the basis of entailment 'the man is grooming the poodle' entails 'the man is grooming the animal' (the entailment because of hyponomy of poodle and animal) componential analysis -semantic components/semantic primitives
-semantic components and lexical relations
1)hyponomy
eg) woman: [female] [adult]
[human]

spinster: [female] [adult]
[human] [unmarried] spinster (hyponym) woman (hypernym) -componential analysis of hyponomy:
all the semantic components of the hypernym
must be contained within the hyponym -definition of hyponomy using semantic components
A lexical item P can be defined as hyponym of Q if
all the features of Q are contained in the feature sp-
ecification of P (saeed 1999)
-2) multiple incompatibility-another lexical relation husband [male] [adult] [married]
spinster [female] [adult] [unmarried]
wife [female] [adult] [unmarried]
bachelor [male] [adult] [unmarried]
multiple incompatibility -definition of multi compatibility using semantic
components: Lexical items P Q R... are incompatibl if
they share a set of features but differ from each other
by one or more contrasting features (saeed 1997) Binary features - it's less lumbersome if we use plus (+) or minus (-)
in conjunction with semantic components instead of...
wife [married] spinster [unmarried]
we can use...
wife [+married] spinster [-married] redundancy features -it's more economical if certain semantic components
can have redundancy rules attached to them instead
of... wife [+adult] [+married] [-male] we can use... wife [+married] [-male] -female things are never [+female] always [-male] -married->adult (redundancy rule) (we automatically
assume the person is adult) semantic change -semantic change is meaning change in time
-some surprises: bonnet (a man's hat)
pretty (ingenious)
treacle (wild animal) the brackets is the original meaning
of the word. reasons for meaning change: -emergence of new sciences and technologies physics (quantum mechanics): flavour, colour, charm, mass, energy
compurers: mouse, cookies, hardware, net, window
*terms made to assume different meaning when used in these
subject areas -new social and political structures sexuality:gay, queer, queen
environment: green -other reasons-regional variation, contact between
people and languages etc types of semantic change -extension-broadening of a word's
meaning
-narrowing-restriction of a word's
meaning
-shift-application to new domains

-figurative use-analogy or likeness eg) bird (nestling) eg)meat (food) eg)navigator (applies to planes/cars) eg) bitter (biting) -amelioration-meaning of word improves eg) queen (OE: woman) -pejoration-meaning of word deteriorates eg) brothel (ramshackle house) acquisition of semantics lexical acquisition -children learn 14 words a day for the first six years
indicating they have such receptive brains
-this amounts to 5,000 words a year
-normally developing ND children produce their
first word between 11 and 12 months, in downs
syndrome children DS first words are spoken at 18
months
-downs syndrome is a learning disability/mental retardation
(IQ below 70)they have an extra chromosome 21 causing
physical and cognitive defects ie) heart problems
and learning disability.
-ND kids produce 10 words by 18 months and DS kids
produce ten words by 27months of delay-much longer.
-NS and DS children have a productive vocabulary
of 50 words at 19 and 37 months respectively.
The delay becomes wider over time over extension and under extension=2 mistakes -over extension-kid applies a word to people and things
with certain physical attributes eg)shape
ball->edam cheese, globe, round cushion
-under extension:child applies a word to one specific
person or object and not to similar people and objects.
boy->male sibling
comb->mummy's comb

*syntactic bootstrapping:the use of syntactic knowledge
to acquire meaning.
-children can use the syntactic context in which they encounter
a word for the first time to guide their acquisition of the word's
meaning. example:
mother utters: The cup is on the table
The child knows that 'cup' is a noun so the word 'cup' must have
an object meaning. (child used syntact means to direct the meaning of a word it doesn't know. The two word stage -around the age of 19 months and usually once they have around 50 words in their spoken vocab ND kids begin to
put words into sentences
-DS kids are usually 37 months of age before they have a productive vocabulary of 50 words. The 2 word stage is
thus significantly delayed in these children
-these 2 word utterances can express a variety of meaning
relations. These relations include: agent + action= daddy kick
action + affected= throw stick
agent +affected= me ball
action + location= sit chair
entity + location= spoon table
Possessor+ possession= daddy coat
entity + attribute= kitty big
nomination= that cake
recurrence = more ball
negation= no ball compare Timmy at 15 and
23 months.......
context: Timmy is pushing
his toy car 15 mnths- T:car
M: nice car
T: go
M: where's it going

23 mnths: T: car go
M: It' going very fast
Mother uses morphological and syn-
tactical detail providing a model of
how sentences can be fleshed out. She
tries to expand his utterances semantic disorders: -children and adults can have problems with semantics
of language
-In the case of DS children the DEVELOPMENT of
semantics is disordered (a developmental semantic
disorder means they never had semantics to begin with
-in adults with previously normal semantics, a stroke,
brain tumour or head injury may result in an acquired
disorder of semantics. (stroke = hemorrhage or clot stroke)
-an acquired disorder of semantics may manifest itself
in problems accessing and retrieving words + their meanings.
-anomia: an adult can end up withthis. They can't pull out
from their mental list of words which they need to use and may say some thing similarly related. a number of possible scenarios 1)the lexical entry for a word may be lost or stored
at the wrong location
2)the lexical entry for the wprd may be intact and stored
at the correct loaction but an adult may be unable to access it.
3) The lexical entry may be accessed but the word cannot
be retrieved from the lexicon- essentially a catalogue of a
given language's words scenario1= the adult will not understand the word or be able
to produce it
scenario2= the adult will not understand the word or be able
to produca it
scenario3=the adult will understand the word but will not
be able to produce it In the absence of target word production 1)semantic paraphasia 2)neologism 3)circumlocution -semantic paraphasia: this type of error occurs when the
substituted word is related in meaning to the targe word.
Found in aphasia eg)" I would be able to hear you better with this eye (ear).."
" Well the first one lived-uh-down in the north (south)..." patient
is referring to his son who lives in florida -neologism: this type of error occurs when the target word
is substituted by a non-word (neo-new, logism-word). neologisms occur in aphasia (jargon aphasia) and schizophrenic language eg) "I sort of BAWKED the whole thing up"
"SPLIT-KIPPERED) (simultaneously alive in Lancashire and dead in Yorkshire -Circumlocution: this isn't a lexical error as such, rather the
verbal behaviour that occurs when a speaker is unable to
produce a target word or is trying to avoid certain words.
-It is found in Aphasia particularly when there's a pronounced
word finding difficulty (anomic aphasia)
-It also occurs in stammering(stuttering) when the stammerer
is trying to avoid a certain word eg) officer of the law for 'policeman' Pragmatics -the study of language from the point
of view of the users...the constraints they
encounter in using language in social
interaction, and the effects their use of language
has on the other participants in an act of communication back to semantics/pragmatics distinction A:what lovely weather we're having. (said on a stormy day) -semantic meaning= description of weather conditions
-pragmatic meaning=ironic utterance key component-CONTEXT 4 types -physical=where the conversation takes place, what or who is present,
what actions are taking place
-epistemic=noun from epistemology a branch of philosophy which is the theory of knowledge. Background knowledge shared by speakers and listeners.
-linguistic=what has already been said/not said in the conversation; how the utterance is produced eg)intonation/stress
-social=social relationship/distance between speakers and listeners-don't use the same register with everyone: there's diff levels of formality
-in previous example:physical context central in determining pragmatic meaning. central ideas in pragmatics 1)speech act theory (Austin, Seale)
2)co-operative principle (Grice) speech act theory -speaking constitutes an 'act'-you perform an act every
time you speak
-speech can have a number of functions:
*convey information
*ask questions
*give warnings ('it's Thursday')
(What day is it?')
('what day is it?) speech acts can be performed directly of indirectly Direct speech acts -literal meaning is intended eg) do you smoke? (interrogative)
(context:medical consultation)
eg) Pop idol is on at 7 o clock (informative function)
(context:in response to a question) Indirect speech acts -literal meaning not intended eg)do you smoke (context= friend's party)
intended meaning:offering a cigarette
eg)pop idol is on at 7 o clock (context its nearly 7 and the news is on
intended meaning:request to switch channels -Therefore every utterance has different levels of meaning-Austin eg) can you shut the door -literal meaning 'are you able to...' (question of ability)
Austin refers to this as the locutionary act which is the basic literal meaning of the utterance
-intended meaning-'shut the door' (command to shut the door)
Austin calls this the illocutionary act
-effect upon listener-listener shuts the door (uptake of command
Austin referred to this as the perlocutionary act. If no-one acted then there's no perlocutionary act. why perform speech acts? -politeness considerations
-humorous effects politeness considerations -eg) A: is the food okay?
B:no it stinks vs B: the potatoes are ok -the second response indirect;y implies the food isn't entirely to their liking but is more polite than the first utterance Humorous effects -eg) A: do you want more cake
B: do I look like a pig? - we always use indirect speech acts.. Various felicity conditions attach to the performance of speech acts-Searle.
-Felicity conditions are the conditions that stipulate who must say and do what in certain circumstances eg)you are under arrest, I baptise this child, I pronounce you man and wife -all these utterances require felicity conditions
eg)policeman, suspicion a crime has been
comitted, a child and a priest, a willing
man and woman that will undergo marriage
all have to be uttered by particular people in
particular contexts. co-operative principle-Grice 1975 -make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose of the talk exchange in
which you are engaged. 4 maxims Quantity, quality, relation, manner -Quality=do not say that which you believe to be false or that
for which you lack adequate evidence. Liars violate this principle. eg) AS FAR AS I KNOW, they're married
I MAY BE MISTAKEN, but I think they're married
I'M NOT SURE THIS IS RIGHT, but I think they're married -each 'hedge' indicates our wish to adhere to the quality maxim. -quantity: make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange;do not make your contribution more informative than is required. eg)TO CUT A LOGN STORY SHORT, it was an exiting trip
I WON'T BORE YOU WITH ALL THE DERAILS, but it was an exiting trip -relation-be relevant eg) I DON'T KNOW IF THIS IS IMPORTANT, but some of the files are missing
NOT TO CHANGE THE SUBJECT, but is this related to the budget -manner:avoid obscurity of expression and ambiguity, be brief and orderly eg)THIS MAY BE A BIT CONFUSED, but I remember being in a car -most people try to adhere to these 4 maxims Apparent violations of the maxims A:is she in? B:the light's not on -steps in reasoning
1) on its surface B's response appears to be irrelevant to A's qtn
(apparent violation of the relation maxim)
2)assume that B is still adhering to the co-operative principle
3) A uses this assumption to derive the conversational implicature that A is probably not in further example A: I hope you brought the bread and cheese
B: I brought the bread -B implicates that they did not bring the cheese. appears to violate the quantity maxim looking as though it is an under informative response. different types of implicature -generalised conversationsl:no special knowledge or context
required in order to derive implicature eg)I was sitting in a garden and a child looked over the fence -implicature-both the garden and the child are not the speakers. If they were the speaker should have used 'my' (quantity
maxim). Implicature attached to indefinate article 'a'

-scalar:no special context or knowledge (a subtype of generalised conversational implicature) eg) I'm stufying linguistics and I've completed some of the modules -implicature-not all of the modules have been completed.
If they had the speaker should have used 'all' (quantity maxim)
Implicature attached to 'some'.
-Particularised conversational:special knowledge or context required to derive implicature eg) A:coming to the party tonight?
B: My parents are visiting -implicature-B's response appears to violate the relevance maxim. A assumes B is being co-operative and uses his knowledge of parents and parties to derive the implicature that b will not be coming to the party.
-conventional: implicatures don't depend on the co-operative principle and maxims, but attach to individual lexical items eg) Even John came to the party -Implicature:an implicature of 'contrary to expectation' is conveyed through the use of 'even' Deixis -deixis:deictic terms describe entities within
the wider social, linguistic or spaciotemporal
context of an utterance 5 types: 1)personal
2)social
3)temporal
4)spatial
5)discourse -personal deixis= pronouns 'I' 'you' I plan to leave today -the referent of the first person pronoun'I' can only be est-
ablished once the speaker of the utterance is known you will receive notification soon -the referent of the second person pronoun 'you' depends on the context of the utterance
-social deixis: tu/vous (french), du/sie (german) comment applez-vous? Wie heiBen Sie? -the pronouns 'vous' and 'sie' pick out an addressee that is of higher social standing than the speaker or is unfamiliar to the speaker
-although social attributes of addressee are not encoded in distinct lexical items in english(unlike french and german), there are many examples in english of how social attributes of addressees can influence personal deixis: mother's utterance to daughter 'sally must be well behaved for mummy -the use of the third person noun phrases (Sally, Mummy) instead of you and me respectively reflects the less powerful role of the child in a caregiver relationship.
-temporal deixis-adverbs 'now' 'then', calendrical terms 'yesturday' 'today' 'tomorrow', demonstratives 'this' 'that', 'these' 'those'. eg) The tourists wasnt to leave TOMORROW but i want to go NOW
- they visited LAST WEEK and will call again TJIS WEEK -in each case, we must look at the context of utterance to establish a temporal referent for these terms.
-if 1 is uttered at 12 noon on 25h march 06 then tomorrow
is 26 ma 06 and now is 12 noon 25 mar 06 CONTINUED NEXT COLUMN... deixis continued... -spatal deixis: adverbs 'here', 'there', demonstratives 'this' 'that', verbs 'bring', 'take' 'come' 'go'. Direction to or away from the speaker. egs) 1) the children played HERE last night
2) I'm going to the dentist THIS WAY
3) I CAME to the party early -In 3) 'came' suggests that the speaker is already at the party (goal or destination). In 2) 'going' suggests movement by the speaker from a source origin towards a goal. NOTE demonstratives can be both temporally and spatially deictic. In 4) the same demonstrative that had a spatially deicic function in 2) has a temporally deictic function: 4) I'm going to the dentist THIS FRIDAY -discourse deixis: linguistic expressions are used to refer to some part of the wider discourse either a written and or oral text in which these expressions occur. eg)1) You made a weak claim HERE
2) THAT point was unsubstantiated
3) In the LAST chapter argued for a different view
4) the NEXT section is very interesting -note the discourse deictic terms in the above sentences are the same expressions that perform spatial (place) and temporal deixis in other contexts here, that->spatial deixis last, next->temporal deixis -however other terms have a discourse deictic function only: MOREOVER the policy was not cost effective -moreover refers back to a prior bit of he text where
some other negative attribute was being discussed. presuppositions -presuppositions are variously defined but in general
constitute assumptions or inferences that are implicit in
particular linguistic expression. the explorers MANAGED to climb the mountain presupposes...
the explorers tried to climb the mountain, climbing the mountain
wasn't easy. -certain linguistic expressions and constructions trigger presuppositions. These triggers include:
-definite description: 'the' definite article she found THE BOOK WITH THE BLUE COVER presupposes...
there exists a book with a blue cover. -cleft construction: 'it was...' IT WAS sally who lost the keys presupposes...
someone lost the keys -change of state verb: 'begin', 'continue'. 'stop' the man STOPPED stalking the woman presupposes...
the man had been stalking the woman -factive verb: verbs which presuppose a fact they REGRETTED purchasing the property presupposes..
they purchased the property. -implicative: 'remember', 'forget' , 'happen' the students MANAGED to solve the equation presupposes...
the students tried to solve the equation -comparisson of equality: 'as+adj+as' Jill is AS TALKATIVE AS pat presupposes...
Pat is talkative presupposition and entailment feature 1 -sentence below presupposes 1) and entails 2) they managed to build the stone wall
1) they tried to build the stone wall
2) they built the stone wall -only one of these sentences 1) still holds when we negate the original sentence they did not manage to build the stone wall
holds...they tried to build the stone wall
fails to hold...they built the stone wall -only sentences that survive under negation are
presuppositions. An entailment is cancelled by necation. So
1) above is a presupposition and 2) is an entailment presupposition and entailment feature 2 -a contradiction is created when an entailment is negated: mary kissed jJohn entails:Mary touched John. BUT NOTE Mary kissed
John but she dis not touch him (semantically contradictory sentence) -a presupposition, however can be negated without contradition He doesn't regret leaving his wife and child presupposes...
he left his wife and child. BUT there is no contradiction in: he
doesn't regret leaving his wife and child because in fact he didn't
leave them presupposition and implicature feature 3 -it is the defeasibility of presuppositions that allows them to be negated without contradiction. The same feature of defeasibility or cancellability is evident in implicatures A: are you coming to the pub tonight? B:my parents are in town -B's response implicates that s/he won't be coming to the pub however this implicature is cancelled with the addition of 'but I'll come anyway'
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