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Matthew Biggart

on 21 September 2014

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Transcript of Nationalism

American Revolution, 1776-1780
The Enlightenment, 1550 - 1789
Liberty, Equality, democratic rule
Rebellion against Monarchy

Printing Press

Enlightenment ideas spread to the Americas
- by who?
- how?
The American Revolution showed the world that Kings and Empires could be toppled by "the people"

- was an example and inspiration for Latin America

South America

Spanish Colonial Society Divided
Q: Who were...
- Peninsulares
- Creoles --> lead revolutions
- Mestizos
- Mulattos
- African Slaves
- Indians

- people who were born in Spain
- Spaniards born in the Americas
- people of mixed European and Indian ancestry
- persons of mixed European and African ancestry
Africans and Indians
Central America
Central America + South America = Latin America
- Society and Class dictated a person's place in society, wealth and jobs.

-Many of the lower classes were upset with their social status

- Late 1700s encouraged by the success of the American revolution and inspired by ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS

- Some choose to rebel against the structured Spanish social system
Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti)
- 500,000 African Slaves worked on French plantations
- Brutal conditions
- 100,000 Slaves revolt, August 1791, organized by a former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture
- By 1801, L'Ouverture had taken control of the entire island and freed all African slaves
- France set 30,000 troops to quell the uprising
- L'Ouverture negotiates an end of African slavery if he ends the revolution
Revolution Continued
- French seize L'Ouverture and send him to prison in the French Alps, died in 1803
- L'Ouverture's top lieutenant takes over the Revolution and declared the country independent.

Creoles Lead Independence
- The best educated...bring the enlightenment ideals to Latin America

- Napoleon's conquest of Spain in 1808
Why is this significant?

- Enlightenment ideals, Locke's ideas say political power must shift to the people
Bolivar's Victory
- Creole, Educated in Europe
-Venezuela declares independence in 1811
- Bolivar's army suffers defeats, exiled.
- Decisive win against Spanish forces in modern day Columbia turns the tide
- By 1821, Bolivar had won Venezuelan independence
- Participated in the independence of Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia
- Constructed the first government of "Gran Columbia"
Saint Domingue
1815 -1871
Major Events
- in 1815 Germany was 39 loosely affiliated states
- The Austrian Empire dominated the confederation
- Prussia had a LARGE MILITARY and a MAINLY GERMAN population
- 1848, riots in Berlin forced a liberal constitution
- 1861 Wilhelm I supported by the Junkers (conservative landowners)
- Appoints Otto Von Bismark as prime minster
- "The politics of reality. Complete your goal by any means necessary. Regardless of moral repercussions.
- No parliamentary control, no budget
- "blood and Iron"
- 1864, Schleswig and Holstein
- 1871, capture of Versailles, Wilhelm is Kaiser
War in the North
- Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardina
- Camillo di Cavour
- Diplomacy and alliances
- 1852, French alliance with Sardina helps drive Austria out of Northern Italy
- Kingdom of the Two Sicilies getting help from Cavour
- Giuseppi Garibaldi captures Sicily and mainland Southern Italy
War in the South
Italy United
- Cavour arraignments to meet with Garibaldi
- Allowed for King Emanuel II to rule over a combined empire
- 1866, Venetia. 1870, Papal States (except for Vatican city)
Nationalism Defined
- People should be loyal to a nation, NOT a King or government
- Bonds that build a country
Austria-Hungarian Empire
Austrian-Hungarian Empire Crumbles, 1866-1918: The Disunity of Nationalism
- Old Hapsburg Empire
- Multicultural Empire: Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs and Italians
- Nationalist tensions tore the Empire apart
- Each ethnicity wanted to create it's own nation state
- no loyalty to the crown, loyalty to the nation of people who share a common heritage
Belgium, 1830
(From the Netherlands)
Poland, 1830
(Unsuccessful revolt from Russia
Greece, 1830
(From the Ottoman Empire)
Alexander II Reforms, 1853-1881
- Modernization and social change
- Russification

- Russia was VERY diverse

- Loses Crimea War (1856) against Western European alliance (until 2014)

- Polish revolt of (1863)

- Increase nationalism to prevent revolt and increase patriotism
Romanov's loose Control, 1917
- "Russification" doesn't work on Poles, Ukranians, Finns, Jews, Turks, etc. living in Russia.
- Must learn Russian
- Attempted cultural assimilation
- Most Nationalities revolt, eventually leading to the end of Czarist Russia in 1917
Full transcript