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French Revolution

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on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of French Revolution

FRENCH

What caused the French Revolution to become increasingly radical and was this radicalism (such as the Terror) inevitable?
REVOLUTION
Lack of Monarchy Support
oh i remeber now, with the foreign war helps the national assemble to support napoleon, right? THEN NAOLEON TOOK OVER FRANCE

http://www.jstor.org.library.sheridanc.on.ca/stable/pdfplus/10.1086/235072.pdf?acceptTC=true&acceptTC=true&jpdConfirm=true

enlightenment and french revolution
the terror and french revolution
http://www.jstor.org.library.sheridanc.on.ca/stable/pdfplus/10.1086/340147.pdf?&acceptTC=true&jpdConfirm=true

http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27532935?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=French&searchText=revolution&searchText=Monarchy&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DFrench%2Brevolution%2BMonarchy%26amp%3Bacc%3Don%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff
Beginning of french rev
http://www.jstor.org.library.sheridanc.on.ca/stable/pdfplus/25118322.pdf?&acceptTC=true&jpdConfirm=true
histories of french revolution
'

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219315/French-Revolution/225806/Counterrevolution-regicide-and-the-Reign-of-Terror
French Revolution: Encyclopædia Britannica
leadershitp of jacobins
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/505619/Maximilien-de-Robespierre/6230/The-Committee-of-Public-Safety-and-the-Reign-of-Terror?anchor=ref206106
Enlightenment
thinking
During the eighteenth century, the ideology of liberation and individuality as the people of the state was introduced to France. Ideas such as the Social Contract & Laissez-faire were created by many thinkers known as the Philosophes in order to gain equality.
http://lib.myilibrary.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/Open.aspx?id=90513
the oxford history of french revolution

This new way of thinking would have initiated everyone's thirst for knowledge and freedom from the Old Regime.
Voltaire
David Diderot
Jean- Jacques Rousseau
"All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains."
-Jean-Jacques Rousseau
They also believed that the movement would help aid the social problems.
Marie Antoinette's Expenditures on dresses and luxuries items for herself
American Revolution
Increase of Tax
Nobles & Clergy who owned most of the wealth in society were basically exempted from taxes
Leaving only the third estate to pay for the highest tax
- The bloodiest and most violence period during the French revolution in the year of 1973-1974.
As the third estate worked hard, it was as if they were being fined for their success
Bread prices increased contributing to starvation amongst the peasants
Reign of Terror
Attempt to flee Paris
- Since France had multiple wars happening outside and inside of country, the new revolutionary government starts to loses its power.
The Terror
Leading to Bread Riots
Aside from being bankrupt from previous wars such as the Seven Years War & the War of the Austrian Succession
France assisted the American War for Independence,
regardless of the war
expenditures
France was Bankrupt
The Tennis Court Oath
The Third Estate was locked out of the Estates General
Which resulted into even more resentment towards the king
The Tennis court oath was formed:
swearing to never rest until the constitution is renewed
Basically telling his people that he has given up on the nation
The Royal Family was caught dressed in peasant clothes in Versailles
The Death of Louis XVI
After Louis XVI's execution, it gives the National Assembly a chance to set up a new government in France, but it also leads to the worst period of the revolution.
- Different revolutionary groups such as the Girondins, Montagnard, the Jocabins were trying to liberate France by taking control of the whole country.
"Liberty leading the People" by Eugène Delacroix
Maximilian de Robespierre
"The man who made the Terror even worst"
during the Terror
- He was the president of the Jacobin Club.
- Later becomes the head of Communitte of Public Survice.
- He wanted the revolutionaires to be united as one whole, so he intensify the Terror by taking over France with dictatorship militia power.
Ways to Gain Power
Robespierre did many things to gain control.
The Blood and the Violence
Publicly declare the radical groups such as the Enages as betrayers.
Declare maximum foodstuff prices for public
a military force to encounter the anti-revolution and gain hoaders.
- Robespierre conducted pointless executions to make sure no one tries to betray his government.
- Thousands were executed and more than 30000 were arrested after the suspention of public trials.
Radicalism During the Terror
Many revolutionary groups are fighting to free France but there were many problems between groups.
Their political idea were very different from each other, thus these groups clash. The temptation of seizing control of France increased. In addition many radical action occur because these people wanted change.
- Basically Robespierre was executing the Gorondins who were executing the 1st and 2nd states. Thus It made the Terror and even worst.
The Revolution and all of it’s succeeding events such as the Reign of Terror were an inevitability in the conditions that France was in at the time. One reason being that the lack of monarchy support brought about tensions in the people, which where subsequently ignored by them due to the monarchy’s interest in external affairs over internal ones, such as the foreign wars. Additionally, the innovative notions of the Philosophes spurred on the radical ideology of revolutionary leaders, such as Maxemilien de Robspierre. Tensions then continued to rise, goaded on by Robspierre and other leaders of the like, ultimately resulting in the Reign of Terror.The monarchy’s disconcerting attitude towards the suffering of the public incited the radicalism which brought about the Reign of Terror. Such a break in the people’s tension would have occurred regardless, but was propelled by the additional radical views presented by the revolutionary leaders of that era.
The National Assembly and
The Revolutionary Groups

The National Assembly
- Tired of the lack of change with in the two higher estates to give up their power, the 3rd Estate declare themselves as The National Assembly, the voices of the people of France.

- They worked make a new constitution for France, consisting of equal rights for all people by taking the Tennis Court Oath.
Le Serment du Jeu de paume, Jacquus-Louis David, 1791
Storming of Bastille
Mobs of commoners gather storming the Bastille, arming themselves and laying waste to the strong hold, while off killing the commanders.
Opening of Estate-General, Auguste Couder, 1789
Two Rivalry Groups
The Jacobins:
Leader: Maximillion Robespierre
Radical thinkers and liberals
Progressive society members who wanted the Revolution to more forward more aggressively
Against having a Monarchy in power, and wanted to have France declared a republic
The Girodins:
Leader: Jaques Piere Brissot
Were moderate member of the Legislative Assembly
Thought a constitutional Monarchy was needed.
Against the Revolution
-A rivalry went on between the two group with the National Assembly as they were from different ideologies and geographic backgrounds.
- After the raid of the Bastille, the National Assembly take over France and created a Decloration of Rights of Man and Citizen. Feudalism is coming apart and the nobility lose all their power as well as the King, Louis XVI.
Plack, Noelle.Making and Ending the French Revolution:
Nobility, Bourgeoisie and ‘the People’. Birmingham: SAGE, 2009

"French Revolution." Philip's Encyclopedia. London: Philip's, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 28 January 2014.

Sonenscher, Micheal.The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 70, No. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998

SparkNotes: the French Revolution (1789–1799): The National Assembly: 1789–1791 (http://www. sparknotes.com/history/european/
frenchrev/section3.rhtml)

The Revolution and all of it’s succeeding events such as the Reign of Terror were an inevitability in the conditions that France was in at the time. One reason being that the lack of monarchy support brought about tensions in the people, which where subsequently ignored by them due to the monarchy’s interest in external affairs over internal ones. Additionally, the innovative notions of the Philosophes spurred on the radical ideology of revolutionary leaders. Lastly, tensions then continued to rise, goaded on by Maximillion Robespierre and other leaders of the like, ultimately resulting in the Reign of Terror.
Corwin, Edward S. "The American Historical Review." The French Objective in the American Revolution, 1915: 33-40.

French Revolution cause: An Economic Crisis. July 1, 2012. http://bastille-day.com/history/Economic-Cause (accessed January 20, 2014).

Mulder, Henry. The Enlightenment - The Age of Reason. 2008. http://www.scienceandyou.org/articles/ess_18.shtml#feedback (accessed January 21, 2014).

Sait, E. M. "Political Science Quarterly." Economic Aspects of the French Revolution, 1910: 328-334.

Sonenscher, Michael. "The Journal of Modern History." Enlightenment and Revolution, 1998: 371-376.

War Debt and Tax Avoidance: Causes of French Revolution. April 24, 2012. http://www.open.salon.com/blog/rw005g/2010/04/24/war_debt_and_tax_avoidance_causes_of_french_revolution (accessed January 22, 2014).

Ware, Sedley Lynch. "The Sewanee Review." The Beginnings of the French Revolution, 1916: 353-358.

The Rise of Radicalism
Jade, Julianne, Marc
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