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Transcript of Volcanoes
What is a Volcano?
A Volcano is a mountain formed around a crack in the Earth's crust. Molten rock and other hot materials like gases, shoot up in the air and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. There are different kinds of volcanoes such as violent, gentle, dormant, active and extinct.
What causes a Volcano?
Volcanoes occur when magma from the Earth's mantle reaches the surface. At the surface it erupts through a weak spot in the Earth's crust. When the magma reaches the surface, it is called lava. The lava flows upwards with steam and hot gases.
How are Volcanoes Measured?
Volcanoes are measured based on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). Volcanoes are ranked on a scale of 0-8. When rating a volcano, there are several factors to be considered. Some factors are: the force of the explosion, the amount of rubble released, the height of an ash cloud, the type of eruption and how long it lasted.The Mt. St. Helens blast in 1980 measured a 5 on the scale. Eruptions of 5 or higher occur in the world about once every 20 years.
What are the effects on the natural environment?
Volcanoes have positive and negative effects on the natural environment.
- Volcanic soil is very rich, once everything cools, plants grow back.
- Volcanoes can bring gold, diamond and useful rocks to the surface.
- Ashes from the volcanoes have all the minerals and food the plants need.
- mineral rocks from volcanoes can be used for buildings and jewellery.
- Volcanoes destroy plants, kill animals and people.
- Volcanoes affect Aquatic life. It can damage or kill fish.
- Volcano eruptions can affect bird migration, flying ability and feeding activity.
What are the effects of a Volcano on the built environment?
Some effects on the built environment are:
- houses, buildings and roads can get covered with ash. People leave their homes because it is dangerous for them to breath the ash.
-Volcanic ash can bury towns and cities. In 1973 an eruption
took place in Iceland where the entire town was buried under cinder and lava.
What can you do to prepare/protect yourself in the event of a Volcano?
The best way to protect yourself is to listen to local officials. Authorities will give you information on how to prepare for a volcanic eruption. Prepare to shelter or to evacuate. Practice evacuation plan to respond quickly to evacuate.
You will need:
- flashlight and batteries.
- first aid kit.
- food, water and medication.
- respiratory protection for breathing and eye protection (goggles).
-battery radio for volcano updates.
Did you know?
- The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.
- Hot liquid rock under the surface is known as magma. It is called lava after it comes out of a volcano.
- Some famous volcanic eruptions include:
Mt. Krakatoa in 1883, Novarupta in 1912, Mt. St. Helens in 1980 and Mt. Pinatubo in 1991.
- The biggest volcano in our solar system is on Mars. It is called Olympus Mons.
- One of the most recent volcano to erupt was on February 20th, 2015. The volcano erupted in Kamchatka, Russia which produced an ash plume that rose to estimated 25,000 ft of altitude. The name of the volcano is Shiveluch Volcano.
- www. weatherwizkids.com
- Vocanoes by Seymoursimon
- Volcanoes by Trudi Strain Trueit
- Science book