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U.S Foreign Policy after 9/11
Transcript of U.S Foreign Policy after 9/11
Al-Qaeda was initially funded by the US during the Cold War, to fight of the Soviet invasion of Afganistan. However, bin Laden was not happy with the US's involvment with Israel, and also opposed the pressense of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War. Additionally, al-Qaeda was trying to achieve the unification of the arab nations by declaring a Holy War on the US. 9/11 would be the perfect way to provoke the US. Even before the attacks, bin Laden already declared a holy war on the US in 1998. After initially denying involvment bin Laden claimed responsability for the attacks in 2004. Immediate Response The American peaople were left in shock. 3000 innocent people were dead because of the actions of 19 men. Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA), for the first time was initiated. This grounded all non-emergancy aircrafts in many countries, including the US.
The US Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld on the day of the attack, ordered his aides to look for evidance of Iraqi involcment.
NATO claimed that the attack on the US is considered an attack on all the nations part of NATO according to artical 5 of the NATO charter
The Bush Admisitration declared a War on Terror immediatly after the attack. There goal was to bring Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and prevent all other terrorist networks from emerging. The North Atlantic Treaty
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security . Afghanistan The Taliban The Taliban are an extremist muslim religous group. They controlled large parts of Afghanistan as of 1996. They are led by a man named Mullah Omar. Al-Qaeda was harboured by the Taliban, which of course turned the heads of the US after 9/11. Al-Qaeda was put under immediate suspection after the 9/11 attacks, even though they initally denied involvement. Obviously, the US wern't buying it. After investigation, the US concluded that the Taliban were harbouring al-Qaeda and bin Laden, and made the following non-negotiable demands to the Taliban:
1. Deliver to the U.S. all of the leaders of Al-Qaeda
2. Release all foreign nationals that have been "unjustly imprisoned"
3. Protect foreign journalists, diplomats, and aid workers
4. Close immediately every terrorist training camp
5. Hand over every terrorist and their supporters to appropriate authorities
6. Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps for inspection
The Taliban refused to give in to the demands. The bush administration stated that it would not distinguish between terrorist groups and nations who harboured them. So, US, and the UK launched Operation Enduring Freedom. Thus began the War in Afghanistan. The War in
Afghanistan The Main Goals and Reasons for Invasion To find and bring justuce to Osama bin Laden and the other terrorists responsable for the 9/11 attacks
To halt the use of afghanistan as a base for al-Qaeda and ultimatly dismantle al-Qaeda altogether.
To end Taliban rule over the country, and bring forth a democratic regime Initial
Belligerents United States
United Islamic Front Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban)
Al-Qaeda Western Forces
(Coalition) Insurgents The United Islamic Front The United Islamic Front also known as the Afghan Northern Alliance is a military and political organization. It is a formation of all ethnic groups fighting against the afghan Taliban. They are allied with NATO. They are led by many different leaders. The most prominent leader is said to be Ahmad Shah Massoud due to the fact that he created the front 1996 Later joined by... Many other countries part of NATO made up the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). Some Included are:
Turkey The Taliban were supported by neighbouring Pakistan, along with additional insurgent groups such as:
The Haqqani Network
Hezb-e Islami Khalis
The Islamic Jihad Union War was declared on october 7th, 2001 after the Taliban both denied involvement in the al-Qaeda's 9/11 attacks, and refused to hand over Osama bin Laden. Air attacks were initiated by US and UK forces. Cities that were attacked:
Kabul - Capital of afghanistan
Kandahar - Birth place of the Taliban
Bush stated that Afghan civilians would be provided food and other necessities. He also stated the Taliban military camps would be crushed.
Taliban forces were pushed back by American forces frequently. Though the Taliban used clever traps to hinder the americans, such as booby traping a runway before they retreat. Still, this wasn't enough.
On Novevember 12th 2001 the Taliban fled from Kabul. Northern Alliance troops arrived the next day and captured the city. Osama bin Laden and his followers fled into the Tora Bora mountain cave complexes.
A couple weeks later Kandahar, the final stronghold of the Taliban was captured by democratic forces. Mullah Omar along with many Taliban soldiers fled to Pakistan. The Search Continues US and UK forces entered the Tora Bora mountains in hopes of finding Osama bin Laden; however, after the last cave complex was captured by US forces bin Laden was still not found. Coalition forces continued to fight the Taliban and al-Quada throughout 2002. Guerrilla tatics were used by the Taliban in order to cause confusion for ISAF forces. Though the Taliban wouldn't give up easy, they were slowly rooted by ISAF forces. from 2003 to 2005 the Taliban were able to avoid the US enough in order rebuild their forces. They recruited members under the pretext of a holy war against the US and other Coalition members. Insurgant groups continued to battle both the new Afghan government and Coaltion forces for years to come Human Rights Many of the combantants fighting for the Taliban were unwilling combantants which were taken from their home and forced to US and Coalition forces. Many of these soldiers were captured by the US, and the bush administration refused to give them status as prisoners of war labeling them "unlawful combantants". These detainees were held by the US for questioning. The US claimed that the must be held in order to preserve the security of the US.
The Taliban have been heavily Critisized for violating human rights. They have commited massacres of civilians in order to achieve control through fear. The UN claims that the Taliban are responsable for 79% of civilian deaths during the war. There have been reports of the Taliban using civilians s human shields, abducting civilians, and bombing civilian targets Osama bin Laden killed On may 1st 2011 president Obama announced the death of Osama bin Laden. He was killed by American forces in Pakistan after US forces invaded bin Ladens complex in Abbotabad. US Activity The US continued to support the current afghan government while still having troops present if afghanistan. In 2009 more troops were brought in by Obama while orignally ordered by Bush. Obama increase troop activity in the country to 30 000. However, he promised that troops would be pulled out for the year 2014 The Axis of Evil The Axis of Evil is a term used by George Bush referring to:
North Korea This term was first used by George Bush during his State of the Union Address of January 29th, 2002 These nations were accused of both aiding terrorists, and developing arsinals of weapons of mass destruction. Axis of Evil Bush's Axis Iran Iraq North Korea Beyond the "Axis of Evil" UN Ambassador John R. Bolton made a speech refering to other countries outside the "axis of evil" that support terrorism and are seeking WMD Cuba Lybia Syria Criticism Sources http://www.neatorama.com/2010/05/03/just-how-many-nukes-does-the-us-have/ http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/index.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11_attacks http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Taliban.aspx http://www.encyclopedia.com/news/osama-bin-laden-killed-by-us-forces-in-pakistan.aspx http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Second+Iraq+War Hypocrisy The US condemned nations for experimenting with nuclear weapons when the US held over 5000 nuclear warheads. No
Alliances All three of bush's"axis" are not allied. They have not signed any non-aggression treaties, or alliance treaties with oneother; therefore, the term axis is incorrect. Conflict Iran and Iraq were caught in a vicious war with oneother during the 1980's. Bitter tention still lingered between the two Iraq http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Iraq_War.aspx Background After the Gulf War in 1991, the UN demanded that Iraq dismantle all chemical, biological, and nuclear weapon programs. UN inspection teams came to Iraq and were able to verify that large amounts of WMD have been destroyed, they initially found no evidence of biological or chemical warfare programs,. The leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, decieved the west though. Husseins son in law, gave evidence of biological and chemical weapon programs to the west exposing Hussein. Hussein continued to be noncompliant to UN dcemands for the rest of the 90's. He was believed to still hold nuclear warheads, and would use chemical weapons on his own people (Rebellious parts of Iraq). Why go to War? Iraq had been a US target ever since the end of the Gulf War. After the war ended, President George H.W. Bush ordered the CIA to develop a plan to dethrone Saddam Hussein. The day of the 9/11 attacks, US secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld ordered his aids to look for evidence of Iraqi involvement with the 9/11 attack. But what are the specific reasons for invading Iraq? Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Oil Democracy Though investigation did not initially uncover stockpiles of WMDs, the US was aways suspicious of Iraq. Even after a UN investigation in 2002 did not turn up evidence of of WMD's the US was still not convinced. They were afraid of Iraqs possable threat. The bush administration believed that Iraq was aiding al-Qauda and suspected Iraq of harbouring terrorists connected to Osama bin Laden. this of course spawning from the "Axis of Evil" theory The idea that oil was a cause for the war on Iraq is considered contreviersial by some, so it is important to consider both sides. The PMs of Australia and Britain both denounced the idea. Poland; however, made no attempt to hide their motives of oil. Bush stated that he was intent on keeping oil fields out of terrorist hands. Both President Bush, and Vice President Dick Cheney both used to be CEOs of oil companies. With Iraq holding the second highest proven Oil reserves, it is widley agreed that removal of Hussain from powee helped the oil industry significantly. One of the Bush's main goals fior the invasion of Iraq was to bring democracy to the nation, symltaniously sacking Saddam Hussein. The UN also supported the idea of dealing with Hussains human rights abuse with chemical weapons. The Invasion In 2002 CIA opperatives were already present in Iraq. On March 20th, 2003, Operation Iraqi Freedom was initiated as 248, 000 US troops, and 45, 000 British troops accompanied by Polish, and Australian troops entered Iraq. The stated intent of the war was to end the Hussein's Regime, destroy all WMDs found, distribute humanitarian aid where needed, and to secure Iraqi oil infrastructure. The Coalation troops fought a quick but tough invasion. The Iraqi army posed a difficult resistance especially for the US soldiers. Despite resistance, Baghdad fell on april 9th, and Husseins 24 year rule was put to an end. Husseins iron statue was symbolically torn down. The city was put into a state of civil unrest after the fall unfortunatly as looting and rioting occured. Post-Invasion After the fall of Hussein's regime a temporary Coalition government, the Colition Provisional Authority (CPA) was created to manage the country. On may 1st President Bush made a "Mission Accomplished" speech based on the fact that all convensional forces had been defeated. Hussein however, was still left be found, and resistance within the country still lingered. Troops continued to fight insurgent guerillas after the fall of Baghdad. In the summer of 2003 over 300 former iraqi leaders were killed, and on december 13th Hussein himself was finally captured. After his capture insurgent attacks droped and the CPA started to push for a government transition to Iraqi control. Insurgent attacks increased and continued after 2003. These insurgents consisted of Islamic extremists such as al-Quada members, and Hussein loyalists. On june 28th 2004, Iraq was signed over from the CPA to the Iraqi Tansitional Government. The ITG was elected by the Iraqi people for the first time on January 31st, 2005. However, Insurgent attacks still continued, while Islamic religous sects fought each other with guerrilla tactics. The UN declared in 2006 that Iraq was in a civil war condition. In 2007 a "troop surge" was declared by bush as over 20, 000 soldiers were deployed. A the begining of this troop surge, US soldier deaths increased, but overall, the violence level in Iraq was agreed to have decreased significantly sinse that surge. However, over half of the iraqi parliment rejected the American operation in their country. It was decided that the Iraqi government would need parliment consent before they requested a troop increase. The UN then requested a withdrawl time table from the US. The US-Iraq Status of Forces Agreement was created and it was approved by the Iraqi government on December 4th 2008. US forces were said to be completely out of Iraq by December 31st 2011. In 2009 President Barrack Obama stated that combat missions would end in Iraq by August 2010 and 50,000 troops would remain in Iraq as a transitional force until the end of 2011. This transitional force would train and supprt Iraqi troops. The Iraqi government was still combating insurgent and terrorist attacks within the country. On august 19th, 2010, all combatent US forces were withdrawn from Iraq, and the transitional force of 50,000 still remains till the end of 2011. Saddam Hussein Hussein was born on April 28th, 1937. In his youth, he was a supporter of Iraqi nationalism, and was educated at a nationalist high school. After 3 years of law school, he dropped out and joined the Ba'ath nationalist political party supporting himself as a highschool teacher. The Ba'ath party overthrew the current government and took power. Hussein was able to gain power within the party and eventually emerged as the leader. Hussein revered Stalin, and treated him as his idol. (They even look alike!) Hussein, like Stalin created a cult of personality, based on fear to rule his people. He would use violent tactics to conbat political enemies such as massacring their children, death by torture, and gunning down violent protesters. In 1982, after an assassination attempt in Dujail, he massacred over 100 residents of the town as a response. These are just some of the long list of Hussein's war crimes such as the genocide of ethnic Kurds. After his capture in 2004, he was put on trial, and convicted in an Iraqi court for the Dujail massacre and sentenced to death by hanging. Hussein died December 30th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq_War http://civilliberty.about.com/od/internationalhumanrights/p/saddam_hussein.htm Criticism Were WMDs found? NO! After the initial invasion, no stockpiles of WMDs were found. degraded chemical weapons dating back to the Iraq-Iran war were found, but no recent activity of WMD development was found. Was Hussien in league with al-Quada? There was a lack of evidence of Husseins involvement with al-Qaeda. However, there is said to be al-Qaeda activity in Iraq regardless. Civilian Deaths Many civilians were killed by US troops as a consequence of the invasion. 5 US soldiers were even convicted of raping and murding a 14 year old Iraqi girl, and killing her entire family. Another
Viet Nam Like Viet Nam, there was a huge amount of protest for tthe war in Iraq. People called it an illegal invasion, and the amount of money spent on the war was heavily critisized. Most of the Iraqi population did not want the Americans in Iraq, and most of the international world dissaproved of the Iraq Invasion. How is Today Affected? Currently, their are still troops present in both Iraq and Afghanistan today. Iraq is still in a chaotic state, and does have a democratic government. After the 9/11 attacks, the US itself has changed. The creation of Homeland Security, and the PATRIOT Act have become very prominient in domestic affairs. Paranoia of terrorists has increased significantly sinse the 9/11 attacks. Muslims, and Arabs are discriminated by some of the public even today. Some close minded people in the US view all Muslims as possable terrorists. The world is still feeling the effects of the bush administration, to this very day. Connection to the Cold War In the cold war, the US trained Taliban and al-Quada troops with the CIA to fight off the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Clearly, that plan somewhat backfired on the US. The tentions between the world and Iraq can be traced back to the cold war, leading to the Gulf War, and finally resulting in the Iraq war Time Line 1979 - Soviets invade Afghanistan, US trains Taliban, and al-Qaeda.
- Saddam Hussein comes to power in Iraq July, 1982 - Dujail Massacre. Hussain kills over 100 of his own people August 2nd 1990 - Febuary 28th 1991 - Gulf war is faught between Kuwait and Iraq. NATO supported kuwait 1989 - Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan 1998 - Osama bin Laden declares a Holy War on the US September 11, 2001 - 9/11 attacks. World trade centers destroyed
by airplanes hijacked by terrorists 1996 - Taliban gain control of Afghanistan October 7th, 2001 - US and UK invade Afghanistan after the
Taliban declined the ultimatum given to them by the US 2009 - Obama announces an increase in troops in Afghanistan May 1st, 2011 - Osama bin Laden is declared dead January 29th, 2002 - George Bush uses the term Axis fo Evil in his State of the Union Address 2002 - UN sends inspection teams to Iraq to search for WMDs. None were found March 20th, 2003 - Iraq war initiated. Coalition troops invade Iraq December 13th, 2003 Hussein is captured 2007 - US troop surge in Iraq 2009 - Obama announces that troops will withdraw from Iraq by the end of 2011 December 30th, 2006 - Saddam Hussein is executed August, 2010 - Combat missions are finally put to a halt in Iraq Project Done by:
MITCHELL BURGESS "We knew what an AK-47 bullet sounds like when it zips unseen by our heads. We had heard the deafening blast of 155-millimeter rounds exploding near us. We knew the screams of the wounded and dying, and had seen the tears of men, of soldiers. I watched as we de-evolved into animals, and all this time, there was a sinking feeling that we were changing from hunter to hunted." An American soldiers account of the Iraq War First Strike