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OCR A2 Social Facilitation/Effects of an Audience

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Geraint Davies

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of OCR A2 Social Facilitation/Effects of an Audience

Social Facilitation
concerns how people other than the performer can influence his or her attitudes and behaviour
The effect that the presence of 'others'
has on the way sportspeople play or perform (Zajonc)
CO-ACTORS
a passive form of audience
involved in the same activity
at the same time as the performer
but not competing directly
examples:
officials, umpires or referees
members of own team
ball boys or helpers
- can be negative
=
social inhibition
example: crowd jeers at a team not playing well
Social Facilitation
Or
According to Zajonc all “others” (regardless of who they are) increase arousal levels
Zajonc's View of the presence of others
The effects of audiences on performance often depend on the standard of the performer. Explain what this means in terms of drive theory. (4 marks)
1. Straight line/linear (diagram) relationship between arousal and performance
2. Good/elite/autonomous performer – dominant response is correct – performance improves
3. Called social facilitation
4. Learner/weak/cognitive performer – dominant response incorrect –
performance deteriorates
5. Called social inhibition
Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell)

size of audience
proximity of audience
intentions of the audience
skill level of the task
personality of the performer
type of task
Passive others
audience
co-actors
Roland Garros
French Open
Famous for?
Would you like to play there?
Why do some players dislike playing here?
What does it make you think? Wonder? Feel?
What is Social Facilitation?
What impact does it have on performers?
Is it a good or a bad thing?
Who is affected? Why?
- can be positive
=
social facilitation
example: crowd encourages a team playing well
What are the issues?
What are the benefits
Individually
Pairs
3's
6's
Interactive others
supporters
competitive co-actors
TASK 2 Use the Internet & p.238
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE
Factors that affect Social Facilitation

size of audience
proximity of audience
intentions of the audience
skill level of the task
personality of the performer
type of task
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE
FACILITATION
high arousal leads to improved performance by
highly skilled performer
gross skills
simple skills
extrovert performer
Learning Outcomes
A Level PE
ALL: Identify the key features of social facilitation
MOST: Explain how social facilitation affects performance
SOME: Apply examples from own sport and evaluate the validity of theories presented
INHIBITION
high arousal leads to reduced performance by
fine skills requiring great concentration
complex skills also requiring great concentration
introvert performer
novices whose skills are not well learned
TASK 4
Complete
Task 3

Starter
Disagreed that the
mere presence of others
raised arousal levels.
Evaluation Apprehension
(Cottrell)
He suggested that arousal only increases when the
“others”
are
evaluating
performance
e.g.
assessment/supporters
Learning Outcomes
Thinking Task
In pairs: What if arousal didn't exist?
When you're done, share your ideas with the other pair on your table
Barons Distraction Conflict Theory
Baron (1986) suggested that athletes must focus their attention on the task in hand
e.g. their role in the game
If they focus on anything else it will distract them
On the hand-out complete the table using the terms provided

Discuss what you think the theory is suggesting
Ways of coping with an audience
The Distractive Effects of an Audience
Fear of being judged
Knowledgeable crowd
Crowd known to you
Crowd openly critical
Important game
Causes of Evaluation Apprehension
ALL:
Explain ‘Evaluation Apprehension’ & ‘Baron’s Distraction Conflict’ theory; Identify ways of coping with an audience

MOST:
Apply knowledge to sporting examples

SOME:
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of theories presented
Barons Distraction Conflict Theory
TASK 1
TASK 6
Improve selective attention
Learn to block out an audience (imagery, self talk)
Train with distractions
Small audience to begin with, increasing to a large audience early on
Stress Management techniques – mental rehearsal
Gradually introduce evaluations
Guarantee success early on/reduce importance of event
Over-learn skills to ensure dominant response is correct
TASK 7
TASK 2
TASK 3
short term memory can only cope with
7 + or – 2 items
Therefore the performer must ignore the distractions created by the crowd
Now try the thinking task on page 5
OCR
Drive Theory of Social Facilitation
Interactive Task
Use Page 239 to Help
Can you answer the learning outcomes from last lesson? Use either :-), :-| or :-( to grade how confident you are with each outcome.
You are going to present 30 seconds of knowledge to the class and be graded on what you do!
Home Field Advantage
The Home Advantage Effect
Consider the last time you played at home, is it different to competing away from home? Why?
Why might evaluation be a good thing?
Some athletes use evaluation to raise their arousal levels and thus it improves their performance!
Familiarity of the surroundings
Lack of travel prior to match
Negative effects of anxiety on away team
- Shown to be triggered by the environment (e.g. stadium)
Cognitive and somatic anxiety higher and confidence lower for away team

TASK 4: What are the reasons for the improved performance of the home team?
Why might playing at home inhibit performance rather than facilitate it?
Proximity Effect
The Proximity Effect
Schwartz (1975)
Simply proposes that the closer (and larger) the crowd the greater the impact of social facilitation effects
The outcome is gain determined by: type of skill, personality of the performer, stage of learning and experience level
TASK 5
Revision Questions
(1) How could a coach prepare a novice tennis player who is about to play in front of spectators for the first time? (4 marks)

A. Use of relaxation techniques/egs/mental rehearsal/imagery/self talk/block out audience/selective attention/blocking techniques;
B. Learn in presence of others/similar situation/introduce audience;
C. Increase the size of the audience early;
D. Guarantee success/weaker opposition/achievable goals;
E. Gradually introduce evaluation;


(2) Some weightlifters appear to perform well in front of an audience, while others seem to perform badly, “choking” under the pressure. Use social facilitation theory to explain this observation. (4 marks)

1. Theory from Zajonc;
2. Presence of audience causes increased arousal;
3. Increased drive/arousal means performer tries harder/drive;
4. Increased likelihood of learnt dominant response;
5. Effects depend on stage of learning;
6. Early/cognitive stage - negative effects/social inhibition;
7. Performer not fully developed appropriate response to demands/poor dominant response;
8. Later/associative/autonomous stages - performance enhanced by presence of audience;

(3) The effects of audiences on performance often depend on the standard of the performer. Explain what this means in terms of drive theory. (4 marks)

1. Straight line/linear (diagram) relationship between arousal and performance
2. Good/elite/autonomous performer – dominant response is correct –
performance improves
3. Called social facilitation
4. Learner/weak/cognitive performer – dominant response incorrect –
performance deteriorates
5. Called social inhibition


(4) Evaluation apprehension has been suggested as a theory of the effects of an audience. What is evaluation apprehension and according to this theory what are the criticisms of Zajonc’s social facilitation theory? (4 marks)

Increase in anxiety levels
Caused by a feeling that the performer is being judged
E.g. supporters/assessors/scouts
Likely to reduce performance levels
Suggests that only people evaluating performance would have a negative effects/no effect from coactors


(E) According to Baron’s Distraction Conflict theory what are the effects of an audience on performance and why? (4 marks)

Athlete must attend to task demands
But a crowd may mean that they attend to distractions also
This creates conflict competing demands for attention
As brain has limited processing capacity this causes an increase in arousal
Leads to effects of social facilitation – social inhibition particularly if task is not well-learned

(F) What would appear to be the most likely cause of home-field advantage (4 marks)

Familiarity of the surroundings
Lack of travel prior to match
Negative effects of anxiety on away team
Cognitive and somatic anxiety higher and confidence lower for away team
Full transcript