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Today: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Strategies

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Catharina Schmidt

on 7 September 2015

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Transcript of Today: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Strategies

From a critical-ideological perspective:
proceeds from the same assumptions as constructivism- interpretism
even more focussed on bottom-up procedures
tries to disrupt and challenge the status quo

From a critical-ideological perspective:
as the aim is emancipation, the researcher hopes and expects her/ his value biases to influence the research process and outcome
researchers expect their results to document unequal power relations
hope that the results will be used for improving work, life etc. conditions

From a critical-ideological perspective:
relationship researcher/ participant is central to capturing and describing "lived experience"
=> transactional and subjective relationship
goal: inciting transformation in the participants that leads to emancipation from oppression and group empowerment

A critical-ideological ontology:
also proceeds from the assumption that there are multiple meanings and therefor multiple, equally valid realities which are shaped by ethnic, cultural, gender, social, and political values
realities are seen to be mediated by power relations which are historically and socially constituted

From a constructivist-interpretivist perspective:
meaning is assumed to be hidden and has to be brought to the surface by deep reflection
reflection can be stimulated by interactive dialogue between participant and researcher
"naturalistic inquiry": researcher lives in the community and tries to participate in day-to-day life of her or his research participants for a longer period of time

From a constructivist-interpretivist perspective:
researcher's values and lived experience cannot be divorced from the research process
=> researcher should acknowledge her/ his values etc. and make them explicit
researcher sees her/ his biases as a means to dialogue with the participant

From a constructivist-interpretivist perspective:
dynamic interaction between researcher and participant is considered to be central to capturing and describing "lived experience" of the participant

from a postpositivist perspective:
mostly like positivists, but:
realizes that biases are present and may come into play
the researcher may bracket research expectations by explicating them prior to the study
might also take care at the end of the study to acknowledge how biases may have impacted the study
postpositivist perspective:
advocates a modified dualism/ objectivism
acknowledges that the researcher might have an influence on that being researched
objectivity and researcher-subject independence remain important guidelines for the research process
A postpositivist ontology
also accepts one but true reality
but believes that it can only be apprehended and measured imperfectly
from a postpositivist perspective:
like positivists postpositivists attempt to simulate, as closely as possible, strict scientific methods and procedures where variables are carefully controlled or manipulated
falsification
never the less: primary goal is explanation that (finally) leads to prediction and control of phenomena

from a positivist perspective:
testing of a priori hypotheses, converted into mathematical formulas expressing functional relationships
verification
primary goal: explanation that (finally) leads to prediction and control of phenomena
"received view"

from a positivist perspective:
there is no place for values in the research process
researcher should be emotionally detached
any influence of the researcher should be eliminated or at least strictly controlled

from a positivist perspective:
emphasis on dualism and objectivism:
researcher, research participant, and topic
are assumed to be independent of one another (dualism)
and can be studied without bias

Today: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Strategies or

TWO CLUSTER WITHIN A CONTINUUM
Text: Ponterotto, Joseph G (2005): Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science
Groupwork
Group 1: Paragraph "Contextual Definitions" pp. 127 - 128

Groups 2 - 5: Paragraph "Research Paradigms" pp. 128 - 130

Groups 6 - 9: Paragraph "Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science" pp. 130 - 132
quantitative
focus on strict quantification of observation and on careful control of empirical variables
statistical procedures to examine group means and variances
measurement and analysis of correlational relationships between variables
etic
origin: phonemic
refers to universal laws and behavior, apply to all humans
example: all human beings need to eat, drink, sleep to survive
nomothetic
refers to application to people generally
general patterns, universal statements, laws
uncovering general patterns
deductive
reasoning from general statements
qualitative
refers to empirical procedures designed to describe and interpret the experience of research participants
often incorporates participant's own words to describe a psychological event, experience, phenomenon
refers to constructs or behavior unique to an individual, sociocultural context which are not generalizable
example: Jewish High Holy Days or Christian Easter are not generally acknowledged
emic
idiographic
applying to the individual
focuses on understanding - in contrast to explaining - the individual as a unique complex entity
inductive
reasoning starts with the individual case
positivism
postpositivism
constructionism-interpretivism
critical-ideological
adhering closely to hypothetico-deductive method
formulating hypotheses and testing them
positivistic inquiry aims at explanation that (ultimately) leads to prediction and control of phenomena
a priori
acknowledges an objective reality that is only imperfectly apprehendable
holds that human intellectual mechanisms are basically intractable
nevertheless aims at explanations that lead to prediction and control of phenomena
adheres to a relativist position that assumes multiple, equally valid realities
no "received view"
reality is considered to be constructed in the mind of individuals
central: interaction between investigator and "obeject" under investigation
researcher uses his/ her work as a form of cultural or social criticism
constructed lived experience that is mediated by power relations within historical and social contexts
no isolated facts
language is considered to be central to the formation of subjectivity
privileged groups/ oppression
mainstream research practices are considered to be generally implicated in the reproduction of systems of race, class, gender opression
Results
Two Cluster
Ontology *
Ontology*
Ontology*
Epistemology*
Epistemology*
Epistemology*
Epistemology*
Axiology*
Axiology*
Axiology*
Axiology*
Methodology*
Methodology*
Methodology*
Methodology*
*“Ontology concerns the nature of reality and being. More specifically, ontology addresses the following question: What is the form and nature of reality and what can be known about that reality?” p. 130;

“[Additionally, i.e. in addition to what we have discussed before, C.S.] [e]pistemology is concerned with the relationship between the ‘knower’ (the research participant) and the ‘would-be knower’ (the researcher).” P. 131;

“Axiology concerns the role of researcher values in the scientific process.” p.131;

"Methodology refers to the process and procedures of the research. Naturally, research method flows from one’s position on ontology, epistemology, and axiology.” p. 132
positivist ontology holds "that there is but one true reality that is apprehendable, identifiable, and measurable (a position known as naive realism).” p. 130
Ontology*
A constructivist-interpretivist ontology:
proceeds from the assumption that there are multiple meanings and therefor multiple, equally valid realities

YOU HAVE DONE A VERY GOOD JOB, THANK YOU!
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