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AP World History Review Periods 1-3

A prezi adaptation of the entire Princeton Review AP Prep book
by

Richard Sheets

on 7 April 2015

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Transcript of AP World History Review Periods 1-3

Time Period 1:
8000BCE-600CE

6000
8000
5500
1500
2017
Nomads: Follow the Food
Forging Societies:
Hunt and Gather
Composed of small groups of people who traveled from point to point as the climate and availability of plants and animals dictated
Climate changes, disease, famine, and natural disasters could endanger or eliminate entire communities
Limited by capacity of their surroundings, and their inability to store food for a long period of time
Taming the Animals
Pastoral Societies
Domestication of animals
Found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support other form of settlement
Pastoral Culture
Extended family a major institution
Women had very few rights
Egalitarian: The principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities.
Stratification and social status based on size of one's herd
Nomadic because always searching for new grazing areas and water for herds
Neolithic Revolution
Agricultural Development
Humans...
learned how to cultivate plants,
then could stay in the same place as long as there was good soil
and Could domesticate animals and use simple tools
and Stay in the same place for a long period of time
Nomadic versus Agricultural
In agricultural societies,
people begin to think of pieces of land as their home
Sense of ownership emerges
Think of newcomers as intruders as invaders, instead of as neighbors
A Food Surplus
Individual labor becomes specialized
People can focus on innovation instead of survival
Civilization Emerges
"As agricultural societies become more complex, organized economies, governmental structures and religious organizations began to emerge... Suddenly, there was a society, or the beginnings of what we'd call a civilization" (Princeton Review).
Environmental Impact
Farming villages changed lay of the land by diverting water, clearing land for farming, building roads, and creating farmland where none previously existed.
Animals begin to be used as a source of food, clothing, and agricultural labor (oxen pull plows on expanding farmland)
Technology
Advances
Hard stones (granite) were sharpened and formed into farming tools such as hoes and plows.
Pottery used for cooking
Weaving invented to shape baskets and nets
More complex and comfortable clothing designed
Wheel invented for use on carts
Sails invented for use on boats
Plow for agriculture
Metals
Used to advance tools as well as weapons
Humans learn how to combine copper with tin to create bronze, and era is called the Bronze Age
Civilization Emerges
Mesopotamia
3000
1500
1700
1000
1000ish
500
Fertile Crescent
Sumerian
First major civilization in Mesopotamia
Developed cuneiform
developed laws, treaties, and important social and religious customs
Began to be used all over trade routes
Developed a 12 month calendar
Math system based on units of 60
Polytheistic: worshiped more than 1 god
Built ziggurats to appease gods
Babylonian
Developments:
Advanced code of laws that dealt with every part of daily life: Code of Hammurabi
First step toward modern legal codes
Distinguished between major and minor offenses
Established a sense of justice and fairness
Assyria
Developments:
Advanced uses of iron originally developed by Hittites
Established capital at Nineveh
Attributes:
Highly disciplined but cruel Assyrian army
Frequent uprisings against authorities
Large groups of people sent into exile
Return to Babylon
Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar, rebuilds Babylon
Showplace of architecture and culture
Extended empire throughout Fertile Crescent
Main Point:
When civilizations conquered a land, they adopted and adapted the customs and technologies, leading to cultural immersion
Persian Empire
Developments:
Huge empire that stretched from beyond the Nile River Valley in Egypt and through present-day Turkey and parts of Greece
Built the Great Royal Road: 1600 miles from Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea
Smaller Societies
Lyndians
Developments:
Began the use of coined money instead of the Barter System
Leading to the monetary system of consistent prices and allowed people to save money for future use
Idea spread across trade routes
Phoenicians
Developments:
Established powerful naval city-states
developed alphabet of 22 letters as opposed to more complex cuneiform
Hebrews
Frequently enslaved by Nebuchadnezzar but maintained identity because they believed that they were God's chosen people. Later were freed under the Persians
Developments:
practiced monotheistic Judaism
Established Israel in Palestine
maintained distinctive culture and identity
Nile River Valley
Women in Society
Religion
Social Structure
Achievements
The Three
Kingdoms
The River
Nile River Valley
Nile cuts through an arid landscape, so people clustered along riverbanks
Contained rich soil
Farms and towns developed along banks
Flooded at a predictable time of the year, allowing stable agricultural cycle
Consisted of Old, Middle, and New Egypt
New Kingdom was the height of Egyptian civilization
Stretched from Upper Nile River Valley through eastern Mediterranean and parts of Asia Minor
River Valley united under King Menes
built capital at Memphis
lead efforts to manage flood waters and build drainage and irrigation systems
Civilization,as a result, became wealthy
Pharaohs directed construction of obelisks and pyramids
Developed hieroglyphics
Later becomes dependent on trade
Polytheistic religion
Intense focus on the afterlife
Were convinced they could take earthy belongings with them to the afterlife
Believed they would be able to use their bodies, thus mummification
Huge pyramids built to guide and protect spirits in the afterlife
First female ruler, Queen Hatshepsut, who ruled for 22 years during New kingdom
Expanded Egyptian trade expeditions
Women in Egypt enjoyed more rights and opportunities than in other parts of the world
However, women were still subservient to men and valued most when bearing children
Pharaoh
Priests
Nobles
Peasants
Merchants
Hierarchy
Skilled Artisans
Pharaoh owned all the land in kingdom, so goods produced on land were his property
Peasants worked this land and generated wealth for kingdom
Peasants expected to give over half of what they produced to kingdom
On occasion, slaves--who were prisoners of war-- could be appointed trusted positions within the government or palaces
Indus Valley
Indus Valley
2500
1500
1900
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Ancient Indus Valley stretched for 900 miles along the Indus river
Traded through the Khyber Pass, that cut through the Hindu Kush Mountains
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa the two major cities, each with more than 100,000 people
Cities were master-planned, uniformly constructed, and had sophisticated waste water systems
Strong central government, led by priest-king
Polytheistic
Farmers grew cotton
Artisans made cloth--important trade item among merchants
Aryan Rule
1900BCE:cities of Indus valley were abandoned, and by 1500, the Aryans arrived at the Ganges River
Attributes
Nomadic tribes from north of Caucasus Mountains
Used horses and advanced weaponry to defeat Indus Valley
Aryan tribes migrated to India independently, and over time gave up nomadic lifestyle
Belief in reincarnation later leads to the belief of Hinduism
Recorded beliefs and traditions in the Vedas and the Upanishads
Social Structure
Formed the caste system
Divided people into classes: Priests(Brahmans), warriors, landowners, merchants, and peasants.
Since development of caste system, movement between classes is not allowed
Members of different castes could not marry, and children forced into same caste as parents
Cities of Indus Valley abandoned because of flooding
Early China
Early Chinese
Civilizations
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
Rose out of the Hwang Ho River Valley(Yellow River Valley)
Used its stable agricultural surplus to build a trade-centered civilization
At height, controlled large parts of Northern China and had a strong military
Limited contact with rest of the world
Traded with Mesopotamia
So isolated that they believed to themselves to be center of the world
Ethnocentric attitude: superior to all others
Developments
Were accomplished bronze workers
Built horse drawn chariots
Developed spoked wheel
Experts in production of pottery and silk
Culture
Extended family an important institution
Patriarchal structure by eldest male
Gods controlled all aspects of peoples' lives
Believed could call on spirits of ancestors to act as advocates to gods
Wu Wang established Zhou Dynasty in 1100 B.C.E
Ruled China for 900 years, longest in Chinese history
Mandate of Heaven
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven, meaning that heaven would grant the Zhou power as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
Political Structure
Ruled with Feudal system
King ruled entire empire
Nobles given power over smaller regions
Feudal System
Noble given protection as long as they stayed loyal to king
Nobles built up wealth and power and eventually split up into independent states
These states developed bureaucracies within governments, so different parts of government could stabilize and specialize
Bureaucracy remained popular in China
Fighting and warfare, however, brought an end to Zhou Dynasty in 256 BCE
Around 1500BCE, farmers in the Niger and Benue River valleys in West Africa began migrating South and East, bringing with them their languages and knowledge of agriculture and metallurgy
Bantu speakers gradually moved into areas formerly occupied by nomads. Some nomads moved on while others adopted the sedentary lifestyle of the Bantu.
Migration was spurred by climactic changes, such as the Sahara Desert drying up. Further north in the Niger River Valley are the remains of Jenne-Jeno, the first sub-saharan African city
Jenne-Jeno reached urban density, but does not show a hierarchically organized society. The city is believed to be a unique form of Urbanism comprising of a collection of individual communities
Bantu Migrations
Bantus
Early Americas
Early Mesoamerica and Andean South America
Chavin
Olmec
900-200 BCE
Urban civilization
Polytheistic
Mostly agricultural
Had access to the coast and could supplement diet with seafood
Developed tools and weapons
Used llamas as beasts of burden
Did not develop in a river valley
No contact with other civilizations across the Pacific and Atlantic
From 1500-400 BCE
Urban society
supported by surpluses of corn, beans, and squash
Mastered irrigation techniques
Constructed large-scale building projects
Polytheistic
Developed system of writing and a calendar
Did not have access to other civilizations
Did not develop in a river valley
Hinduism
Buddhism
Judaism
Christianity
Polytheism
Confucianism
Daoism
Legalism
Vast majority of civilizations were polytheistic
Belief in multiple gods that affect daily life in varying degrees
Center of art and architecture
Led to rise in priestly class
Civilizations become dependent on an elevated peoples who control destiny
Formed rigid social classes with priests near the top
Rise and fall of city-states blamed on disputes in heavens
Confucius thought at odds with state policy
Teachings recorded in Analects
Political and scientific philosophy
Deals with how to restore political and social order
Does not deal with how to large philosophical or religious ideas
Focuses on 5 relationships: husband and wife, parent and child, ruler and subject, older brother and younger brother, and friend and friend
Belief that morally strong individuals had to exercise enlightened leadership
People could be Confucius and another religion
Dao: Way of nature or the cosmos
Founded by Lao-Tzu, Chinese Philosopher
Based on an elusive concept of an eternal principle governing all workings of the world
Ambition and activism bring chaos
Study the Wuwei
Simple life in harmony with nature
Advocated formation of small self-sufficient communities
Promoted scientific discovery
Could coexist with other religions
Practiced in China during the Qin Dynasty
Peace and order achieved only through centralized, tightly governed state
Needed strict laws because it did not trust human nature
Caused widespread resentment among people and wider acceptance of Confucianism and Daoism
Han Dynasty later blends Confucianism and Legalism
Practiced in India
Believes in a supreme force called Brahma, the creator
Hindu gods are manifestations of Brahma
Goal is to merge with Brahma
Belief in reincarnation
Dharma: Rules of caste you were born into
Strict caste system and social structure prevents influence in other parts of the world
Founded by Siddartha Guatama (563-483)
Involves 4 noble truths
All life is suffering
Suffering is caused by desire
One can be freed of this desire
One is freed from desire by following the 8 Fold path
Following the path allows you to move toward nirvana
Belief in reincarnation
After death of Buddha, Buddhism split into two different forms
Theravada Buddhism: Buddha is not a god
Mahayana Buddhism: Buddha becomes godlike deity
Belief in Bodhisattvas: Those who achieve nirvana but choose
to stay on earth
Appealed to lower class
Ashoka, Mauryan emperor, spread Buddhism
Eventually reabsorbed into Hinduism
Ghandara Buddhas: blend of Buddhism and Greco-
Roman philosophy
Practiced by Hebrews
Belief that God selected a group of people, Hebrews, and made himself known to them, and that if they worshiped him and were faithful, he would preserve them for all time
Later become the Jews
Belief that God created the world so that humans may exercise free will
Follow the Torah-first five books of the bible
First major monotheistic religion
Splinter group of Jews that quickly spread
to non-Jews
Follows teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, who
was crucified in 30 CE
Believe that he rose from the dead
Involves old and new testaments of the bible
Forgiveness of sins=everlasting life
Incorporates emphasis on compassion, grace through faith, and promise of eternal life for all
Widely popular with lower class and women
Becomes official religion of Roman Empire
Trade, warfare, and migration spreads
religions far beyond origin
Classic MesoAmerica
500 CE
800
850
300BCE
Mayan Civilization
Beginning of Mayan civilization
Began as a collection of city-states
All city-states ruled by same king
Built pyramids
Wrote using hieroglyphics
Developed complex calendar system
Built tremendous cities (Tikal, the most important Mayan political center with a population of 100,000 people)
Dominating Mexico

Divided cosmos into three parts: heavens above, humans in the middle, and the underworld below
Believed gods created humans out of maize, one of the main Mayan dietary staples, and water
Believed gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honor, sacrifices, and bloodletting rituals
Mayan warfare imbued religious influence
Warfare conducted to acquire slaves for large building projects instead of land
No large animals to do heavy lifting labor
The Golden Age

Majority of people were peasants or slaves
Merchants enjoyed high status
Ridged field system to collect rainfall and accommodate swamp conditions
Cotton and Maize widely cultivated
Known for cotton textiles
Buildings well preserved
Tiered temple at Chichen Itza, similar in design to Egyptian pyramids and Mesopotamian ziggurats
The Ruins

Mayan calendar, based on a number system, that included zero
Was most accurate for its time
Only runs through 2012, giving rise to end of the world predictions
Theorized that disease or drought or declining health of large peasant population, warfare, internal unrest, or exhausted environmental resources led to decline of the Maya
Rise of
the Classic Civilizations: India and China
Mauryan Empire
Han Dynasty
Gupta Empire
Qin Dynasty
Spans from Indus River valley eastward through the Ganges river valley and southward through the Deccan plateau
Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a civilization
Ashoka Maurya takes Mauryan empire to its golden age
Power and wealth comes from trade
Merchants traded silk, cotton, elephants, etc. to Mesopotamia and the eastern Roman Empire
Powerful military
Leader Ashoka begins preaching nonviolence and moderation
Ashoka known for Rock and Pillar Edicts carved across empire
Placed as reminder to live generous and righteous lives
His conversion caused the religion to spread beyond India
Mauryan Empire declines rapidly after Ashoka's death in 232 BCE
Economic problems and pressure from attacks in northeast
Between 375 and 415 CE, the empire experiences a revival under Chandra Gupta the Great
More decentralized and smaller than Mauryan empire
Enjoyed relative peace
Women increasingly lose their rights
Significant advances in arts and sciences
Developed idea of pi and zero
Devised a decimal system and numbers 1-9
Hinduism dominant religion
Reinforced caste system
Collapsed under pressure from the White Huns in 550 CE
Lasted little longer than a decade
Developed a strong economy based on agriculture
Organized powerful army equipped with iron weapons
Unified the region under a single emperor
Begins connecting and building Great Wall of China
Shows that empire was well organized, centralized, and territorial
Qin Shihuangdi was dynasty's first emperor
Recentralized various feudal kingdoms that split Zhou dynasty
Standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, and systems of writing
Patriarchal society
Dominant belief system: Legalism
Leader killed by peasants who resented Qin Dynasty's
heavy-handedness
Xiongnu, a large nomadic group invades territories extending from China to Eastern Europe
Wu Ti enlarged Han Empire to Central Asia
Trade thrived along Silk Road to the Mediterranean
Along the Silk Road, Buddhism spreads
Civil Service system develops based on Confucianism
Believed that those involved in government should be highly educated and excellent communicators
Government bureaucracy that was highly skilled and contributed to stability
Invention of paper, highly accurate sundials, and calendars
Strides in navigation, such as invention of rudder and compass
Broadened use of metals
Fall of
the Classic Civilizations: India and China
Gupta Empire
Han Dynasty
Invaded by the White Huns
Able to hold off Huns for first half of fifth century
Defense cost weakened state
Hun kingdoms formed in western and northern India
Hinduism and caste system survives the invasion, however
Han dynasty interrupted by reign of Wang Mang, who established the Xin dynasty(9-23 CE)
Used belief in the Mandate of Heaven to seize the throne
Weakened empire and control
Attempted reforms of land ownership and currency were unsuccessful and caused chaos in all classes
War led to conscription of population and heavy taxation of landowners, who in turn had to pay less to farmers
Famines, floods along Yellow River, and commodity prices
Peasant uprisings
Sparta vs. Athens
The Golden Age of Pericles
Alexander the Great
Greek Mythology
Politics
Athens and Sparta
Greece
Greece began as a collection of city-states
Athens
Political, commercial, and cultural center of Greece
Sparta
Population lived an austere, highly disciplined existence
All boys, and some girls, received military training
City States
Three groups of people: Citizens, adult males, engaged in business or commerce, Free people with no political rights, and non-citizens, slaves who accounted for nearly a third of the population and had no rights

All citizens (adult males) expected to participate in civic decisions
Athens regarded as first democracy
Women held a higher status and granted greater equality in Sparta
Draco and Salon: Aristocrats who worked to create the democracy in Athens and to ensure fair, equal, and open participation
Slave labor allowed Greek citizens the time to vote and create art and philosophy
Slaves who earned enough could buy their freedom
Greeks were polytheistic
Gods thought to possess human failings and flaws
Mythology remains part of Western heritage and language
War With Persia
Persian Wars (499-449 BCE) united all Greek city-states against their mutual enemy (Persia was the largest empire in Mediterranean and Mesopotamia to date)
Much of Athens is destroyed
Wars end in a stalemate
Two huge victories by Greeks allow them to maintain control of the Aegean Sea
Greece enters into an era of peace and prosperity: the Golden Age of Pericles
Athens becomes a cultural powerhouse under leadership of Pericles (480-404 BCE)
Delian League (Alliance of city-states against its enemies) established
Philosophy and fine arts flourish
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle believed that truth could be discerned through rational thought and deliberate and careful observation
Greek architecture
Math and science thrived: Archimedes, Hippocrates, and Pythagoras
Homer wrote epic poems Illiad and the Odyssey
Accomplishments in this period serve as inspiration
for the Renaissance and the Enlightenment
City states allied with Sparta to create the Peloponnesian League
Trade dispute involving city of Corinth pushed Athens and Sparta into the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
Sparta victory
Sparta dominated for a short time until the Macedonians, Philip III of Macedon, invaded and reigned from 359 to 336 BCE
Macedonians respected Greek culture and encouraged it to flourish
King Philip's son, Alexander the Great widely expanded Macedonian influence
Conquered the Persian Empire to shores of the Indus River
Spread Greek customs to rest of the world
Much of the world became connected under uniform law and trade practices
Hellenism, the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece, didn't perish as a result of victories of Athens and Sparta
Ptolemaic, section of the empire, became the wealthiest
Ptolemaic rulers didn't interfere with Egyptian society
Alexander the Great's death at age 33 caused the empire to crumble
Rise of Imperialism
Military Domination
Collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Social Structure
Political Structure
Roman Mythology
The Roman Empire
Polytheistic
Many gods of Greek origin, but renamed to suit culture and language
Consisted of patricians, land owning noble-men, Plebeians, all other free men, and slaves
Organized as a representative republic
Consisted of Senate, Patrician families, and Assembly, which was open to Patricians and Plebeians
More stable than direct democracies of Greek Polis
Civil laws to protect individual rights
Laws of Rome called Twelve Tables of Rome
Centered on Pater Familias--eldest male in the family had highest authority
Women had considerable influence in the family
Slavery an important element
Compromised 1/3 of population, as in Greece
Slaves living and working in cities had better conditions that slaves in the country
Some had possibility of freedom
Rome sought to expand, causing the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE)
Rome gains territory across Mediterranean
Rome becomes undisputed power
Obtains Greece from the Macedonians
Warfare aided spread of Roman culture
Built extensive road network and aqueducts and enlarged their army
Power transferred to three men, one of whom was Augustus Caesar
Under Augustus, Pax Romana flourished
Rome becomes capital
Customs of conquered territories survive
Growth of arts and sciences
Literature and architecture
Astronomy rejects ideas of roman catholic church
Engineers improved roads and aqueducts
Paganism original roman religion
Christianity transforms roman society
Roman emperors sought to end growth of Christianity
Internal decay in combination with external pressures cause the fall of the Roman empire
Size of empire and huge expense of maintaining it
Weak leaders
Series of epidemics
In 284 CE, Roman empire is divided into east and west, run by co-emperors
East thrived because of capital at Constantinople, called the Byzantines
The Silk Road
From China to the Roman Empire
Disease
Religion
Culture
Technology
Along the silk road were numerous small towns where merchants stopped and traded goods
Black Plague, measles, smallpox
Christianity and Buddhism
Strict and patriarchal social divisions
Little Land Ownership
Spartan Women Were Citizens
Women Could Own Businesses
High Literacy Among Upper Class
Women could be Priestesses or Later, Nuns
Strict Patriarchal Caste System
Women not Allowed to Inherit Property
None
Needed Large Dowry and No Remarriage for Widows
Forbidden to Read Sacred Texts
Women Could Not Achieve Moksha
Strict Confucian Social Order and Guidelines for Virtuous Behavior
Only Sons Inherit Property
None
Rome/Greece
India
China
Arranged Marriages
Widows Permitted to Remarry
Upper Classes Educated in Arts and Literature and All Educated in Virtues
Buddhist Convents and Daoism Balances Male and Female
Association of Hebrew monotheism with Judaism further develops with the codification of the Hebrew scriptures
Assyrian and Roman empires create Jewish diasporic communities and destroyed kingdom of Israel
Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis for Vedic religions (Hinduism)
Time Period 2
Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
600BCE
O
300BCE
300CE
600
New Belief Systems and Cultural Traditions Emerge and Spread
Other Religions and Cultural Traditions Continued
Shamanism and Animism continue
Artistic Expressions
Greek Tragedy
Indian Epics
Indian
Greek
Mayan
Roman
New Techniques of Imperial Administration
Rulers create administrative institutions, including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies (China, Persia, Rome, or India)
Project military power through diplomacy, supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls and roads, and drawing soldiers from population
Success rests on promotion of trade and economic integration
Social and Economic Dimensions
Cities serve as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and as political administration for states and empires (Persepolis, Chang'an, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, or Teotihuacan)
Social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies
Imperial societies rely on labor systems: corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities, and family and household production
PATRIARCHY CONTINUES TO SHAPE GENDER AND FAMILY RELATIONS IN ALL IMPERIAL SOCIETIES
Problems in Imperial Society
Excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage (Soil depletion, desertification, deforestation, erosion, or silted rivers)
Concentrated too much wealth in the hands of elites
Security issues along frontiers
Threat of invasions
New Technologies
Yokes
Saddles
Stirrups
Lateen Sail
Allowed animals to pull plows so soil didn't have to be turned by hand
Riders could stay on horses more easily
Riders could stand up in saddle and hold on with feet, allowing him to use weapons during battle
Sailors didn't have to rely on tides to sail, making it especially effective in the Indian Ocean
Dhow Ships
Typically smaller than regular ships and faster, used to go up rivers
Exchange
Spread of crops encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques
Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread
Remember:
Emergence of new Transregional Networks
Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean sea lanes
Mediterranean
Eurasian silk roads
Empires
Maya
Greece
Rome
India and China
Women in Ancient Society
Time Period 3
600
900
750
1050
1300
1450
Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks
Existing trade routes promoted growth of powerful new trading cities (Novgorod, Timbuktu, Baghdad, Melaka, Venice, and Tenochtitlan)
Growth of interregional trade in luxury goods (Silk, cotton, porcelain, spices, precious metals, slaves, or exotic animals)
More sophisticated caravan organizations (Caravanserai or camel saddles)
Expansion of existing empires as well as new empires facilitated trans-Eurasian trade
The Islamic Empire
625
875
Rise of Islam
Umayyad Dynasty
750
1000
Abbasid Dynasty
1125
Decline
1250
Beliefs
A monotheistic religion that believe that Allah, God, transmitted his words through the prophet Mohammad, whose followers recorded his words into the Qu'ran
Salvation is won through submission to the will of God
Confession of faith
Prayer five times a day
Charity to the needy
Fasting during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Five Pillars of Islam
Guided by Jihad (to Struggle)
Split later into Sunni and Shia Islam
Mohammad grew up in Mecca
Islam conflicted with leaders of Mecca
Leaders wanted to maintain polytheistic tribes
Mohammad attacks Mecca with followers from Medina, and destroys all shrines, save Ka'ba
Later becomes incredibly powerful within 30 years
Abu Bakr becomes caliph after Mohammad's death
Became head of state, military commander, chief judge, and religious leader
Theocracy: a government ruled by immediate divine guidance
Growth of Islam linked to growth of the empire
Leaders of empire begins to become hereditary
Umayyad dynasty of the Islamic empire enlarges Islamic empire but increases conflict with Byzantine and Persian Empires
Arabic becomes official language
Gold and silver coins as standard monetary unit
Conquered peoples "encouraged" to convert to Islam, or pay a tax
Islamic empire extends as far as northern Africa and into Spain
Attacked Byzantine capital of Constantinople numerous times
Never flourished in Europe beyond Spain and southern Italy
Muslim empire becomes too overwhelming, so it splits into Shiite(Shia) and Sunni
Conflict between these two groups eventually leads to empire's demise
750-1258
Oversees a golden age from the early to mid ninth century
Built capital at Baghdad
Built around trade
Merchants introduce credit to trade system
Islamic advancements seen in medical and mathematics fields
Defeated Tang Chinese army in 751CE
Fought for control over silk road
Islamic empire preserves western culture by translating Greek texts into Arabic
Tolerant of local customs in conquered areas
Women and Islam
Women had no property or inheritance rights
Seen as property themselves
Low status for women led to female infanticide
Gender Bias common in many patriarchal societies
Qu'ran later raises status of women
Gained influence within family
However, men still viewed as above
Women had to be veiled in public (Recall: began in Mesopotamia and Persia)
Women's primary role becomes to be loyal to and care for husband and family
Regularly endured civil wars and internal struggles
Rival factions and powers developed and destabilized central authority at Baghdad and cut tax revenues
Turkish slaves, mamluks, revolted and established new capital at Samarra
Shia dynasty in northern Iran threatened by Seljuk Turks, a nomadic Sunni group
Threatened also by Persians, Europeans, and Byzantine
Defeated, finally, by Mongols, during the crusades
Europe
Attributes
Justinian Rule
Justinian code: codification of Roman law that kept Roman legal principles alive
Construction of Hagia Sophia
Orthodox vs. Catholic
Impact on Russia
Greek is primary language
Dome-like architecture


Practiced Orthodox Christianity
Emperors rule by absolute authority
Monopolized silk production
Used coined money at stable value
Reigned from 527-565
Roman Empire restored in Constantinople
Christian Constantinople and Islamic Baghdad rivalry
Accomplishments
Split up because differences between churches became too great
Disagreed over:
communion, priests being allowed to marry, nature of god, language, and placement of icons
Pope excommunicates patriarch of Constantinople
Orthodoxy influences east and Roman Catholicism influenced west
Slavic and Russian peoples converted to Orthodoxy in the ninth century
When Vladimir, Russian prince from Kiev, abandoned Paganism for Christianity, he also considered other religions popular at the time
Russia aligns with Byzantine, so when Roman Catholicism reforms, the Eastern churches do not
Caused Russia to evolve differently than the rest of Europe
Church vs. State
During middle ages, West centralized power on the church, while political leaders in the east were in control of politics and the church
East was more of secular empire with an official church religion; West was a religious empire with subservient political units
Other Events
Franks vs. Muslims
The Vikings
Charlemagne
Germanic tribes settled throughout western Europe
Converted to Christianity
Franks were a Germanic tribe united under single leadership
Fought and defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours in 732
Later heir to the throne chose to have his succession certified by the pope, legitimizing empire as reliant on Roman Catholic approval
Charlemagne crowned by the pope in 800
Built empire called Holy Roman Empire upon coronation of Otto the Great in 962
Power becomes centralized again
Relatively small in comparison to original Roman empire
Focus placed on arts and education
Society structured Feudalism
Local lords held power over local territories
Treaty of Verdun: area divided among three sons after Charlemagne's death
Raiders from Norse
Reputation for raiding Roman Catholic monasteries
Raiding: a normal consequence of pressures on a growing society
Merchants and fishermen and developed earliest fisheries
Settlements in Newfoundland, Canada, in 1000 CE, inland Russia, and France
Raided Constantinople
Converted to Christianity
By end of middle ages, Catholic Church became the most powerful institution in
world
European Feudalism
Hierarchy
The Land
Politics
social System
Serfs
King
Power over entire territory called kingdom
Nobles
In exchange for military service and loyalty to the king, were granted power over sections of the kingdom
Vassals
Received land divided by nobles, who could split their land for subordinate vassals
Peasants
Worked the land
For this system to work, everyone had to fill obligations: serve in military, produce food, or serve those who were at a higher level
Estates vassals held called fiefs, later known as manors
Peasants work land in exchange for protection and a place to live
Three-field system:centered on rotation of three fields: one for fall and spring harvest, and one allowing land to replenish nutrients
Lord owed allegiance to king
Fiefs were self-sustaining
All lords beholden to the same ruler
Conflicts between feudal lords on a regular basis
etiquette of disputes and rules of engagement in Code of Chivalry: an honor system that condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect
Male-dominated
Only males could inherit land
Women were powerless
Primogeniture: to the eldest son
Women could inherit a fief, but could not rule it
Noblewomen valued primarily for feminine traits, but regarded as property
Had few rights
Become tied to land
Couldn't leave manor without permission from lord
Imprisonment on land leads to highly skilled peasant class
Some of these skilled craftspeople began to earn extra income
Chipped away at rigid manor system
Emergence of middle class: urban craftsmen and merchants
Centralization in cities
1) League created to protect seafaring merchants in trade to have safe seas and ports, and inland trade routes. Occupied North Sea and Baltic Sea regions
2) League lasted from- 1400-1700s
7) Guilds can admit a variety of artisans and helped raise social values for work, secured education for artisans, ensured product quality and consolidated trades. However, guilds also set limits on competition, number of artisans, and stifled innovation in trades
8) Peasants made money from loans, inheritance, and developing landownings of their own
5) Lords in league demanded rents from peasants, and then sold surpluses to merchants. Merchants drew profits from sale of raw materials. Peasants payed landlords and were forbidden to trade with merchants
6) Merchants often invested money in non-guild enterprises because most cities did not have guilds
9) Merchants made money through sale of raw materials, collecting grain and products for sale, providing loans to peasants, selling to landlords, and dealing with enterprises
10) Lords shifted back to labor rents because it forced peasants to work longer days and became an incentive for engagement in surplus sails
3) League expressed other powers such as military and political power
4) Hanseatic Diet responsible for negotiations with foreign towns or rulers, ratification of trading agreements or privileges, trade and commercial blockades, financial matters, military issues, membership expansion or exclusion, conflicts within members, conflicts with feudal nobility, and competition policy. Formed to clearly show policies
Hanseatic League
The Crusades
Architecture during the Dark Ages
Romanesque Cathedrals
Gothic Architecture
Effects of Open Thinking
Founding of universities
Scholasticism, conflicting with church because it relied on reason instead of faith, developed
Pope Innocent III issues strict decrees on church doctrine at beginning of 13th century
Heretics and Jews are persecuted
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