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stefano tani

on 21 December 2014

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Transcript of PICASSO



MALAGA 1881 - MOUGINS 1973
1897 -> MADRID --- 1900 -> PARIS
1901 - 1904
1905 - 1907
1909 - 1912
1918 - 1924
1925 - 1936
Pablo married twice and had four children.
1908 - 1909
The African Period.
(Also known as the Black Period.)
Pablo's work is divided into periods. The Blue Period (1901 - 1904), The Rose Period (1905 - 1907), The African Period (1908 - 1909), The Analytic Cubism Period (1909 - 1912), The Synthetic Cubism Period (1912 - 1919), The Classicism and Surrealism Period (1918 - 1936.)
Pablo Picasso made some very interesting comments during his lifetime. Here are just a few of the things that he said:-
1. "All children are artists. The problem is how to remain an artist once you grow up."
2. "I paint objects as I think them. Not as I see them."
3. "It took me four years to paint like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to paint like a child."
4. "Painting is just another way of keeping a diary."
Pablo Picasso also created sculptures. One of his most famous sculptures is a fifty-foot high shape in Chicago.
In 1937 Pablo Picasso painted Guernica, a mural that was the centerpiece for the Spanish Pavilion of the World's Fair in Paris. The official theme of the Paris Exposition was the celebration of modern technology. The Aeronautics Pavilion, featuring the latest advances in aircraft design and engineering, was a centerpiece of the exposition. It is a bitter irony that Guernica, the most lasting monument of the exposition, is the Twentieth century's most enduring symbol of the horrors of war and the inhumane use of technology. It is a portent for the terrors of the next decade. The painting is based on the events of April 27, 1937, when the German airforce, in support of the Fascist forces led by Generalissimo Francisco Franco, carried out a bombing raid on the Basque village of Guernica in northern Spain. At that time such a massive bombing campaign was unprecedented. The hamlet was pounded with high-explosive and incendiary bombs for over three hours. The non-combattant townspeople including women and children were indiscriminately cut-down as they fled their crumbling buildings. The town of Guernica burned for three days leaving sixteen hundred civilians killed or wounded in its smoldering remains. The Fascist planners of the bombing campaign knew that Guernica had no strategic value as a military target, but it was a cultural and religious center for Basque identity. The devastation was intended to terrorize the population and break the spirit of the Basque resistance. In effect it was intended to "shock and awe" the Basques into submission. The bombing of Guernica was a sensation in the world press. The Times of London called it the arch-symbol of Fascist barbarity.
In art, Cubism disrupted five hundred years of Western artistic tradition and value. In literature, James Joyce’s Ulysses challenged the century old concept of the novel. Picasso’s Cubist works and Joyce’s Ulysses
transcend tradition, merge time and space, and radicalize form.
With particular attention given to changing concepts of space and time, similarities between the works are related to four characteristics generally attributed to Modernism:
1) deviance from tradition, 2) an emphasis on form, 3) fragmentation, and 4) appropriation of popular culture.
Picasso began Cubism in late 1907 and moved to a different style in 1914. Joyce began formulating the idea for Ulysses in 1907 and finally had the book published in 1922.
Space and time
are key elements to Joyce’s and Picasso’s work. Traditionally the nature of visual art invited treatment of space. Artists had dealt with concepts of depth and linearity in their interpretations of space. Traditionally literature tended to be narrative and linear in progression of time. With an emphasis on
simultaneity, achieved through fragmentation
, in Picasso’s and Joyce’s works, literature and art converge in the 1900s. When Picasso incorporated simultaneity in his Cubist works, concepts of time not previously contemplated in art were required. Simultaneity in Joyce’s Ulysses required a concept of space not previously required in literature. This makes the two fields available for comparisons and parallelisms.
Perceptions of reality
drastically changed and this change called for (= required) a revolution throughout the humanities. The change that Picasso brought to art, though seemingly abrupt, had its
precursors in tradition
The Impressionist
artists were primarily concerned with light and the retinal intake of images. Atmosphere took predominance over subject matter. The artists
Monet and Renoir
strove (to strive = sforzarsi) to paint impressions of landscapes, flowers, or city scenes. In their work, the technique of painting is affected but not the subject matter. Particularly important to the Cubists was the work of Post-Impressionist
. Cézanne began experimenting with traditional landscapes and simplifying them into cylinders, blocks, and cubes. This approach produced a flattening of the surface and a sense of ambiguous space.

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
, created in 1907, is . . . "the traumatic rupture that enables Cubism to begin”.
The style of the painting unquestionably marks the beginning of dramatic change in modern art.
The sharp contours of the women’s bodies project multiple artificial lines of perspective aimed in
various directions. The faces contort and the hard blocks of the bodies twist in such ways that the viewer
must take time to determine the connection of limbs to body and head to torso. The stares of the women
confront viewers and the presentation of twisted, angular bodies disturbed viewers’ sensibilities of art
and life. This painting shocked even the avantgarde art world of Paris. The rumor (= la voce) that Picasso had gone mad spread (= si diffuse) throughout Montmartre and many believed he was completely finished as an artist.
Of the elements,
was critical to the Cubist and particularly
its distortion
. By seeking to break up linearity, Picasso broke with the most effective and convincing methods for creating the illusion of three-dimensional space. The technique of linear perspective, developed by Brunelleschi during the Renaissance, created a spatial illusionism that implied linear time. Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper, for instance, is an excellent portrayal of linear, central perspective. By
inverting the perspective
, Picasso spilled the contents toward the viewer instead of drawing in the viewer. This effectively
art. In the almost monochromatic
Cottage and Trees
, the house and the tree spill forward (= si protendono) or seem to advance toward the viewer instead of receding into the distance. The tree, house, and vegetation are imposed each on top the other creating a strange flatness to the image as well.
Cottage and Trees
is the antithesis of traditionally learned perspectival techniques in art training.
Cubist art reflects one of Bergson’s thoughts that our perception of time is composed of multiple simultaneous occurrences which blur (= si confondono) into one another creating reality and experience. The effect of
was created partly through the inversion of perspective but also through the use of multiple overlapping planes of colour.
By imposing a grid and presenting objects and images as fragmented, displaced, overlapping, and with multiple perspectives, Cubism constituted a visual amalgamation of Freud’s dream theories, Nietzsche’s philosophy of human will, Bergson’s philosophy of the duration of time, and Einstein’s theory of relativity.
By rejecting linear perspective for the depiction of simultaneous perspective, Cubism also rejected the concept of visual narratives. A simultaneous perspective only assumes the present, thus only producing fragments of the same moment. Picasso ardently sought to represent this idea: “To me there is no past or future in art. If a work of art cannot live always in the present it must not be considered at all”. Therefore, the visual reality sought by Picasso could not be presented as a perceptual reality, but as
a reality that was intellectualized and conceptualized.
Concentrating heavily on form and construction, Cubism constituted a
removal of art’s traditional narrative content
by overturning (= rovesciando) the grammar of visual language. The objects are not completely abstract but are presented in an unfamiliar way.
Picasso defamiliarized these typical, traditional art subjects
, such as landscapes, portraits, and still lives, by breaking up the image(s) in sharp contrasting planes.
Joyce managed to accomplish this effect in a different medium:
is composed of overlapping episodes, sharp and fragmented, resembling an early Cubist painting or Bergson’s theory of time constituting a fusion of moments.
Picasso was very interested in new theories, especially those connected with time, space, and perception. He imposed a grid on nature and objects. Picasso painted images conceived from multiple angles simultaneously. Joyce not only wrote a Cubist novel, but he also composed cubistically.
Both Joyce and Picasso want to demonstrate that
“art is both an imitation of reality and a transcendence of that imitation, and the artist both the maker and mocker”. “Art is not truth. Art is a lie that makes us realize truth, at least the truth that is given us to understand. The artist must know the manner whereby to convince others of truthfulness of his lies”
Aesthetic Revolutionaries: Picasso and Joyce
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