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Chapter 8 - Emotion and Motivation

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April M

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 8 - Emotion and Motivation

Emotion and Motivation Emotional Experience The Emotional Body Emotional Communication Motivation The purpose for or psychological cause of an action Emotion A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity James-Lange theory A theory which asserts that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain Cannon-Bard theory A theory which asserts that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain Two-factor theory A theory which asserts that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal bear physiological fear pattern fear triggers experience bear fear triggers triggers bear increased pulse fear triggers interpret
experience physiological fear pattern Appraisal An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus The Emotional Brain Should you be afraid? fast, automatic fast, automatic fast, automatic slow, deliberate slow, deliberate slow, deliberate slow, deliberate Reappraisal Changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting simulus Emotion Regulation The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one's emotional experience Retail Therapy Does this make you feel any better? How do you feel if this woman... is at a funeral? is at a wedding? Emotional Expression Any observable sign of an emotional state Communicative Expression Universality hypothesis the hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning to everyone Facial Feedback hypothesis The hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify Uses teeth, expression similar to smiling = feels happier Uses lips, expression similar to frowning = feels less happy Deceptive Expression Display rules Norms for the control of emotional expression Require: Cultural differences in the displays of: Happiness Anger The Function of Emotion Hedonic Principle the notion that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain The Conceptualization of Motivation Homeostasis The tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state Drive An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality Basic Motivations Food Eating Disorders bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food metabolism the rate at which energy is used by the body Sex human sexual response cycle the stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity Psychological mortality-salience hypothesis the prediction that people who are reminded of their own mortality will work to reinforce their cultural worldviews Individuals who are made to think of death reported feeling more religious and having a stronger belief in God than those in a control group that were made to think of food Kinds of Motivation Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic intrinsic motivation A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding

Ex: Confidence, Self-esteem Conscious vs. Unconscious Approach
vs. Avoidance extrinsic motivation A motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to reward

Ex: Prizes, Money, Grades conscious motivation A motivation of which one is aware
Ex: "I want to cure cancer" unconscious motivation A motivation of which one is not aware
Ex: "I want to prove that I'm smarter than everyone else" need for achievement The motivation to solve worthwhile problems approach motivation A motivation to experience positive outcomes

Ex: I will do my homework for good grades avoidance motivation A motivation not to experience negative outcomes

Ex: I will do my homework to avoid failing the class
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