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Personality

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mannilyn beato

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Personality

CHAPTER 9 PERSONALITY For Kline Recio et. al. Dr. Enriquez Buco et. al. Atkinson and Hilgard Definition of Personality primary asset persona means mask The distinctive and characteristic pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that make up an individual's personal style of interacting with the physical and social environment. Relatively stable patterns of responding to environmental conditions that vary from individual to individual. A consistency in a person's behavior that remains stable under varying conditions. An integration and interaction of traits. It is not determined by just one trait but by number of traits taken together. It is considered to be social stimulus value of individuals. Social stimulus has to do with how well aperson relates with other person. "personalidad" is commonly used for the term personality. But "pagkatao" which means "personhood" best approximates the term "personality". He emphasized "pagkatao" since Filipinos do not need masks in order to present their characteristics. Domains of Personality Physical/External Domain This pertains to one's posture build and size, complexion and facial expression, as well as the appropriateness and condition of clothes comprise the physical appearance of a person. This domain is highly related to Filipinos' notion of "panlabas na anyo". Mental/Cognitive Domain How the persons talks, the range of ideas he expresses and the things he talks about, as well as mental alertness are examples of this domain. One can infer personality by judging how one presents and expresses their ideas and opinions. Emotional/affective Domain A person's emotional make up is shown by ones likes and dislikes, whether he or she is aggressive or docile, how one responds when things become difficult, how quickly one gives up to anger, whether can one handle stress in job, what kind of senses of humor one possesses, and the like. Social Domain This has to do with social contact. It is how one person conducts himself with other people and how well he or she observes the rules of etiquette that govern the society. Spiritual Domain This is the consciousness of the higher values in life. Moral Domain This has to do with the person awareness of difference between what is wrong and right, his positive and negative adherence to the do's and don'ts of the society. Goals of Personality Theories To explain the observable continuities in a person's behavior despite great complexity and even contradictions in the behavior. To explain how the observable differences among people come about. To explore how people conduct their lives. Concerned with how life can be improved. Theories of Personality The Psychoanalysis or Psychoanalytic Approach The Behaviorism or Behaviorists Approach The Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach The Psychoanalysis or Psychoanalytic Approach Sigmund Freud a neurologist from Austria the creator of psychoanalytic theory. The basic premise of this approach is that much of what we think and do is driven by unconscious processes. Freud's theory of personality assumes conscious forces and inner conflicts in shaping personality. He believed that personality is shaped by conflicts that arise during psychosexual stages of development. He also identified three structures of personality namely, the id, the ego and the super ego. The id Consists of all the innate desires which include bodily needs,sexual urges and aggressive impulses. The ego Stands for the reasons and good sense, for a rational ways of coping with frustration. The super ego It is the internalized presentations of the values and morals of the society and comprises the individual's conscience as well as his image of the morally ideal person. The Behaviorism or Behaviorists Approach This approach is deterministic. More focus is given to the environmental determinants of behavior. It pays little attention to biological determinants of behavior just like what the psychoanalytic theory did. Behaviorists believed that people are not inherently good or evil but are readily modified by events and situation in their environment. Watson, Pavlov and Skinner Pavlov and Watson made detailed laboratory studies of behavior which led to different therapy paths. Pavlov to classical conditioning intervention and Watsons to operant conditioning ones. They both defined personality as the summation of behaviors learned by a person as he or she interacts with the environment. Watson father of behaviorism stated that individual's personality is simply a collection of his/her observable and outwards behaviors, all of which were learned through a series of reward and punishment experiences. Two distinctive reasons: Behavioristic theories examine behavior of other in small bits and not relating these isolated behaviors to one another is some meaningful ways. Behavioristic theories put so much emphasis on environmental forces in the shaping of personality. The Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach This approach focused on self, which refers to the individual's own personal internal experiences and subjective evaluation, It also emphasizes the person's dynamism and his capacity for personal growth, personal growth and fee will determine his own destiny. Humanistic Psychologists focus on goodness in human beings, on the self-concept and on conscious mental experiences. Abraham Maslow's Humanistic Theory The hierarchy of needs The concept of self-actualization Carl Rogers Humanistic Theory He holds the innermost care of human nature is essentially good, purposive, and trustworthy. He primarily concerned with the rounds blocks and detours on the path to self-actualization or full functioning. Assessment of Personality Observation - is a process whereby the observer watches the manner how individual behaves in a particular situation. Personality Test - it is an instrument for the measurement of emotional motivational, interpersonal, and attitudinal, characteristics as distinguished from abilities. Objective Test - is a kind of personality assessment which commonly involves the use of paper-and-pencil tests.
Projective Test - it is a personality measurement in which the individuals projects or shows his personality thru his responses in more or less unstructured test situations. Disclosure Technique - based on the idea that the person's self is known to be the immediate determiner of his own behavior. Rating Scale - this scales indicates the extent to which an individual possesses each of the characteristics or traits listed. It enables the rater to observe an individual systematically and objectively in a given situation and record his/her observations. Interview - it is a method of obtaining information from people. Situational Test - it is a kind of test which measures a person's performance in terms of emotional, attitudinal and behavioral responses to real life situation. When do we say that a person has an effective personality? When his behavior manifest successfully adjustments to given areas of this environment. The key to a good personality is the ability to adjust equally the greatest satisfaction of both oneself and one's associate. Some suggestions to improve personality: Be conscious of other person Assume that people like you Admit your defects Admire your friends Associate with people who are successful and happy Attend social gathering Change your environment occasionally
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