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The Evolution of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

AP Bio Quarter II Investigative Project
by

Alex Trunnell

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of The Evolution of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

AP Biology Quarter II
Investigative Project The Evolution of Aerobic Cellular Respiration We must first understand the
differences between Aerobic
and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular Respiration Understanding the Evolution of
Respiration OVERVIEW:

- Requires Oxygen
- Three stages
- Produces 36-38 ATP
- Takes place in both the cytoplasm and the
Mitochondria
- More efficient than Anaerobic Cellular respiration
Glycoloysis Ingredients: The Krebs Cycle Ingredients: Anaerobic Cellular Respiration OVERVIEW:

- Does not require/use oxygen
- Produces only 2 ATP (up to 19 times less that
Aerobic Respiration)
- Only one step: Glycolysis
- In addition to producing ATP, it also must add
additional steps to glycolysis in order to continually
produce NAD+ (done through fermentation) Products: 1 Glucose
2 ATP
4 ADP
2 NAD+ 2 Pyruvate
2 ADP
4 ATP
2 NADH Process - One molecule of glucose undergoes chemical reactions using 2 ATP which create two molecules of 3-Carbon phosphoglyceraldehyde.
- Those two molecules undergo other chemical reactions which convert 2 ADP and 1 NAD+ each into 2 ATP and 1 NADH.
- Because of the energy investment phase, which used 2 ATP, the net ATP gain from 1 molecule of glucose is 2 ATP. C--C--C--C--C--C Glucose: n.b. This tracks
Carbons ONLY! 2 ATP Pi--C--C--C--C Pi--C--C--C--C C--C--C C--C--C Pyruvate: Energy Investment Phase 4 ADP (total) 2 NAD+ (total) 2 NADH (total) 4 ATP (total) Products: Per Glucose:
- 2 Pyruvate
- 8 NAD+
- 2 ADP
- 2 FAD
- Coenzyme A Per Glucose:
- 2 Acetyl CoA
- 8 NADH
- 2 ATP
- 2 FADH
2 Process: What is important to know is that a series of reactions gives off CO as it creates the products necessary for the ETC to work: NADH, 4 ATP, and FADH . 2 2 The Electron Ingredients: Products: Transport Chain Per Glucose:
- 10 NAD+
- 2 FAD
- 34 ATP
- 6 H O Per Glucose:
- 10 NADH
- 2 FADH
- 34 ADP
- 6 O 2 2 Process: - What is important to know is that electrons move from the NADH and FADH , releasing energy. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and is imperative to this process. The ETC generates almost all of the ATP in Aerobic Cellular Respiration. 2 Now, let's compare that to Anaerobic Cellular Respiration... Glycoloysis Ingredients: Products: 1 Glucose
2 ATP
4 ADP
2 NAD+ 2 Pyruvate
2 ADP
4 ATP
2 NADH Process - One molecule of glucose undergoes chemical reactions using 2 ATP which create two molecules of 3-Carbon phosphoglyceraldehyde.
- Those two molecules undergo other chemical reactions which convert 2 ADP and 1 NAD+ each into 2 ATP and 1 NADH.
- Because of the energy investment phase, which used 2 ATP, the net ATP gain from 1 molecule of glucose is 2 ATP. C--C--C--C--C--C Glucose: n.b. This tracks
Carbons ONLY! 2 ATP Pi--C--C--C--C Pi--C--C--C--C C--C--C C--C--C Pyruvate: Energy Investment Phase 4 ADP (total) 2 NAD+ (total) 2 NADH (total) 4 ATP (total) The pyruvate then undergoes some type of fermentation, releasing a product such as alcohol or lactic acid, producing more NAD+ But how did Cellular Respiration evolve from Anaerobic to Aerobic, becoming a whopping 19 times more efficient?! The first bacteria known to have existed lived 3.5 billion years ago. They used Anaerobic Cellular Respiration to produce energy. Then, something occurred which is known as the GOE: The Great Oxidation Event. - Cyanobacteria began giving off Oxygen as a
byproduct. This oxygen eventually gathered in
the atmosphere, giving us the oxygen we have
today. C--C--C--C--C--C Glucose: n.b. This tracks
Carbons ONLY! 2 ATP Pi--C--C--C--C Pi--C--C--C--C C--C--C C--C--C Pyruvate: Energy Investment Phase 4 ADP (total) 2 NAD+ (total) 2 NADH (total) 4 ATP (total) Early Earth was molten lava until the formation of oceans when it began to cool. - Oceans cooled on the previously molten earth. - The newly available Oxygen paved the way for
previously inefficient Cellular Respiration to
evolve; prokaryotic organisms evolved into
eukaryotes and the mitochondria provided a place
for the new oxygen to be used in Cellular
Respiration. The Final Verdict Aerobic Cellular Respiration Paved the Way for Eukaryotic Organisms and Life as We Know It. -- According to the University of Illinois: "All known Eukaryotes
either have mitochondria, or evolved from ancestors which had
mitochondria, suggesting that the origin and evolution of aerobic
respiration may be central to the origin of modern Eukaryotes." ---- To put this simply, mitochondria (or chloroplasts in plants)
are imperative to Eukaryotes because they allow for
Aerobic cellular respiration and the production of more
energy. Larger organisms, more energy necessary. -- Humans are an excellent example of this. If we were to undergo
only Anaerobic cellular respiration (which is in fact possible), our
cells would die extremely quickly. Human cells evolved so that
they rely on the efficiency of Aerobic Respiration, giving them a
high capacity for work. MERRY CHRISTMAS!!!! By Alex Trunnell
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