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Chapter 6: Nationalism and Ultranationalism
Transcript of Chapter 6: Nationalism and Ultranationalism
and Ultranationalism To what extent can nationalism lead to ultranationlism? How does Ultranationalism
develop? How have people
responded to ultranationalism? Appeasement as a Response to Ultranationalism Failure of the League of Nations Charismatic Leaders Germany after WWI Japan After WWI Countries in Crisis Recap:
What is Ultranationalism? Propaganda and Ultranationalism Russian Ultranationalism Ultranationalism... -Textbook definition: An extreme form of nationalism. Ultranationlists are often fanatically loyal to their own nation and hostile and racist toward other nations.
-People also disagree on when nationalism becomes ultranationalism.
-Ultranationalists move from valuing their own nation and its interests to hostility toward people of other nations. This hostility can endanger international peace.
-Whether people label a belief or policy nationalistic or ultranationalistic sometimes depends on the nation they belong to. Propaganda: information and ideas that are spread to achieve a specific goal. The information and ideas are often misleading and dishonest. Extreme nationalists use propaganda to manipulate strong human emotions - especially fear and insecurity - and persuade people to behave in certain ways. Propagandists often:
-call their opponents names (e.g. terrorists or fanatics)
-play down their own failures and defeats (e.g. calling their own wars "holy" or "just", death camps as "concentration camps"
-use respected symbols to appeal to people's values and beliefs (e.g. religious, family images, or national flags
-appeal to people's fears when trying to persuade them to support particular actions (e.g. claiming that strict law and order is the only way to ensure peace and save a nation) -Various factors and events often combine to transform nationalism into ultranationalism. These include: social and economic crises, the emergence of a charismatic authoritarian leader, and national traditions and myths that promote feelings of superiority.
-The Great Depression of the 1930s. Around the world, people suffered economic losses that affected the pursuit of their national interests.
-October 29, 1929 share prices on the New York Stock Exchange dropped drastically. People lost their savings as banks suddenly closed. Unemployment rose as companies laid off their workers. Governments had a hard time taking care of the needs of citizens who had no money for food or a place to live. -Germany becomes a republic. Men and women have the right to vote for members of the new parliament. But during the 1920s, no political party won enough votes to run a successful government.
-The Great Depression hit Germany especially hard. The country was still struggling to recover from the war, trying to pay reparations (which treaty mandated this?) and make up for the loss of colonies that had been taken away by the Allies. Germany was also deeply indebted to the USA.
-In the early 1920s, Germany suffered extreme inflation. German money became almost worthless while prices increased by more than 100 times (e.g. in 1918 a loaf of bread costs two marks by 1924 the price had risen to six million marks!).
-In the 1930s German prosperity depended on trade with other countries but to try to protect their own industries during the Depression, many of those countries stopped importing German goods. As a result, unemployment rose, standard of living was destroyed, and many people faced starvation and homelessness. -During WWI, Japan supported the Allies, and after the war, Japanese exports to Europe and the United States increased. But like Germany, when the Great Depression started, these trading partners tried to support their own industries by limiting imports and Japanese people lost their jobs. In 1932, a massive failure of the rice crops caused famine throughout the country.
-Japanese ultranationalists blamed the country's politicians for the economic crisis. They were further enraged when the U.S., Canada, and Australia shut out Japanese immigrants.
-To try to obtain raw materials and markets for Japanese products, Japan invaded Manchuria, in NE China, in 1931
-By 1937, the military controlled the Japanese government and Japan was at war with China. Military leaders brought back traditional warrior values, such as obedience to the emperor and the state, and created a cult around the emperor, Hirohito. In the 1920s and 1930s, ultranationalist dictators emerged in the Soviet Union (Stalin), Italy (Mussolini), Germany (Hitler), and Japan (Hirohito and Tojo). 1. Appeasement: giving in to demands War as a Response to Ultranationalism Hrant Dink -In January 2007, Hrant Dink, a Turkish journalist who was also a member of Turkey's Armenian minority, was murdered.
-The teenager accused of the murder was thought to belong to a Turkish nationalistic group.
-Dink had angered some nationalists in his country by writing about the massacre of hundreds of thousands of Armenians by Turks in 1915, under cover of WWI.
-Because of his writing, the journalist had been convicted in 2006 of publicly insulting "Turkishness, the Republic or Turkey" and received a six-month suspended sentence.
-Dink's conviction and murder sparked heated debate in Turkey about free speech, ethnic tensions, and extreme nationalism.
-Would you describe Dink's murder as ultranationalism? Where do you draw the line between nationalism and ultranationalism? -Drastic economic and social changes that result in unemployment and poverty can spark extreme nationalism.
-In these circumstances, people's interest in personal security, economic security, and the values of their own group can become all-important.
-When the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991 Russia and 14 other independent republics emerged.
-The transition was difficult, and insecurity about the future bread hatred of people who were different, especially immigrants and asylum seekers. "Most of our population supports the idea of 'Russia for Russians', which means for ethnic Russians, not for Russian citizens"
-Alexander Verkhovsky Russia Under Stalin -At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia was an absolute monarchy. The Russian Revolution in 1918 resulted in the assassination of the czar and royal family and launched a civil war that brought been more suffering to millions of people who had already endured great hardships during WWI.
-By 1928, Joseph Stalin, a communist, had emerged as the country's leader.
-One of Stalin's first acts was to confiscate land owned by farmers and create collective farms owned by the state. Those who objected were executed, and an estimated five million people were deported to forced-labor camps in Siberia or Central Asia.
-Stalin wanted to replace the loyalties of the 100 distinct national groups in the Soviet Union with Soviet Nationalism. Any group that objected was persecuted as a "criminal nation." The Treatment of Ukrainians Under Stalin -The treatment of Ukrainians was especially brutal.
-When Ukrainian farmers refused to give up their land, Stalin confiscated their crops.
-As a result 10 million Ukrainians stared to death in the 1930s.
-Stalin also outlawed to use of the Ukrainian language in public.
-Ukrainians were the largest group of political prisoners in the forced-labour camps.
-Stalin also rid the Communist Party of anyone accused of being an "enemy of the people."
-Thousands of Russians were executed, and millions more were sent to slave-labour camps.
-People were exiled for preposterous reasons such as a man who took down a portrait of Stalin to paint a wall, and Ukrainian artist Nikolai Getman, who was in a cafe when another artist drew a cartoon of Stalin!? Survivors of the Ukrainian Famine Speak out Examples of Propaganda These depictions of Stalin are examples of Soviet propaganda. At the same time as millions of innocent people were being sent to forced-labour camps, Stalin's propagandists were creating posters, slogans, songs, speeches, newspaper articles, and banners glorifying extreme nationalism and presenting Stalin as a caring "father" of the Soviet people. Germany cont... -As economic conditions grew worse, some Germans began to look for a strong leader who could fix the country, and Adolf Hitler's National Socialist German Workers' Party - the Nazi Party - started to gain support. After many failed attempts, Hitler was elected to lead Germany in 1933.
-Once in power, Hitler dissolved parliament and declared the start of the Nazi Reich, or empire, with himself as dictator. The state ruled in all matters: economic, social, political, military, and cultural. Freedom of the press and freedom of the assembly were suspended, and postal, telegraph, and telephone communications were no longer private. Adolf Hitler demanded that people obey him without question - and children were indoctrinated early. Why would indoctrinating children be important? Hirohito was worshiped as arahitogami, a god who is human. How might the idea of the emperor as a demigod feed into the development of ultranationalism? These leaders inspired enthusiasm and devotion in their followers - and fear in anyone who questioned their leadership or policies. Opposition was squelched with deadly force. Adolf Hitler in Germany Hitler promised that he would restore people's national pride by making their country the leading nation on Earth. He was a skilled speaker who know how to capture the attention of an audience, Hitler said he would do this by:
-refusing to recognize the Treaty of Versailles
-rebuilding Germany's armed forces and reclaiming lost territories
-restoring the superiority of the "Aryan Race" - white Europeans of which the Germanic and Nordic peoples were the "purest" examples
Nazi propaganda experts used radio, movies, public address systems, and giant posters to promote Hitler's image and message before the public. The Nazis issued carefully planned releases to newspapers and distributed pamphlets and flyers. Party members organized central and neighborhood mass meetings attracting audiences of up to 100 000. People chanted "Today Germany, tomorrow the whole world" -Using powerful public address systems, careful staging, and skillful architectural design, Hitler whipped up support for his ultranationalistic policies at mass rallies. This rally was for the Hitler Youth Movement. Why would Hitler consider it so important to inspire German youth to form a loyalty to him personally? Hirohito and Tojo in Japan -In the years leading up to WWII, ultranationalists worked to rid Japan of democracy and to make the country a one-party state ruled by the military.
-Although Emperor Hirohito - the Son of Heaven - was revered (deeply respected), he was not involved in politics.
-The commanders of Japan's armed forces decided on the country's national interests and made most of the decisions that took Japan into WWII.
-Military leaders made the decision to invade China and to capture territory belonging to other countries (raw materials and new markets). They justified this by saying that Japan was only doing the same thing as the U.S.A and the colonial powers of Europe had already done.
-In 1941 General Tojo Hideki became prime minister and transformed Japan into a military dictatorship. Tojo was an aggressive ultranationalist who promised that the country would dominate Asia through military might. -Why do you think Stalin allowed and perpetuated the Ukrainians to starve to death?
-Why did Stalin promote collective rights vs. individual?
-One of the men describes the killing of Ukrainian intellectuals. Why is this important to the Soviet cause? *A link can be made between current ethnic Russian superiority and the legacy instilled by Stalin. How is Stalin portrayed in these
images? Instilling Ultranationalist Values *The dictatorships in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan promoted extreme nationalist views. Domestic and foreign policies fostered values. German ultranationalist propaganda often focused on the glories and nationalist values of the past. The arts and culture were used to glorify this. Books, modern art and music were condemned if they did not follow the approved nationalistic line.
-The "master race" were called upon to build an empire- the Third Reich. Germany to get rid of:
-socialists -Roman -homosexuals
-Jews -People with disabilities -From elementary to university children were taught Nazi values.
-Summer of 1933 ultranationalist university students burned books. Cont... November 9-10, 1938, became known as Kristallnacht- The Night of the Broken Glass. Gangs of Nazis destroyed Jewish synagogues, businesses, community centers, and homes throughout Germany and Austria. The beat up Jewish people, broke windows, and desecrated cemeteries. Cont... Hitler's government passed laws taking away the basic rights of Jewish people.
-Jew could no longer own property or businesses
-Jewish children were expelled from schools and universities
-Jews could not be doctors, lawyers, or university professors
-They were forbidden to own automobiles or have driver's license "Whenever they burn books, they will also, in the end burn human beings."
-Heinrich Heine, German Poet Ultranationalist Values in Japan -Ultranationalists promoted a return to ancient values that were woven into the country's social and political fabric. --This included the emperor as a demigod and the belief that the Japanese people are superior to all others.
-Foreign policy officials were assuring the world that Japan wanted peace but in reality they were preparing for war.
-The Way of Subjects 1930s: Japans educational system. Students were taught to idealize the past, to take pride in their race and culture, and to practise duty and obedience as the highest virtues.
-Western ideas were scorned and the ideals of Nazis Germany were preached.
-Militarism and national defence were priorities. Cont.. -Fanatic militarists preached a doctrine that included contempt for death, exaltation of victory, and blind obedience.
-Shinto: national Japanese religion. Warriors and soldiers are remembered and worshiped as kami, spirits who have become gods. At the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo kami are remembered - this includes Tojo Hideki and others who were later executed as war criminals. *some people want Tojo's name removed from the shrine. Pre-WWII many people had experienced the terrible costs of WWI and the Great Depression. Avoiding another war was crucial to their national interests.Therefore, countries hope that appeasement was the best policy when Hitler and the Nazis began expanding Germany's territory in Europe (1935).
In 1938 British PM Chamberlain, French PM Daladier, and Italian PM Mussolini met Hitler to discuss his take over of Sudetenland. Before WWI Germany controlled this region, but the Treaty of Versailles had awarded it to Czechoslovakia.
*In return for Hitler's promise not to expand further, Chamberlain,
Daladier, and Mussolini agreed to allow the takeover go unchallenged. "An appeaser is someone who feeds a crocodile - hoping it will eat him last."
-Winston Churchill Appeasement in action! *This is a great clip to watch if you are having trouble understanding what appeasement means with regards to ultanationalism. German territorial changes 1935-1939 Reactions to Appeasement *Not everyone agreed that appeasement would work. For example Winston Churchill drastically opposed it (as you can tell by his quote on the next slide).
-Early in 1939 Churchill was proven right. Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia. Appeasement had failed.
-In 1938, when Germany took over the Sudetenland, would you have agreed with Neville Chamberlain's or Winston Churchill's response? What criteria would you have used to support you decision? *On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched an invasion of Poland - and Britain and France finally realized that appeasement was not working. On September 3, the two countries declared war on Germany. WWII had begun. -Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King announced on September 10 that Canada was, too, at war.
http://www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/federal-politics/addressing-the-nation-prime-ministers-of-canada/canada-at-the-side-of-britain.html (link to his declaration of war). *Statute of Westminister 1931 allowed Canadian control over their foreign policy. -Germany and the Soviet Union are not the only countries that used propaganda to persuade citizens to act in the national interest. During WWII, the Canadian government created the Wartime Information Board to control information and inspire support for the war effort.
-This poster was designed to appeal to Canadians' fear of their enemies. How does it achieve this? TOTAL WAR! *After WWI, Canada was more independent from Britain. By the time WWII broke out Canada's foreign policy was no longer tied to Britain. Therefore, Canada's declaration of war was independent of Britain's. Britain declared war on German on Sept. 3, 1939 and Canada on September 10, 1939. -With Canada's effort was focused on the war effort it's involvement in international affairs also changed. The government began implying that Germany was the evil enemy, and Canadians were told that they were fighting for the "freedom of mankind".
-Government policies focused on what King called "a total effort for a total war," in which "the security of each individual is bound up in the security of the nation as a whole."
-Total mobilization encouraged Canadians to support that war effort by joining the armed forces or by working in essential industries and other civilian activities. -By September 1939, more that 58 000 Canadians had enlisted in the armed forces. Propaganda campaigns were launched to recruit people and persuade them to invest in war bonds (what are war bonds?).
-Official censorship was also introduced to ensure that no essential information fell into the hands of the enemy. A poster encouraging Canadians to enlist. A poster encouraging workers on the home front. Canadian War Time Advertisements: How do these images tap into people's fears? How are they symbolic of Canadian values? Encouraging the Canadian war effort. Conscription in Canada -The leaders of Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union believed that conscription (compulsory military service) was in their national interest. Both for national defense and for carrying out their expansion plans.
-Conscription was not limited to dictatorships. During WWI the Canadian government introduced conscription. However, it was strongly opposed by farmers and especially, from Quebec Francophones. Why do you think these two groups disagreed with conscription?
-Violent protests erupted in Montreal and Quebec as Francophones objected forced military service. Canadian Conscription Cont... -When WWII started, PM King was aware of the resentments caused by conscription during WWI. Still, he introduced a limited form of conscription, though he promised not to send conscripts overseas. They would only be used to defend Canada.
-But as the war dragged on, Canadian casualities mounted, and not enough volunteers replaces them. In 1942 King decided to hold a special vote to ask Canadians' permission to break his promise.
-63% of voters supported King, but this was not the whole story. The country was sharply divided: 79% of anglophones had favored the plan, but 85% of Francophones had opposed it. Internment in Canada WWII Canadian Conscription Crisis -During WWI, many Canadians became caught up in the racism and extreme nationalism of the period. Thousands of people of German and Ukrainian background were interned as enemy aliens.
-During WWII, wartime propaganda depicted Germans, Italians, and Japanese background were often discriminated against because of this.
-Before WWII, Canadians of Japanese descent had been subjected to discrimination, especially in British Columbia. Japanese were not allowed to vote or to enter certain professions.
-After Japanese forces attacked Pearl Harbor and Hong Kong in December 1941, things became even worse. Internment in Canada cont... -In 1942, Japanese Canadians who lived within 160 kilometres of Canada's Pacific coast were rounded up and transported to internment camps (prisons) in the B.C. interior or to farms in the prairies. 22, 000 were interned.
-The government seized Japanese- owned homes, property, and businesses and sold them at bargain prices - then used the money from the sales to pay the costs of keeping people in the camps. -In 1988 the federal government apologized in 1988 and $300 million in compensation.
-Last year the British Columbia formally apologized. This was initiated by B.C. Liberal MLA Naomi Yamamoto, the first person of Japanese descent to be elected to the B.C. legislature. By 1934, 58 countries, including Canada, Britain, and France, were members of the League of Nations, which had been created after WWI.
If one country invaded another, League members could
-order the aggressor to leave the other country's territory
-impose trade sanctions - penalties- on the aggressor
-use military force against the aggressor BUT member countries were not required to provide troops to stop aggression and the idea of joint military action soon became an empty threat.
When Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, for example, China appealed to the League for help. The League condemned the invasion, but Japan responded in 1933 by resigning its membership. After that, League members could not agree on what action to take and ended up doing nothing. Benito Mussolini -After WWI, Italy suffered some of the same problems as Germany. Promising to restore Italy's power and prestige, Benito Mussolini, an extreme nationalist and a gifted speaker, was appointed prime minister in 1922 and soon established himself as a dictator.
-Like Hitler and Stalin, Mussolini ruled through fear. His policies included suppressing all opposition, instilling absolute loyalty, and conquering other territories. Bio of Mussolini. Mussolini declares war on Britain and France. Failure of the League of Nations cont... League Members Italy and Ethiopia -Italy fought on the side of the Allies in WWI, and Italian ultranationalists had expected to be rewarded.
-Italy was angry when the Treaty of Versailles failed to give Italy control of the independent African country of Ethiopia or territory it claimed in Europe. -In October 1935, Mussolini ordered Italian forces to invade Ethiopia. Both Italy and Ethiopia were members of the League of Nations. Ethiopia cont... -In June 1936, Haile Selassie, the Ethiopian emperor, traveled to League headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, to plead for help.
-The League called for trade sanctions against Italy, but these failed when many countries, including the U.S.A, ignored them.
-Britain and France were afraid to strictly enforce the sanctions because they feared driving Mussolini into an alliance with Germany and Japan.
-As a result Ethiopia received no international support. In the 1930s, Germany, Japan, and Italy expanded their territory in pursuit of ultranationalistic goals while the world did little but watch. Do you think WWII could have been prevented if Canada and other countries had responded more forcefully? Ethiopia gets left out in the cold by the League of Nations... Extra Resources Khan Academy- these are educational videos explaining the causes of World War 1 (WWI). I find the Empires before WWI especially helpful: http://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/euro-hist/world-war-I-tutorial/v/empires-before-world-war-i Here is another one from the Khan academy:
http://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/euro-hist/ww1-aftermath/v/paris-peace-conference-and-treaty-of-versailles Grey: non members
Navy blue: members
Light blue: colonies of members
Orange: League of Nations mandate Peacekeeping -In response to the destruction caused by WWII, the United Nations was formed to help keep peace in the world.
-Intially the UN missions involved only observations but in 1956, a crisis over the Suez Canal highlighted the need for a different approach.
*The Suez Canal, built 1896, was a privately owned canal which links the Red and Mediterranean seas. In 1956, it was owned by a British and French company. The canal ensured that goods (OIL) could move cheaply between Asia and Europe more quickly and cheaply. Ships paid fees for using the canal, and profits went to the company's shareholders. Peacekeeping cont... -In 1956 the Egyptian government seized the canal. The government believed that it was in Egypt's national interest for the Egyptian people, not the company's shareholders, to benefit from the canal.
-In response to this Isreali, British, and French forces invaded the canal zone. However, the Soviet Union supported Egypt and threatened to to attack Britain and France. World War 3?! Newsreel outlining the events. Peacekeeping cont... -Lester B. Pearson was Canada's minister of external affairs. He proposed that the UN send an emergency force to keep on the canal zone while diplomats negatiated a resolution to the crisis.
-The UN welcomed this idea. Within days, a UN force made up of soldiers from various countries, including Canada, was in the canal zone.
-The hostile countries withdrew and a peaceful solution was found.
-This marked the start of international peacekeeping. For his work Pearson was awarded the Nobel peace Prize in 1957. Peacekeeping Today Peacekeepers' responsibilities range from establishing and keeping peace to nation building, which helps countries in crisis make the transition to more democratic forms of government. Canadian governments believe that a peaceful world is in Canada's national interest, participating in peacekeeping missions is an important part of the country's foreign policy. By 2007, Canada's national interest had taken part in more than 60 peacekeeping missions, helping to implement 170 peace settlements. In many cases, these missions were responses to ultranationalists actions.