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PSY 629_Lecture 3.1

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Michael Cameron

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of PSY 629_Lecture 3.1

AGENDA
PSY 629
Lecture 3
Reinforcement
2/8/16

Primary
Secondary
Class Goals
Contingencies of Reinforcement B.F. Skinner
Why do I need to know about reinforcement?
We use reinforcement to increase the likelihood of desired behavior
repeating (e.g., communication, language, social behavior, play, literacy skills, ambulation)
The goals of this class are to: (1) explain the operation and effect of reinforcement, (2) discuss the various categories of reinforcement, (3) define positive reinforcement, (4) define negative reinforcement, and (5) to provide an overview of the basic schedules of reinforcement. Review behavior-based safety article.
Instructor:
Dr. Michael Cameron
Title:
Use contingencies of
reinforcement
A Brief History

The Law of Effect

Reinforcement

Reinforcement in our Lives
Categories of Reinforcement
G
ustatory
O
lfactory

T
hermal

T
actile
V
estibular

A
uditory

S
ocial

Visual

A practical strategy for ongoing reinforcer assessment. S A Mason, G G McGee, V Farmer-Dougan, and T R Risley (Jounral of Applied Behavior Analysis)
GOT TV AS Visual

Applied Behavior Analysis Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Definition
Reinforcement


Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and
increases
the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar circumstances
Reinforcement can increase the
frequency (e.g., greetings)
of a response, the
duration (e.g., walking)
,
latency (e.g., reading)
,
magnitude (e.g., lifting a lever)
, and/or
topography (e.g., form)


B.F. Skinner
We reinforce behavior, not people
Reinforcement increases behavior, a "reward" may not necessarily have an accelerating effect
Preference and Reinforcer Assessments

Mind Your Ethics: Notes on Cultural Sensitivity and Harmful Reinforcers
Unlearned

Food
Hydration
Learned
Praise
Sounds from video
games (Mario Brothers)
Positive Reinforcement
Generalized Conditioned
Reinforcer

Positive Reinforcer. A stimulus whose presentation or onset functions as reinforcement

Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
Negative Reinforcement
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately
by removal, termination, or reduction, or postponement of a stimulus that increases the
future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions
Negative Reinforcer.

A stimulus whose termination, reduction, or postponement functions as reinforcement (can be unconditioned or conditioned)
Special Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment
The inside of the airplane I am flying is very loud, so, I put my noise canceling headset on
Science and Human Behavior
B.F. Skinner
Classification of Reinforcement

Socially Mediated
or delivered by another
person (e.g., directions to the car wash by a pedestrian)
Automatic,

that is, the delivery of
reinforcement does not require another person
(e.g., eating pomegranate seeds)
Article
The Shaping of a Behaviorist
B.F. Skinner
Schedules of Reinforcement
Rules about when reinforcement
will be delivered (fixed ratio,
variable ratio, fixed interval,
variable interval)
Behavior-
Based
Safety
Full transcript