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Transcript of vivisection
Tessa Jones, And
Lera Tsygankova Details of the topic: Dissection and is still legal/acceptable in educational/scientific settings in the West
Controversy over dissection in the US started in 80's; controversy started over students having to dissect frogs killed for the use of dissection in high school classes. The state of California passed a Student's Rights Bill in 1988 requiring that students objecting to dissection activities be allowed to complete alternative projects.
More people began to favor only using animals that die of natural causes in 80’s-90’s
Virtual dissections gaining popularity over real dissections across the world for educational purposes (including UK and US). Less school curriculums involving dissection Disection and Vivisection Today What is vivisection and dissection? Money and More The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has spent 7 billion tax dollars
Department of Defense spent $180 million using 553,000 animals in experiments in 1993
Private institutions (commercial products-cosmetics, household products)
Animal Welfare Act-Requires laboratories to send in the number of animals used for experiments.
The Act does not include mice rats and birds. Back in 300 B.C the study of human anatomy and experimental physiology started to progress.
There were several ways of looking at vivisection:
There were groups of people who prohibited such practice like, the Greeks, and religious groups.
There were scientists who used it to study anatomy and human physiology,
Scientists like Aristotle, Glean and Vesalius used vivisection to learn more about anatomy.
Glean made several contributions to the Medical world. (circa 168 A.D.)
It is illegal to clone, and use vivisection on humans, what about animals?
What are the Advantages?
Dissection is used in colleges, medical studies, high schools
(increased in 1900’s as part of the curriculum) People Involved: There were many people involved with vivisection including: Governments, Scientists, Doctors, Philosophers, Writers, and even Artists (such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo). Investors Who Practices it? Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Flemish-born anatomist, physician
Believed in importance of surgery
In 1539, a Paduan judge became interested in Vesalius' work and made bodies of executed criminals available to him
Vesalius had set the foundation for dissection as a teaching and research tool
Wrote “De Humani Corporis Fabrica”
Became the founder of modern human anatomy William Harvey (1578-1657)
Personal physician of King Charles I who sponsored and encouraged his research
By studying animals, he developed an accurate theory of how the heart and circulatory system operated
Wrote “On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals” Vivisection:
is experimenting on live organisms Claude Bernard (1813-1878)
"Prince of vivisection"
Made animal testing part of the standard scientific method of the time
Suggested the use of blind experiments
Bernard’s family was disgusted by his animal experiments. His ex-wife went on to actively campaign against the practice of vivisection Dissection:
is the experimentation on dead organisms Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916)
"Pioneer of neurological surgery"
The first physician to remove a spinal tumor with complete recovery of the paraplegic patient
In animal experiments, he was able to show that ordinary modeling wax reduced the blood loss
In experiments with monkeys, he established that the myxedema and cretinism can be treated with extracts of the gland
Studied the functions of the brain in animals and humans, particularly the cerebral cortex Josef Mengele ( "Angel of Death") (1911-1979)
Nazi doctor at Auschwitz extermination camp
Medical experiments on twins
Surgery without anesthetics, blood transfusions from one twin to the other, the deliberate injection of lethal germs into the twins, sex change operations When Vivisection Started: Dissections/vivisections have been conducted from 300 BC to present day
Fields of anatomy and experimental physiology began to progress around 300 B.C.
Dissection of human bodies was prohibited in Ancient Greece/Rome, so many scientists turned to work on animals.
Scientific studies involving the vivisection and dissection of animals included those conducted by notable scientists such as Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) and Galen (130 AD-200 AD) Galen's Studies: Aristotle's Studies: Galen dissected living/non living animals (dogs, pigs,macaques, ect) to understand and describe the human body. Led to centuries of misunderstandings about human anatomy. Galen’s description of the uterus was based on dogs; the position of the kidneys was based on pigs; and his understanding of the brain was based on cows or goats Aristotle's made very accurate observations on marine invertebrates (octopus, cuttlefish, ect.) Also described the chick embryo development; he distinguished whales and dolphins from fish; he described the bee's anatomy; he noticed that some sharks give birth to live young
Discoveries helped him create the species and genus classifications of animals Cruel experiments performed upon dogs and monkeys by Dr. Edmunds consisting of the complete and partial removal of their thyroids and parathyroids.
experiments were undertaken to gain further knowledge of the disturbances of the nervous system after the parts are removed and their relation to a nervous condition called tetany.deductions drawn from the responses of the anthropoid apes (and sometimes even dogs) would have to suffice where direct experiment on a man would present speedier knowledge gathering. The Idea’s of vivisection was started as a way to solving the problem of tetany in children
Tetany is an abnormal condition characterized by periodic painful muscular spasms and tremors, caused by faulty calcium metabolism and associated with diminished function of the parathyroid glands. The Use of Vivisectomy on Prisoners In the case of those charged of crimes, the issue of inherent rights could not be raised, for these had already been cancelled, and they were dealt with on this hypothesis.
It was seen as a way of an atonement for their [the prisoners] sins against society
It was assumed that the punishment should take a form that was serviceable to the community.
This was only taken in consideration if they were seen as criminals and sentenced to death. Topic Cont. Disection: Vivisection: Vivisection is also legal with restrictions, although much more controversial
Today, vivisection may be performed to test cosmetic, personal care, and household products. It is also performed for scientific purposes, drug testing.
Many animal rights groups and people who oppose animal experimentation associate vivisection with torture, suffering, and death
In the U.S, the Animal Welfare Act of 1966, and state laws regulate the conditions under which animals may be used in laboratories. States such as California, New Jersey, and New York make animal experimentation illegal if an alternative non-animal test method has been validated Bibliography/Works Cited Hadwen, Walter R. "View the Book." Recent British Vivisections, 1917 : A Record of Cruelties Perpetrated under the National Insurance Act and in Private Research Work : Hadwen, Walter R. (Walter Robert), 1854-1932 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. British Union for Abolition of Vivisection, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013 "Animal Use in Education." History of Vivisection and Dissection : Dying to Learn : AAVS. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://www.dyingtolearn.org/animalUseHistory.html>
"Vivisection | Mercy For Animals." Vivisection | Mercy For Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://www.mercyforanimals.org/vivisection.asp>
"The Truth about Vivisection." The Truth About Vivisection. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://www.vivisectioninfo.org/> "Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/vesalius_andreas.shtml>."Animal Use in Education." History of Vivisection and Dissection : Dying to Learn : AAVS. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.dyingtolearn.org/animalUseHistory.html>.
"Claude Bernard." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Bernard>."Controversy vs. Benefits: Vivisection Items in the History of Medicine Collections." The Devils Tale. N.p., 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://blogs.library.duke.edu/rubenstein/2012/08/23/controversy-vs-benefits-vivisection-items-in-the-history-of-medicine-collections/>."History." Medicinal Animal Experimentation: Pointless Cruelty or Necessary Evil. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://medicinalanimalexperimentationpointlesscrueltyornecessaryevil.weebly.com/history.html>.
Wikipedia. "Dissection." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. "Holocaust History." Josef Mengele. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007060>."Sir Victor Horsley." A Free Online Surgical Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?surgeons/horsley.htm~right>.Wiegand, Susan. "William Harvey (1578 - 1657)." AccessExcellence. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/William_Harvey.php>.
Animalearn. "Animal Use in Education." History of Vivisection and Dissection : Dying to Learn : AAVS. American Anti-Vivisection Society, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.Waggoner, Ben. "Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)." Aristotle. University of California Museum of Paleontology, 9 June 1996. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. Vivisection relates to Frankenstein through:
The vulnerability from the God-like control,
fixing things that are perfectly fine the way they are,
bringing the dead back to life.