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U.S. History - Unit 1, Chapter 3: The American Colonies Take Shape
Transcript of U.S. History - Unit 1, Chapter 3: The American Colonies Take Shape
Section 1: Immigration and Slavery
As the colonies developed Europeans began to arrive in greater numbers.
At first most immigrants were English but during the 1700s larger numbers of Germans and Scotch-Irish arrived.
Enslaved Africans would also be taken to America.
All of these newcomers would reshape life in the American colonies.
Section 2: The American Colonies and England
During the 1700s England was the colonists model for literature, government, and their economy. However, over time they started to form their own ideas about government and the economy.
Section 4: Wars of Empire
European wars spilled into America
British vs. French and their Native American allies
Result...British and colonies relationship becomes strained.
Section 3: Comparing Regional Cultures
As the colonies developed, three distinct regions emerged, each with its own unique economic and social structure.
The Scots and Scotch-Irish
These groups starting immigrating to the colonies in 1707 because...
Great Britain was formed (this included England, Wales, and Scotland)
Things in their country wasn't so hot...
Nearly 250,000 Scotch-Irish immigrated to the colonies in the 1700s!
Africans are Transported to America
During the 1600s, landowners in the Chesapeake region used indentured servants to work in the fields (most of these people were English) but as English immigration dropped off they had to find another source of labor. As a result, many colonists began to turn to another source of labor: enslaved Africans.
Europeans Migrate to the Colonies
Migration from England:
During the 1600s about 90% of the migrants to the English colonies were English!
About half of those immigrants were indentured servants. These were poor immigrants who paid for passage to the colonies by agreeing to work for four to seven years. Instead of receiving a wage, they received food, clothing, and shelter.
English immigration dropped dramatically when conditions in England (religious and political tensions and the economy) improved.
This happened around the 1660s
Second leading immigrant group in 1700s with 100,000 people.
Pushed out by war, taxes, and religious persecution.
Germany was a collection of small principalities (small kingdoms) and they were all fighting with each other at this time. Each principality raised their taxes to help pay for wars and forced young men to join military.
Also, their wasn't enough farmland for the growing populations of these areas.
Think about all the diversity in America at this time! Again, no place on Earth had so many different cultures living side by side!
Slavery in the Colonies Begins
By the mid-1600s most colonies began to pass laws that supported the permanent enslavement of Africans.
In 1705, Virginia's General Assembly declared that, "All servants imported...who were not Christians in their native Country...shall be accounted and be slaves."
Children of slaves would also be slaves.
This change in legal status promoted the racist idea that people of African origin were inferior to whites.
The Transatlantic Slave Trade
During the 1700s, the British colonies imported about 1.5 million enslaved Africans.
Most went to the West Indies
Slaves were purchased from African merchants and chiefs in West Africa
Slaves were criminals, POW's, or kidnapped
Enslaved Africans came to the Americas as part of a three-part voyage called the triangular trade.
Slave traders sailed from Europe to Africa where they traded manufactured goods for slaves.
In the Middle Passage shippers carried the slaves across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
After selling the slaves for colonial produce the traders returned to their home country.
The voyage lasted 2 months and it was BRUTAL!
Enslaved Africans were separated from their families and homes, branded with hot irons, placed in shackles, didn't know where they were going or why, and were jammed into dark cargo holds so crowded that the slaves could barely move.
The ill could be thrown overboard to prevent the spread of disease.
Some refused to eat.
Africans in the Americas
At slave auctions, colonial buyers often split up families to make it more difficult to plot escape or rebellion.
Arriving with distinct languages and identities from many different tribes and cultures the enslaved forged a new culture as African Americans.
Africans in the Americas
Slavery varied greatly in the North and South
Slaves made up a small minority in New England and the Middle Colonies.
Many more slaves lived in the Southern Colonies where they raised labor-intensive crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo, and sugar.
In the Chesapeake region slaves made up 40% of the population.
In coastal South Carolina slaves outnumbered whites.
To maximize profits slave owners put as little money into food, clothing, and housing as possible and made slaves work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week with a white overseer with whips...
Rebels, Runaways, and Free African Americans
In the South and especially the West Indies slaves revolted, rebelled, and tried to runaway.
The largest uprising was in South Carolina when 100 slaves killed 20 whites.
Most slaves rebelled in more subtle ways by breaking tools, working slowly, faking sick, etc.
The vast majority of slaves remained slaves for their entire lives.
The few who gained their freedom usually lived in cities where they faced discrimination.
Slave Life in Americas
African Americans developed a rich culture based on African traditions.
Blended Christianity with African religious traditions.
Created music to ease suffering and remind them of home.
Early in the 1600s, colonists often treated African workers just as they treated indentured servants.
They gave them their freedom after several years of service.
Freed blacks could own land, vote, and even buy enslaved Africans of their own.
Slavery in the Colonies Begins
England's Economic Relationship with the Colonies
England saw the American colonies as an investment:
Not much land in England but it was a wealthy country
Lots of land in America, not a lot of wealth though
British investors pumped money into colonies to get the raw materials (tar, timber, tobacco, coffee beans, sugar, gold, etc.)
Then in England they manufactured the raw materials into finished products (clothing/textiles, cigars/cigarettes, metalware, etc.)
Government in the Colonies
Lacking money the English King granted charters to private companies in exchange for money.
The King also agreed to give up much of the direct control of the colonies.
Traditions of English Government
A Measure of Self-Rule in America
Although they were thousands of miles away from their homeland, most settlers in the North American English colonies asserted that they were entitled to the same rights as any other English subject.
Nevertheless, the type of government in the American colonies varied from region to region.
King James II Asserts Royal Power
In 1685, when James II became king of England and tried to rule without Parliament.
He tightened control over the colonies and gave the colonists (who are still British citizens btw) less control over their local governments.
The Glorious Revolution Results in a Bill of Rights
In 1689, James II was thrown out as king and two monarchs took his place.
William and Mary promised to cooperate with Parliament and they signed the English Bill of Rights which gave more rights to the people. (Habeus corpus, no standing army, etc.)
Monarchs decided to give colonies more self-rule in exchange for cooperation in the empire's wars against France and Spain.
The Consumer Revolution
Colonists wanted expensive goods from Europe and West Indies.
Between 1720 and 1770, colonial imports per person increased by 50 percent!
An immigrant from Germany marveled that "it is really possible to obtain all the things one can get in Europe in Pennsylvania..."
British manufacturing made plenty of money off of the expanding American market.
However, Americans suffered a chronic trade imbalance, as they imported more than they exported.
Most colonists had mounting debts.
Enlightenment and Its Affect on the Colonies
During the 1600s and 1700s, Europe experienced an intellectual movement called the Enlightenment. This movement challenged old ways of thinking about science, religion, and government in Europe.
Science and new ideas challenged the traditional power of religious leaders to explain the physical world.
Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke challenged the unlimited power of monarchs. He believed that people had natural rights that came from God not from monarchs.
Locke would have a BIG impact on American political leaders in the late 1700s.
The Great Awakening
This religious movement swept across the colonies in the mid-1700s.
It was a time when powerful evangelical preachers traveled from town to town giving emotion-packed sermons that deeply touched leaders.
Preachers stressed that personal religious experience was important in seeking God's salvation.
They rejected the Enlightenment view that everything in the world could be explained by natural law and logic.
Because of this movement many new churches were formed...plus if colonists can pick their own religion, why can't they pick their own form of government?
Assignment: write a paragraph describing the triangular trade route and how it affected the English, the colonists, and the Africans.
The King of England, unlike the King of France and Spain, had to uphold the Magna Carta.
The Magna Carta is a document signed in 1215 by King John.
Limits king's ability to tax
Gave due process to nobles (right to a trial)
Nobles eventually formed a Parliament, this is their lawmaking body (like your student council).
Two houses of Parliament, House of Lords were nobles and House of Commons were elected by property owning men.
The English saw trade with the colonies as the key to their growing power.
To stabilize this power the English passed the Navigation Acts:
Only English ships with English sailors could trade with English colonies
Especially valuable goods, like tobacco and sugar, could only be shipped to the mother country.
The colonies had to import all their European goods via an English port, where they paid customs duties.
England's economy boomed because of this! They were also able to produce more goods, for cheaper prices.
The Navigation Acts Regulate Trade
Regional Economic Patters
What do you think New England's economy was based on??
What do you think the Middle Colonies economy was based on?
What do you think the South's economy was based on?
New England Economy
Mostly small farms where they raised cattle, grew wheat, rye, corn, and potatoes for their own use.
They exported fish (mostly cod) and lumber
Boston was their biggest city and port
Mostly family farms, able to produce more and better wheat than N.E.
Economy did pretty well because of the big wheat crops.
Two largest cities and ports were New York and Philadelphia.
Because of the warmer climate and longer growing season the Southern colonies could raise more valuable and profitable crops.
Planters raised tobacco and wheat
Regional Social Patterns
Few slaves in the north, but there were a lot in the South.
Poor, young, single men made up the majority of white immigrants to the South.
Most middle class immigrants went the New England or the Middle colonies.
New England had a 3:2 male:female ration, Chesapeake area was 4:1!
Differences in Population
European immigrants seemed to prefer the Middle Colonies most of all.
This was the most diverse region in the colonies.
Religious tolerance was high.
New England offered less disease and a higher life expectancy (70 years, compared to 45 in the Chesapeake region).
New England area's population grew quicker than the other regions.
Women in the Colonies
By law and by custom women had few opportunities outside the home.
Most women were legal dependents of men.
Married women could not vote, own property, or hold political office.
Women usually managed household duties such as cooking, gardening, sewing, and child care.
New England leaders favored compact settlement in towns to support public schools and to sustain a local church.
As a result more N.E. adults were literate than other colonies.
There was greater economic equality.
In the South there were huge plantations and small farms that were spread out in the colony.
This made it harder to establish a church or school...illiteracy was common and economic inequality was common.
Schooling was more available in New England than anywhere else in colonies.
By the mid-1600s, Massachusetts law required towns to provide schools where students could learn the basics of reading and writing.
Larger towns offered more advanced schooling (generally only for boys).
Colleges were few and far between but mostly in the NE, and it was expensive!
Colonists were better educated than much of Europe.
European Competition and the Colonies
Empire: an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly esp. an emperor or empress.
Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands are locked in a worldwide struggle for empire.
They all hold land in Americas
Between 1689 and 1748, the British and French fought a series of wars.
American Indians and the Balance of Power
Who treats the Indians better the French or the British? So who are the Indians going to ally with?
The French received the majority of the Indian support.
How did this help the French fight the British?
The French and Indian War
The conflict started over the Ohio River Valley. Why do you think this was so valuable?
This area was claimed by the French and British so when the French built a fort in the area the British (led by George Washington) attacked!
This set off a war that spread to Europe, Asia, Africa, and the West Indies (the first truly world war!)
Battles and a Treaty
British struggled at the beginning of the war and almost lost most of their army in one battle (saved by G. Washington)
French and Indians raided British settlements in Pennsylvania and Virginia.
The tide of the war shifted in 1758 and 1759 when the British cut off French shipping to N.A.
Many Indians then switched sides...British began to win battles.
Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 which gave the British Canada, Great Lakes, Ohio River valley, and Florida...and the French got kicked out of N.A. entirely!
Indians were negatively affected by the French being kicked out of the Americas.
British cut off trade to Indians.
Indians attack forts in Ohio River Valley with the intent to weaken the British and lure the French back in.
This uprising is called Pontiac's Rebellion after an Indian chief.
N.A. ran out of gunpowder, shot, and guns in 1764, rebellion fizzled.
Treaty: Indians stop fighting, British restrain settlers (but this didn't work!)
Aftermath of the War
The French and Indian War (also called the 7 Years War) revealed the tensions between the British and the colonists.
British wanted greater control over the colonies after investing so much blood and money...
They also had a large war debt...and they wanted the colonists to help pay for that debt...