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Rocks and the Rock Cycle
Transcript of Rocks and the Rock Cycle
1.) How are rocks formed?
2.) How are rocks classified and identified?
3.) What are the differences between the three types of rocks?
What is a rock?
A rock is a mixture of two or more minerals
EQ 4: How do igneous rocks form?
EQ 5: How are igneous rocks classified and identified?
EQ 6: How do sedimentary rocks form?
EQ 7: How do you classify and identify sedimentary rocks?
EQ 8: How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
EQ 9: How are Metamorphic rocks classified and identified?
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
The three rock types:
derived from latin word 'ignis' meaning fire. Igneous rocks are formed through cooling and solidification (to become solid) of magma or lava.
formed from the deposition (accumulation) of material (either on earth’s surface or in bodies of water).
a transformation of existing rock types through heat and pressure.
How are these rocks related?
Weathering, Erosion, Compaction, Cementation, Melting, Pressure, Heat, Cooling, and more.
You can actually alter and change these rocks!
For example: you melt a sedimentary rock it can now be considered an igneous rock!
The Rock Cycle:
Igneous rocks are formed through
(to become solid)
What's the difference between
MAGMA = INTERIOR (Inside of the Earth)
LAVA = EXTERIOR (Outside of the Earth)
Why do the differences of magma and lava even matter?
In order to determine what type of igneous rock there is depends on:
Where it was formed.
What materials make it up.
Three ways to classify igneous rocks:
based on the materials that make them up
Made from lightly colored minerals, so you get a lightly colored rock.
Minerals found: Quartz and Feldspar
Made from dark colored minerals, so you get a dark colored rock.
Minerals found: Biotite and Horneblende
Light and Dark
Minerals found: Horneblende and Quartz
What about this one?
Diorite is Mafic and Felsic!
Where they form:
Cools slowly inside the earth (a lot of time to grow = larger crystals)
Cools quickly on surface of the earth (little time to grow = small or no crystals or even airholes).
Textures of the rocks:
(Intrusive) Very large crystals
(Intrusive)- large crystals you can see.
(Intrusive and Extrusive) - Large and small crystals.
(extrusive) - looks like glass.
(Extrustive) - Can’t see any crystals.
(extrusive) - holes formed from trapped gas.
Formed from the deposition of material
Made up of
broken or weathered pieces of rock.
What are some materials that these rocks are formed from?
Pebbles, Sand, Clay, Shells, Dead Plants and Animals, Calcite, Halite, and Gypsum.
How do all of these materials create a rock?
this is compaction and cementation of these materials.
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks:
1.) Clastic -
Made of both rounded and jagged rock fragments.
2.) Chemical -
Made of precipitates or evaporates
(i.e. when bodies of water contain dissolved sediments, minerals fall out
of solution through evaporation or chemical means).
3.) Organic -
Made of once-living things (plants and animals)
1.) Cemented -
means I can see the fragments
(Sand, silt, pebbles, ect. )
2.) Microcrystalline -
Can’t see any fragments
3.) Skeletal -
means I can see the organisms.
(Shells, plants, ect.)
1.) Near shore (Beach) -
Formed from Sand, Silt, Clay, Pebbles, and Shells.
EX: Conglomerate, Breccia, Shale, Sandstone, Arkose, Coquina
2.) Off shore (Ocean) -
Formed from precipitates (Calcite Based)
EX: Limestone, Dolomite, Micrite, Chalk
3.) Land -
Formed in caves or from decaying plants or animals
EX: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal. Cave rocks such as travertine.
4.) Lakes and Lagoons -
EX: Rock Salt and Rock Gypsum
Since it is difficult to distinguish which sedimentary rocks have a CHEMICAL COMPOSITION I have provided you with the minerals that have this composition:
Have fun and Good Luck!
Rock that has been
CHANGED by heat and pressure.
The minerals formed into stripes!
Where can you get enough heat and pressure to metamorphose a pre-existing rock?
Two types of Metamorphism:
When the entire region experiences a crunch/squeezing pressure (mountain building) due to tectonic or regional compression.
Friction builds creating heat and pressure which re-crystallizes the existing rock.
When buried rocks come in contact with magma and high heat, the rock ‘bakes’ and re-crystallizes.
It does NOT melt. If it melted and then crystallized it would be considered what type of rock?
Two types of metamorphic rock:
Mineral grains have been
flattened into parallel bands or stripes.
No visible banding or stripes.
Where am I going to find a foliated and non-foliated rock?
Dynamic Region =
Results in a:
Thermal Region =
Results in a:
Information for your lab:
Biotuminous coal forms...
Higher/further from ocean = larger, more jagged particles
Closer to ocean, more rounded smaller particles
Why are the sediments smaller and rounder closer to the ocean?
Remember: Sedimentary rocks are formed from weathering and erosion.
Once the rock is broken down (weathered)
It can be transported/moved easier by wind or water (erosion)
Will be deposited down hill.
Once it it there is becomes buried by other sediments.
*A rock with a cemented texture will always be clastic!