Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic rocks and their descriptions.
by

Leah Baker

on 19 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Essential Questions:
1.) How are rocks formed?
2.) How are rocks classified and identified?
3.) What are the differences between the three types of rocks?

What is a rock?
Igneous Rocks!
Sedimentary Rocks!
Metamorphic Rocks
A rock is a mixture of two or more minerals
EQ 4: How do igneous rocks form?
EQ 5: How are igneous rocks classified and identified?
EQ 6: How do sedimentary rocks form?
EQ 7: How do you classify and identify sedimentary rocks?
EQ 8: How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
EQ 9: How are Metamorphic rocks classified and identified?
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
Biotite
Quartz
K-Feldspar
The three rock types:
Igneous:
derived from latin word 'ignis' meaning fire. Igneous rocks are formed through cooling and solidification (to become solid) of magma or lava.
Sedimentary:
formed from the deposition (accumulation) of material (either on earth’s surface or in bodies of water).
Metamorphic:
a transformation of existing rock types through heat and pressure.
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
How are these rocks related?
Weathering, Erosion, Compaction, Cementation, Melting, Pressure, Heat, Cooling, and more.
You can actually alter and change these rocks!
For example: you melt a sedimentary rock it can now be considered an igneous rock!
The Rock Cycle:
Igneous rocks are formed through
cooling
and solidification
(to become solid)
of
magma

or
lava.
What's the difference between
magma
and
lava
?
MAGMA = INTERIOR (Inside of the Earth)
LAVA = EXTERIOR (Outside of the Earth)
Why do the differences of magma and lava even matter?
In order to determine what type of igneous rock there is depends on:

Where it was formed.
What materials make it up.
Three ways to classify igneous rocks:
Composition:
based on the materials that make them up
Felsic
-
Made from lightly colored minerals, so you get a lightly colored rock.
Minerals found: Quartz and Feldspar

Mafic -
Made from dark colored minerals, so you get a dark colored rock.
Minerals found: Biotite and Horneblende

Mafic and
Felsic
-
Light and Dark
Minerals found: Horneblende and Quartz
Felsic
Mafic
What about this one?
Mafic or
Felsic?
Diorite is Mafic and Felsic!
Where they form:
Intrusive (Magma):
Cools slowly inside the earth (a lot of time to grow = larger crystals)

Extrusive (lava):
Cools quickly on surface of the earth (little time to grow = small or no crystals or even airholes).
Intrusive
Extrusive
Textures of the rocks:
Pegmatitic:
(Intrusive) Very large crystals
Phaneritic
(Intrusive)- large crystals you can see.
Porphyritic
(Intrusive and Extrusive) - Large and small crystals.
Glassy
(extrusive) - looks like glass.
Aphanitic
(Extrustive) - Can’t see any crystals.
Vesicular
(extrusive) - holes formed from trapped gas.
Phaneritic
Glassy


Aphanitic


Vesicular
Porphyritic
INTRUSIVE:
EXTRUSIVE:

Formed from the deposition of material
Made up of
broken or weathered pieces of rock.
What are some materials that these rocks are formed from?
Pebbles, Sand, Clay, Shells, Dead Plants and Animals, Calcite, Halite, and Gypsum.
Sedimentary Rocks:
Sand
Pebbles
Dead Plants
How do all of these materials create a rock?
Lithification:
this is compaction and cementation of these materials.
Mountain
Ocean
Breccia
Conglomerate
Arkose
Sandstone
Shale
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks:


1.) Clastic -
Made of both rounded and jagged rock fragments.

2.) Chemical -
Made of precipitates or evaporates
(i.e. when bodies of water contain dissolved sediments, minerals fall out
of solution through evaporation or chemical means).

3.) Organic -
Made of once-living things (plants and animals)
.
Composition:
Textures:
1.) Cemented -
means I can see the fragments
(Sand, silt, pebbles, ect. )



2.) Microcrystalline -
Can’t see any fragments



3.) Skeletal -
means I can see the organisms.
(Shells, plants, ect.)
Formative Environment:
1.) Near shore (Beach) -
Formed from Sand, Silt, Clay, Pebbles, and Shells.

EX: Conglomerate, Breccia, Shale, Sandstone, Arkose, Coquina

2.) Off shore (Ocean) -
Formed from precipitates (Calcite Based)
EX: Limestone, Dolomite, Micrite, Chalk

3.) Land -
Formed in caves or from decaying plants or animals
EX: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal. Cave rocks such as travertine.

4.) Lakes and Lagoons -
From evaporation
EX: Rock Salt and Rock Gypsum
Since it is difficult to distinguish which sedimentary rocks have a CHEMICAL COMPOSITION I have provided you with the minerals that have this composition:
Crystalline Limestone
Rock Gypsum
Have fun and Good Luck!
What does
metamorphosis
mean??
Change!!
Definition:
Rock that has been

CHANGED by heat and pressure.
(not melted)
Granite
Gneiss
The minerals formed into stripes!
Where can you get enough heat and pressure to metamorphose a pre-existing rock?
Dynamic
Metamorphism
Thermal
Metamorphism
Two types of Metamorphism:

Dynamic:
When the entire region experiences a crunch/squeezing pressure (mountain building) due to tectonic or regional compression.
Friction builds creating heat and pressure which re-crystallizes the existing rock.

Thermal:
When buried rocks come in contact with magma and high heat, the rock ‘bakes’ and re-crystallizes.
It does NOT melt. If it melted and then crystallized it would be considered what type of rock?
Two types of metamorphic rock:

Foliated:
Mineral grains have been
flattened into parallel bands or stripes.



Non-Foliated:
No visible banding or stripes.
Where am I going to find a foliated and non-foliated rock?
Remember!
Dynamic Region =

crunching/squeezing
Results in a:

FOLIATED rock

Thermal Region =
High heat!
Results in a:
NON-FOLIATED rock
Information for your lab:
Parent Rocks:
Olivine forms...
Limestone forms...
Sandstone forms...
Biotuminous coal forms...
Shale forms...

Granite forms...
Epidote
Marble
Quartzite
Anthracite Coal
Slate
Phyllite
Gneiss
Schist
Melting
Pegmatitic
Higher/further from ocean = larger, more jagged particles
Closer to ocean, more rounded smaller particles
Why are the sediments smaller and rounder closer to the ocean?
Remember: Sedimentary rocks are formed from weathering and erosion.
Once the rock is broken down (weathered)
It can be transported/moved easier by wind or water (erosion)
Will be deposited down hill.
Once it it there is becomes buried by other sediments.
*A rock with a cemented texture will always be clastic!
Full transcript