Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Global Climate

No description

Ms. Farrell

on 8 July 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Global Climate

Weather vs Climate
Weather happens day to day
Sunlight + Water
1. Uneven heating of earth's surface
2. Atmospheric Convection Currents
How does uneven heating drive circulation in the atmosphere?
Global Climate
and Biomes

Climate occurs over a long period of time
What causes Climate?
Unequal heating of earth by the sun
Atmospheric convection currents
Rotation of Earth
Earth's rotation around the sun on a tilted axis
Ocean Currents
We will look at 6 different factors effecting climate
1. Uneven heating of earth's surface
2. Atmospheric Convection Currents
3. Earth's rotation & the Coriolis Effect
4. Earth's tilt and the seasons
5. Ocean Currents
Three reasons why there is unequal distribution of sun's energy on earth
1. Traveling through the atmosphere
Solar energy is lost as it travels through the atmosphere
Solar energy travels through less energy at the tropics than at the poles
2. Variation in the amount of surface area over which the sun's rays are distributed
Solar energy is more concentrated at the equator, where the light hits it directly
Solar energy is distributed over a large area due to hitting the earth at a slanted angle
3. Albedo
The higher the albedo, the more solar energy reflected
On a HOT day, which would you rather wear?
MORE albedo
LESS albedo
Put in the correct order, from highest to lowest albedo
Areas with high albedo (80-90% albedo) keep the earth cool
Areas with low albedo (5-10% albedo) keep the earth hot
Which explains why cities are hotter surrounding areas
phenomenon called urban heat island
Earth's average albedo is 30% (% of reflected solar energy)
First, how does air move?
We need to study FIVE properties
1. Density
2. Water vapor capacity
3. Adiabatic heating/cooling
4. Latent heat release

1. Density
The density of air is dependent on temperature
Hot air rises
Cold air sinks
molecules are spread further apart
Molecules are closer together
2. Water Vapor Capacity
Warm air can hold more water vapor
hot days=humid days
Cold air can hold less water vapor
The max amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temp is called Saturation Point
As temperature falls, sat. point decreases, clouds form, and precipitation occurs
3. Adiabatic heating and cooling
What happens to pressure as you move up the troposphere?
As you move UP --> Pressure decreases and air expands
as pressure decreases, the air cools
As you move DOWN --> Pressure increases and air contracts
as pressure increases, the air warms
Adiabatic cooling
Adiabatic heating
4. Production of heat when water condenses
Water --------------> Vapor
Water <------------- Vapor
Latent Heat Release
when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses, that air will become warmer and will rise
Atmospheric Convection Currents:
Global patterns of air movement
Due to unequal heating of earth
We'll start at the equator
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Area on earth with the most intense sunlight
1. Sunlight heats moist, tropical air--> the air rises
2. Rising air experiences adiabatic cooling (pressure) water vapor condenses into rain and falls back to earth

With rain, there is also a latent heat release, air continues to rise
3. This warm, rising air displaces the cooler drier air above it.
This cooler air gets pushed to the north and south
4. The cool, dry air sinks and experiences adiabatic heating (pressure)
Reaches earth's surface at approximatley 30 degrees (North & South) as warm, dry air
this is why 30 degrees N&S are typically deserts
Finally the air makes its way back to the equator to replace the air that is rising
These two cycles just observed are called Hadley cells
A similar pattern occurs between 60-90 degrees called Polar Cells
0-30 degrees north and south of the equator
3. Earth's Rotation and the Coriolis effect
The deflection of an objects path due to rotation
Coriolis Effect
Ferrell Cells:
In between polar and hadley cells (30-60)
Not a uniform pattern
Wind direction is variable
Mixing of cold air from the poles and warm air from the equator
Wide range of air currents between 30-60

Collectively, these patterns move the warm tropic air across the globe
If earth was not moving, the convection currents would be the only distribution of air
But...The earth moves
Ultimately, the Coriolis effect creates Trade Winds
This is the image shows the result of the Coriolis effect
In class: recreate the image depicting the trade winds. Be sure to show convection currents, important latitudinal lines, and all the trade winds.
4. Earth's Tilt and Seasons
Earth's axis is tilted at 23.5 degrees
Causes seasonal fluctuations
When the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun
and vice versa
5. Ocean Currents
Ocean currents can affect temperature of nearby land masses
Warm water from tropical currents can provide heat energy to cooler regions
1. Gyres
2. Upwelling
3. Thermohaline Circulation
Water Movement:
1. Gyres:
Large scale patterns of ocean surface water
Which way does the water flow in the northern hemisphere?

Which way does the water flow in the southern hemisphere?

What phenomenon would cause this to occur?
2. Upwelling
Upward movement of water to the surface
surface waters sink, deep waters rise
Brings nutrients to the surface
What would happen as a result?
3. Thermohaline Circulation
Mixing of surface and deep waters
Circulates the water of all the oceans

Rain Shadows
Weird Happenings
Every 3-7 years, surface currents in the pacific reverse directions
Trade winds in the south pacific change direction
Usually wind blows from east to west
This causes warm water in east, cold water in the west
Results in
wet conditions in Africa
drought in australia

El Nino- Southern Oscillation
Local features can effect climate
Mountain ranges are an example of this
air caring water vapor hits a mountain
The air moves up
Adiabatic cooling occurs
Dry air moves over the mountain
This other side (the leeward side) is dry
Aquatic Biomes
Terrestrial biomes
defined by:
plant growth

Aquatic Biomes
Defined By:
Water flow

Two Main categories:
coral reefs
open ocean

Streams and Rivers
Characterized by running water
as they travel, pick up nutrients from land
Few plants/algae
food chain starts on decomposing leaves that hosts larvae of insects
Generally contains high amount of oxygen
the faster the water is moving, the higher the oxygen content
Lakes & Ponds
Characterized by containing water that has a zone too deep for emerging plant growth
Lakes and ponds have 3 zones
1. Littoral Zone
Shallow, muddy
The "banks" of the water
Most photosynthesis occurs here
2. Limnetic Zone
Rooted plants can no longer survive
floating algae dominate (phytoplankton)
extends until sunlight can no longer penetrate
3. Profundal Zone
Found in deep ponds or lakes
Sunlight does not reach this area
Bacteria decomposes organic matter
low oxygen concentrations for most organisms
The "Benthic zone" is the muddy bottom
Freshwater Wetlands
Characterized by land that is submerged by water for at least part of each year, but still able to support plant life
swamps (contain trees)
marshes (nonwoody vegetation)
bogs (Acidic wetlands containing moss)
Wetlands are SUPER important
Most productive biomes on the plant
Act as a sponge to prevent flooding
Act as natures "Brita Filter" by
taking pollutants out of the water
1/3 of endangered birds spend at least some of their life cycle in a wetland for migration and/or breeding
Over half of wetlands in the US have been drained for agriculture or to eliminate breeding grounds for mosquito and other pests
Marine Biomes
Characterized by "brackish" water (not fresh water, not salt water
Created where freshwater rivers/streams meet ocean
Because rivers carry nutrients, very productive ecosystems
up there with wetlands
Salt Marshes
Like freshwater marshes, contain non-woody plant life
spawning ground for fish and shellfish
2/3 of marine fish and shellfish spawn in a salt marsh!!
Found in temperate biomes
Plum Island has a salt marsh
Two types we will look at:
Mangrove Swamps
Tropical/subtropical coasts
Salt-tolerant trees grow there
(similar to freshwater swamps)
fallen leaves create a sheltered habitat for fish and shellfish
Intertidal Zone
Narrow band of coastline that exists between levels of high and low tides
High tide- Stable environment
Low tide- harsh, dry, hot, waves, dangerous
Organisms: crabs, barnacles, algae, mussels, crabs, and starfish
Coral Reef:
Earth's most diverse biome!
Corals: tiny organisms that excrete a layer of limestone (CaCo2)

Tiny organisms that excrete limestone as an external skeleton (CaCo2)
tentacles draw in plankton and detritus
they have a relationship with single celled algae
live in the tissue
algae receives CO2, coral receives gloucose
Live in vast colonies
Full transcript