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Copy of Psychology: Chapter 5

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alexis lo

on 1 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Psychology: Chapter 5

Why Do We Sleep?
The Dream
World
What causes dreams?
Circadian Rhythms
Circadian Rhythms are governed by a biological clock in the Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN regulates and is affected by the hormone melatonin.
Seasonal Changes
Some people experience depression every winter in a pattern that has been labeled seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience
Consciousness is the awareness of ones self and their surroundings
Chapter 5
Body Rhythms and
Mental States

When a persons routine changes the person may begin to experience Internal Desynchronization, where regular circadian rhythms are out of phase.
As Efforts to Deal with Problems
As Thinking
As Interpreted Brain Activity
1. Spontaneous firing of neurons
2. Cerebral cortex tries to interpret signals
Activation-synthesis theory
the theory that dreaming results from cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain
These randomly fired neurons control:
eye movement
gaze
balance
posture
voluntary action
visual processing
lucid dreaming
dreams in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming
Evaluating Dream Theory
Problem solvers?
Experts are doubtful. Dreams are merely an expression of problems
Random brain activity?
Doesn't account for dreams outside of REM sleep.
Thinking?
Promising, but remains to be tested.
Hypnosis
A split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of others
Hypnotic suggestions typically involve
performance of an action
inability to perform an act
distortion of normal perception or memory
Hormones rise and fall
PMS has physical attributes to it, causing pains such as cramps and breast tenderness as well as bloating.
in cultures where PMS symptoms are most commonly reported, few women are likely to undergo personality shifts solely because of their hormones.
emotional symptoms such as irritability and depression are pretty rare, effecting fewer than 5 percent of women predictably over their cycles
Drugs have been used for religious purposes dating back as early as 5,000BC
Theories of Hypnosis
Dissociation Theories
a split in consciousness in which part of the mind operates independently of others
What is a Psychoactive Drug?
A psychoactive drug is any drug capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior.
During hypnosis, the "executive" system of the brain, the one that controls how to use information, is separated from the system that processes information. The hypnotist then controls the "executive" system
Sociocognitive Approach
what's happening?
Early uses of Psychoactive Drugs
Hypnosis results from the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject
"role-playing"
Because of unexplained "spiritual" effects, it was believed that getting high was a gift from the heavens.
Categories of Psychoactive Drugs:
1. Stimulant:
speeds up the central nervous system (CNS)
Includes amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine.
2. Depressants
: slow down activity in the CNS
Includes alcohol, tranquillizers, barbiturates, benzodiazepines.
3. Opiates:
relieve pain
Includes opium, heroin, morphine, codeine.
4. Psychedelic drugs:
disrupt normal thought process
Includes LSD (acid), psilocybin, mescaline, and even marijuana (mild)
Psychology and Drug Effects
Contrary to popular belief, the effects of drugs are not definite.
A person's reaction to a drug depends on experience, personal characteristics, environment, and mentality.
Experience
Based on number of times the drug has been taken. Effects change as the person becomes familiar with it.
Individual Characteristics
Body weight
Metabolism
Emotion
Personality
Tolerance
The changing of the bodies consciousness is often related to the bodies biological rhythms, which usually occur at specific times; when they are daily they are called circadian fluctuations, others occur less or more than that
Environment
Location where one takes the substance
Disrupting the Body's Clock
Results may vary but could include: fatigue, mental inefficiency, or increased risk of accidents.
The causes of SAD are unknown but they may involve biological rhythms that are out of phase or an abnormality in the secretion of melatonin

Other nonbiological causes could cause SAD
Long Term Rhythms
Example
: a beer at home may feel calming, but a beer at a party may make a person full of energy.
PMS is a type of long-term rhythm
Mentality
Reason for taking the drug
Some people drink to be more social, some people drink to numb feelings.
New focus on marijuana in the media
What is Butane Hash Oil?
Butane Hash Oil (BHO) is concentrated cannabinoids, extracted using solvents such as alcohol, butane, and acetone.
Why is BHO in the media?
It is nothing new, but has come into focus since views on marijuana have changed; including legalization and decriminalization
...cont
Unprofessional cannabis users have been making BHO at home.
Due to the volatility of the substances involved, fumes have caused explosions leaving people dead, injured, or causing mass property damage.
Authorities have compared BHO operations to meth-labs
BHO is very potent and creates a powerful high, similar to hard drugs
Seattle, January 2014
(From CNN)
An explosion rocked a building off it's foundation.
It is believed that butane leaked from a freezer.
The butane was ignited by the refrigerator's wiring.
A marijuana farm was found in the basement.
An explanation of dreams holds that they reflect the ongoing conscious pre-occupations of waking life, such as concerns over relationships, work, sex, or health
Dreams not only reflect our waking concerns but
also provide us with an opportunity to resolve them.
In dreams, we construct reasonable simulations of the real world, drawing
on the same kinds of memories, knowledge, metaphors, and assumptions about the
world that we do when we are not sleeping
The cognitive view predicts that if a person could be totally cut off from all external
stimulation while awake, mental activity would be much like that during dreaming, with the same hallucinatory quality.
The Realms of Sleep
Stage 1: state of light sleep, if awakened, one might recall fantasies or a few visual images
Stage 2: Minor noises probably won't wake you.
Stage 3: Breathing and pulse have slowed and muscles are relaxed.
Stage 4: Very deep sleep, would take loud noises or vigorous shaking to wake you. If you sleep walk, that happens during this period (associated with Delta waves)
REM: Heartbeat quickens, blood pressure rises, breathing is fast and irregular. Skeletal muscles go limp, preventing aroused brain from producing physical movement.
The Consequences of Sleeplessness
Chronic sleep deprivation causes:
increase of stress hormone cortisol
new brain cells fail to grow properly
mental flexibility, attention, and creativity suffer
hallucinations and delusions
Sleep disorders, like
sleep apnea
and
REM behavior disorder
are associated with many health problems.
Sleep is a crucial time for
consolidation
-the process by which a memory becomes durable and stable
By making synaptic formations in the brain and also weakening connections that are no longer needed, sleeping improves both memory and problem solving
The Mental Benefits of Sleep
by Alexis Lo, Gillian Morello, and Jared Goodlow
Mostly internal, but can be affected by external factors
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