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Charles Darwin

A life of science

Helle Bergstein

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of Charles Darwin

THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE Tour In Darwin’s House By Lea, Kristina, Christina and Katrine The garden and greenhouse at Down House On the Origin of Species - publication and reactions Darwin’s scientific legacy Charles Darwin The Darwin family Darwin's Children The Darwin family had ten children: two died in infancy, and Annie's death at the age of ten had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles was a devoted father and he paid an unusual amount of attention to his children.He encouraged them to express themselves freely at all they did.
Whenever they fell ill, he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from inbreeding due to the close family ties he shared with his wife and cousin, Emma Wedgwood.
Of his surviving children, George, Francis and Horace became Fellows of the Royal Society, distinguished as astronomer, botanist and civil engineer, respectively. His son Leonard went on to be a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist.
Despite his fears, most of the surviving children and many of their descendants went on to have distinguished careers. Charles Darwin listens to his wife Emma play piano at their home 1809-1882 Darwin writes to Leonard Jenyns that he has come to the conclusion that "species are mutable and that allied species are co-descendants of common stocks" 1844 1855 His first draft of his "species theory" Seed experiments - Darwin works to prove that seeds can survive long journeys 1856 Darwin starts to write down his theory - this turns out to be very difficult for him Darwin experimented with exotic tropical plants in this room such as insectivorous plants (meat eating plants). April 1859 Darwin finishes writing a summary version of his theory of evolution

Fun fact: he wrote 155,000 words in hand Darwin experimented with less demanding plants in this room. Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species" November 1859 Creationism is the religous belief that all life in the universe is created by a supernatural force – a being that we most commonly know as 'God'. Creationism Social Darwinism 1860 The first disagreement - from Richard Owen At the far end of the kitchen garden was a sandy threeline-path. It was called the Sand Walk. This was his thinking path. He used it as an open air laboratory. Darwin's philosophy led to eugenics. A year after Darwin's death, Francis Galton, an English scientist theorized that it wasn't enough to let natural selection make the human beings evolve.
He thought that humans could speed the process by removing inferior specimens and thereby only allow its strongest members to breed.

But the question is: how do you define which traits are desirable and what causes them? Mental health, physical health and heritage were used in the attempt to help natural selection along.

Popular support for eugenics spread in the early 1900s, leading to both the United States' and Germany's use of forced sterilization programs to avoid undesired hereditary traits. An example is the Nazis' programs on the Jewish people during WW2. They had 3 gardeners to maintain the lawn, the orchard and the kitchen garden. The children had gardening duties. Facts Darwin did experiments on his lawn:
He marked out squares in the lawn and recorded the plant species that grew. In this way he identified 20 different species. The investigation shows the survival of the fittest in the plant world. Francis Galton and Eugenics "Evolutionism is a fairy tale for grown-ups. This theory has helped nothing in the progress of science. It is useless." - Louis Bounoure Intelligent design is a term used in Creationism. Intelligent design or 'ID', refers to the theory that the universe is too complex to be designed purely by nature – A powerful and rather intelligent force has to be responsible. Support from The Times and Gardeners' Chronicle The Oxford Debate June 1860 Marriage Charles Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood in 1839. They had 10 children together. The inner hallway is a remodelling of the original 18th-century entrance hall and carried out in 1876. The Darwin children adopted it as their playroom. The children careened around the inner hallway in pursuit of one another or Bran, their pet terrier, and the hallway was decorated simply for practical reasons. The scheme has been recreated with plain duck-egg blue walls and a linoleum floor robust enough to resist scuffing. The series of chromolithograph prints that adorns the walls, showing religious subjects taken from Old Master painting, was inherited by Emma on the death of her older sister Charlotte in 1892. Inner hallway Worm-stone experiment: Darwin’s son Horace placed a stone on a plot of soil where worms lived. After a year he measured that the stone had sunk 2 mm into the ground. It showed that the worms were active in the soil beneath the stone. An experiment The kitchen garden Darwin had experimental beds in his kitchen garden. Here he experimented on primula species and discovered that primroses only produce primroses and that cowslips only produce cowslips. Scientist at the time said that Darwin was wrong and that primroses could spontaneously produce cowslips, but Darwin wanted to prove them wrong. The interesting thing that Darwin discovered was that out of the 522 cowslip plants that he planted, he found 2 different forms of the plant. He found out that the reason for this was that the insects cross-fertilized the plants by flying from plant to plant. The greenhouse Darwin built a hothouse alongside the greenhouse in the 1860s with a boiler system and glass roofs, so he could experiment with ‘delicate’ specimens. He created an Experiment Book in 1855 and kept it until 1867. He published a lot of papers centered on growth patterns and plant behavior - knowledge he had received from these experiments.
In the Greenhouse he experimented on Orchids and their reproduction and their upward climb. He therefore purchased other of these climbing-plant specimens and in mid 1870s he and his friend Joseph Hooker (who’d provided him with some of the plants) experimented with light conditions.
Another thing he planted in the greenhouse was insectivorous plants - he acquired exotic plants from Hooker and nurtured them, furthermore he did research on how plants evolve into beautiful forms and flowers - just to attract specific insect pollinators. He was specifically interested in the Drosera specimens. As his wife said ‘At present he is treating Drosera just like a living creature and I suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal.’ In 1876 Darwin added a billiard room with bedroom and drawing room above. This two-storey block completed the north-wing of Down House as it stands today. But in the last years of his,life, Darwin moved his study into the billiard room, (which today is a shop and ticket office). This was his “New study” (made in 1880). He was a man of routine and therefore his room was arranged in the same way as his old study. New study Drawing room Darwin decided to use the new ground-floor as a drawing room instead. It was proportioned and wonderfully light, with floor-to-ceiling windows and French doors opening on to the lawn. They chose a crimson flock-paper with gold stars for the walls ,in 1859. But in 1876, when the north wing was redecorated, they changed it to a more restrained floral pattern.The drawing room became Emma's domain. It was from here that she would have issued instructions to the cook and nursemaid.The centrepiece of the room was Emma's Broadwood piano. Emma is said to have taken some lessons from Chopin in the 1840s. After a day's work Darwin would be lying in front of the fire listening to Emma playing. Charles Darwin and his wife moved into the house in the autumn of 1842 with their two children.“It is a good, very ugly house, with 18 acres”. Over the next 40 years Darwin doubled the size of the house and changed the use of rooms. Today it is still possible to see the original Georgian building. Exterior Kitchen and service wing Down House is situated in the village of Downe, which is a rural area in Kent. Charles Darwin lived here for 40 years. Down House is where he wrote his theory of evolution and his book “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”. In 1929 the house became a museum, and the ground-floor has been restored to look as it did in Darwin’s time. Introduction Billiard room Darwin used this as a dining room. I t became the billiard room in 1858 when the dining room was relocated across the corridor. In 1876 the room became a study for Darwin’s son Francis. No photographs exist of the room before this change and so the billiard room today is based on the evidence of previous paint schemes. At Darwin’s time there were bedrooms and studies at the first-floor, but today the rooms now house an exhibition about Darwin’s life and work. First-floor rooms In lack of more bedrooms and a schoolroom for the children, Darwin hired an architect to build a suite of servants’ rooms on the ground floor and a service stair up to the upper floors. Darwin wrote in a letter to his sister; "It seemed too selfish to make the house so luxurious for ourselves and not comfortable for our servants” . “Darwin and his family enjoyed good relations with their staff and many of them stayed for decades. Darwin's routine Old study The old study became the centre of Darwin’s daily routine. The study was small and rarely in direct sunlight, which meant he had the perfect conditions for studying, according to Darwin. Today, the study contains almost all the original furniture. Darwin added small wheels to most of his chairs, so he could easily move around the room, from one workspace to another. Darwin had a fixed daily routine. He took a short walk before breakfast and worked until midday. Then he went for a longer walk and had lunch afterwards. After lunch he would read the newspapers and write letters. Then he would go for another walk and return to his study at 4.30 pm. He would study for another hour and then rest before dinner. After dinner he spent quiet evenings in the drawing room. Darwin was often interrupted in his study by his children, who wanted him to play with them. Darwin was not a very strict father. Walled garden, orchard and potting shed In 1844
•Darwin acquired a plot of land to the west of the house and planted a small orchard.
In 1881
•He bought more land and extended the orchard further westward through the archway and into the kitchen-garden wall.
•A hard tennis court was laid into the bottom of the orchard
•A brick ‘laboratory’ was built up against the back wall of the greenhouse.
Darwin died the following year and there is no evidence that Darwin ever used this ‘laboratory’. It is now used as a potting shed and houses a modern, observational beehive, which explores Darwin’s research into the evolutionary development of bee-cell formation.
Darwin also used the orchard for plant investigations.
In January 1857 he began his ‘weed garden’ experiment in the orchard to examine the survival rate of seedlings when confronted with natural predators. This he did by marking a small section of the lawn and the recorded the number of seedlings that sprang up with a small length of wire. At regular intervals Darwin monitored the seed survival rate by counting the number of wire markers where the seedling had disappeared. By August Darwin had recorded that, from a total of 357 seedlings, 295 had died ‘chiefly by slugs and insects’.
Many people use darwinism to seperate humans in to different classes. They claim that some humans are evolved more than others, and they are therefore superior to others. Those who claim this, always claim that they are the superior ones. They use that in politics to justify that they are ruling the country. They use the “survival of the fittest” theory, and say that they are the fittest.
Rich people use the “Survival of the fittest” theory to justify that do not have to help the poor ones. The poor people became poor due to natural selection, where they were the weakest.
Social Darwinism has also been used to justify men being above women. Because men are stronger than women, they think of themselves as “the fittest”. During his lifetime, Darwin's ideas were promulgated as Darwinism. After Darwin's death a rash of books was published which used Darwinism to support many philosophical ideas dependent on evolutionary theory.
Darwin's theories of evolution remain under constant scrutiny.
In recent years, the emergence of the concept of intelligent design has been brought forth as an alternative explanation for the development of species. THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE
The voyage of the Beagle refers to Charles Darwin’s journey by the ship HMS Beagle. The journey lasted for five years – from 1831-36, where he visited places like the Galapagos Islands, Cape Town and New Zealand. During his journey he lived in the poop cabin of the ship, and was very seasick. It was also during this journey he made observations concerning geology, botany and biology, including species of animals. He observed the finches on the Galapagos without knowing the significance of his discovery due to the fact that his journey mainly was focused on geology – because Charles Darwin primarily was a geologist. The finches became a very important part of his theory of evolution. Even though Darwin did not understand the importance of all his detailed observations, he made lots of notes, which shows us his scientific way of thinking.
Furthermore, Darwin was a great hunter, which the crew benefited greatly from, because Darwin provided meat. Nevertheless, the captain of the Beagle and Darwin often disagreed, and Darwin was nearly ordered off the ship for arguing against slavery.

Darwin’s diary notes later became a book called “The Voyage of the Beagle.” http://www.aboutdarwin.com/voyage/voyage01.html
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