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World Religions

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Arthur Rubio

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of World Religions

Definition of Religion?
The History of Religion
Definition of religion: the beliefs or set of beliefs we use to give meaning to our experience.
Definition of a basic belief?
i) Our most basic belief has to do with our most basic concept,
that of eternal existence.
ii) There are two basic beliefs: all is eternal and only some is eternal.
iii) None is eternal cannot be held since it implies being came from non-being.
1) if nothing is eternal then every thing is
temporal.
2) if every thing is temporal then every
thing had a beginning.
3) if every thing had a beginning then being
would have come from non-being.
4) since 'being from non-being' violates the law
of identity this is impossible.
5) Therefore 'nothing is eternal' is impossible
and 'some is eternal' must be true.
iv) "All is Eternal"
v) "Only Some is Eternal"
Two all encompasing cathegories for religion.
Secular Humanism
(all is matter, matter is eternal, there is no spirit or soul.)
Hinduism
(all is one, atman is brahman, advaita: the world is maya/illusion.)
Buddhism
(all is dukkha, all is an eternal process)
Dualism
(matter and spirit are both eternal: Greek, Persian, Indian, Mormon) Taoism, Confucianism and Shintoism
Shamanism
(belief in spirits in nature, and magical powers)
Either Matter, Spirit, or both
God the Creator Exists
Judaism
(Orthodox, Reformed, Conservative, Reconstruction, Hasidic)
Christianity
(Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Protestant)
Islam
(Sunni, Shi'ia, Sufi)
Deism
(God created the world but does not actively rule in the world.)
Definition of God?
i) In theism,
God is a spirit, infinite, eternal and unchanging in being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth.
ii) In atheism,
there is no God as spirit. 'God' has sociological or psychological meaning only, if at all.
iii) In deism,
God is creator but not ruler.
iv) In pantheism,
God is all and all is God.
v) In polytheism,
there are many gods, each having rule over a particular function of nature or connected to a local people.
vi) In dualism,
God is maker but not creator.
vii) In Shamanism,
the gods are local spirits or impersonal forces.
Levels of religion
i) Popular:
ii) historical
iii) philosophical
concern for practical and psychological needs
generally unaware of historical creeds.
what the best minds have agreed upon after much discussion. This understanding is summed up in the great creeds of the faith.
addresses questions that have not yet been discussed historically.
addresses questions that remain from the internal and external challenges.
Recent developments in religion:
(the move from theism to shamanism)
i) The ongoing conflict between impersonal-natural explanations and personal-supernatural explanations beginning with the Greeks.
ii) The shift from the Dark Ages and Medieval Christianity to the Renaissance and the Reformation.
iii) The development of science from theism and from the Reformation view of work.
iv) The shift to deism and the extension of natural explanations; the collapse of the Old Order in the revolutionary period.
v The naturalism of Darwin, Marx, Nietzsche and Freud.
vi) The miracles of technology and the trust in science.
vii) World War I, World War II, The Cold War and the collapse of Modernism: post-colonialism and post-modernism.
Theories of Religion
Deism & Evangelism
Reformation Wars of Religion

Edward Herbert of Cherbury (1583–1648)
“five common notions”
Origin of "World Religions" as fulfillment of "The Great Comission"
David Hume (1711-76)
1. The human confrontation with the frightening power of nature, which creates the need to seek a means of control.
Auguste Comte (1798–1857)
Karl Marx (1818-83)
Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Peter Berger (1929-)
William James (1842-1910)
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
Religion as false, but necessary for social cohesion
1) Theological Phase (supernaturalism)
“Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of an unspirited situation. It is the opium of the masses"
Religion as “an eminently social thing.”
Descriptive approach: The Motor of Economics
Knowledge as necessary for survival. Knowledge is constructed, maintained, and transmitted as a body of knowledge in society "nomos" or "the way things are".
Religious experience based on the will and not the intellect-an immediate decision and commitment characterizes a worthy religion.
Religion as neurosis & illegitimate crutch
Religion as the sense that we were connected to a reality larger than our individual selves.
The Book of Genesis
"The Biblical Worldview"
The Book of Origins
1) Origin of the cosmos (universe)

2) Origin of mankind

3) Origin of covenant between God and man

4)Sin

5) Origin of death (physical & spiritual)

6) Redemption

7) Nation of Israel
Gen. 1:1-2
Gen. 1:26-29; 2:7; 2:18-24
Gen. 2:8-9; 15-17
Gen. 3: 1-6
Gen. 1:29-31; 2:17 & 3:19
Gen. 3: 7-24
Exodus 19 & 20
1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.
26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”

27 So God created mankind in his own image,
in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.

28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
29 Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food.
7 Then the LORD God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.
18 The LORD God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.”

19 Now the LORD God had formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. 20 So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds in the sky and all the wild animals.

But for Adam[f] no suitable helper was found. 21 So the LORD God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs[g] and then closed up the place with flesh. 22 Then the LORD God made a woman from the rib[h] he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.

23 The man said,

“This is now bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called ‘woman,’
for she was taken out of man.”

24 That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh.

25 Adam and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame.
8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. 9 The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
15 The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.”
1 Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?”
2 The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, 3 but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.’”

4 “You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. 5 “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”

6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.
29 Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” And it was so.
31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.
17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.”
19 By the sweat of your brow
you will eat your food
until you return to the ground,
since from it you were taken;
for dust you are
and to dust you will return.”
7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.

8 Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden. 9 But the LORD God called to the man, “Where are you?”

10 He answered, “I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid.”

11 And he said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

12 The man said, “The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it.”

13 Then the LORD God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?”

The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”

14 So the LORD God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this,

“Cursed are you above all livestock
and all wild animals!
You will crawl on your belly
and you will eat dust
all the days of your life.
15 And I will put enmity
between you and the woman,
and between your offspring[a] and hers;
he will crush[b] your head,
and you will strike his heel.”

16 To the woman he said,

“I will make your pains in childbearing very severe;
with painful labor you will give birth to children.
Your desire will be for your husband,
and he will rule over you.”

17 To Adam he said, “Because you listened to your wife and ate fruit from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat from it,’

“Cursed is the ground because of you;
through painful toil you will eat food from it
all the days of your life.
18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you,
and you will eat the plants of the field.
19 By the sweat of your brow
you will eat your food
until you return to the ground,
since from it you were taken;
for dust you are
and to dust you will return.”

20 Adam[c] named his wife Eve,[d] because she would become the mother of all the living.

21 The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife and clothed them. 22 And the LORD God said, “The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” 23 So the LORD God banished him from the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken. 24 After he drove the man out, he placed on the east side[e] of the Garden of Eden cherubim and a flaming sword flashing back and forth to guard the way to the tree of life.
At Mount Sinai

1 On the first day of the third month after the Israelites left Egypt—on that very day—they came to the Desert of Sinai. 2 After they set out from Rephidim, they entered the Desert of Sinai, and Israel camped there in the desert in front of the mountain.
3 Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain and said, “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob and what you are to tell the people of Israel: 4 ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. 5 Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine, 6 you[a] will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

7 So Moses went back and summoned the elders of the people and set before them all the words the LORD had commanded him to speak. 8 The people all responded together, “We will do everything the LORD has said.” So Moses brought their answer back to the LORD.

9 The LORD said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people will hear me speaking with you and will always put their trust in you.” Then Moses told the LORD what the people had said.

10 And the LORD said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow. Have them wash their clothes 11 and be ready by the third day, because on that day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. 12 Put limits for the people around the mountain and tell them, ‘Be careful that you do not approach the mountain or touch the foot of it. Whoever touches the mountain is to be put to death. 13 They are to be stoned or shot with arrows; not a hand is to be laid on them. No person or animal shall be permitted to live.’ Only when the ram’s horn sounds a long blast may they approach the mountain.”

14 After Moses had gone down the mountain to the people, he consecrated them, and they washed their clothes. 15 Then he said to the people, “Prepare yourselves for the third day. Abstain from sexual relations.”

16 On the morning of the third day there was thunder and lightning, with a thick cloud over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast. Everyone in the camp trembled. 17 Then Moses led the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18 Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the LORD descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain[b] trembled violently. 19 As the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and the voice of God answered him.[c]

20 The LORD descended to the top of Mount Sinai and called Moses to the top of the mountain. So Moses went up 21 and the LORD said to him, “Go down and warn the people so they do not force their way through to see the LORD and many of them perish. 22 Even the priests, who approach the LORD, must consecrate themselves, or the LORD will break out against them.”

23 Moses said to the LORD, “The people cannot come up Mount Sinai, because you yourself warned us, ‘Put limits around the mountain and set it apart as holy.’”

24 The LORD replied, “Go down and bring Aaron up with you. But the priests and the people must not force their way through to come up to the LORD, or he will break out against them.”

25 So Moses went down to the people and told them.
The Ten Commandments

1 And God spoke all these words:
2 “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

3 “You shall have no other gods before[a] me.

4 “You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.

7 “You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.

8 “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your male or female servant, nor your animals, nor any foreigner residing in your towns. 11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

12 “Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.

13 “You shall not murder.

14 “You shall not commit adultery.

15 “You shall not steal.

16 “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.

17 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male or female servant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”

18 When the people saw the thunder and lightning and heard the trumpet and saw the mountain in smoke, they trembled with fear. They stayed at a distance 19 and said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not have God speak to us or we will die.”

20 Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid. God has come to test you, so that the fear of God will be with you to keep you from sinning.”

21 The people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the thick darkness where God was.

Idols and Altars

22 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Tell the Israelites this: ‘You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven: 23 Do not make any gods to be alongside me; do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold.
24 “‘Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, your sheep and goats and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. 25 If you make an altar of stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. 26 And do not go up to my altar on steps, or your private parts may be exposed.’




1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.
3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.

6 And God said, “Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.” 7 So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the vault “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day.

9 And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good.
11 Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day.

14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so. 16 God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day.

20 And God said, “Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.” 21 So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.” 23 And there was evening, and there was morning—the fifth day.

24 And God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.” And it was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.
26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”

27 So God created mankind in his own image,
in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.

28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
29 Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” And it was so.
31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.
Creation
Fall
Redemption
Original creation:
Subsequent Creation:
God creating all things out of nothing (Ex Nihilo)
God forming and filling from the original creation into new things.
General Revelation:
What can be known of God everywhere and at all times (Psalm 19; Isaiah 6:3; & Rom. 1:20)
1 The heavens declare the glory of God;
the skies proclaim the work of his hands.
2 Day after day they pour forth speech;
night after night they reveal knowledge.
3 They have no speech, they use no words;
no sound is heard from them.
4 Yet their voice[b] goes out into all the earth,
their words to the ends of the world.
“Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty;
the whole earth is full of his glory.”
20 For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.
Special Revelation:
What is known of God by transmission alone. SR is redemptive revelation. It answers the questions:
1
2
3
4
5
6
5 Points under Creation:
1) The Purpose of God Creating is the revelation of his glory
(necessarily; intentionally, & exclusively)
2) The revelation is Full and Clear
3) The purpose for man (eternal life) is the knowledge of God.
John 17:3
3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.
4) The knowledge of God is attained through the work of dominion
5) The work of dominion will be completed
Isaiah 11:9
9 They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea.
Genesis 2

1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.

2 By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.

Adam and Eve

4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, when the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.
5 Now no shrub had yet appeared on the earth[a] and no plant had yet sprung up, for the LORD God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no one to work the ground, 6 but streams came up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground. 7 Then the LORD God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.

8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. 9 The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

10 A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. 11 The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.) 13 The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

15 The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.”

18 The LORD God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.”

19 Now the LORD God had formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. 20 So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds in the sky and all the wild animals.

But for Adam no suitable helper was found. 21 So the LORD God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh. 22 Then the LORD God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.

23 The man said,

“This is now bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called ‘woman,’
for she was taken out of man.”

24 That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh.

25 Adam and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame.
Genesis 3

1 Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?”
2 The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, 3 but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.’”

4 “You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. 5 “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”

6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.
1) The covenant of creation: representation (Adam), probation and manifestation (two trees).
2) Temptation: the purpose , agent and argument
to test one's faith or understanding of G & E
Test is not the cause of the failure
Premise: You will be like God knowing G & E
Conclusion: You will not certainly die
3) Sin: From GR, from SR, autonomy
Unbelief and disobedience.
an act contrary to one's nature (NARD) to neglect, avoid, resist, & deny
failure to seek, understand, and do what is right
root sin-leading to the outward act of disobedience
Rom. 3:10-11
10 As it is written:

“There is no one righteous, not even one;
11 there is no one who understands;
there is no one who seeks God.
putting oneself in the place of God to determine G & E.
10 As it is written:

“There is no one righteous, not even one;
11 there is no one who understands;
there is no one who seeks God.
fruit sin
4) Death ( ): Two kinds of death; physical & spiritual
John 5:24-30; 11:25;

Ephesians 2:1;

Revelation 20:5,14; 21:8).
24 “Very truly I tell you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life. 25 Very truly I tell you, a time is coming and has now come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God and those who hear will live. 26 For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. 27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.

28 “Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice 29 and come out—those who have done what is good will rise to live, and those who have done what is evil will rise to be condemned. 30 By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me.
21 “Lord,” Martha said to Jesus, “if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 22 But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask.”

23 Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.”

24 Martha answered, “I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.”

25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die; 26 and whoever lives by believing in me will never die. Do you believe this?”
1 As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, 2 in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient.
4 I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. They[a] had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. 5 (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. 6 Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years.
14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death.
8 But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars—they will be consigned to the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death.”
5) Theodicy: Why is there moral evil (sin)?
to deepen the revelation of the divine justice and mercy
7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.

8 Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden. 9 But the LORD God called to the man, “Where are you?”

10 He answered, “I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid.”

11 And he said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

12 The man said, “The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it.”

13 Then the LORD God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?”

The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”

14 So the LORD God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this,

“Cursed are you above all livestock
and all wild animals!
You will crawl on your belly
and you will eat dust
all the days of your life.
15 And I will put enmity
between you and the woman,
and between your offspring[a] and hers;
he will crush[b] your head,
and you will strike his heel.”

16 To the woman he said,

“I will make your pains in childbearing very severe;
with painful labor you will give birth to children.
Your desire will be for your husband,
and he will rule over you.”

17 To Adam he said, “Because you listened to your wife and ate fruit from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat from it,’

“Cursed is the ground because of you;
through painful toil you will eat food from it
all the days of your life.
18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you,
and you will eat the plants of the field.
19 By the sweat of your brow
you will eat your food
until you return to the ground,
since from it you were taken;
for dust you are
and to dust you will return.”

20 Adam named his wife Eve, because she would become the mother of all the living.

21 The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife and clothed them. 22 And the LORD God said, “The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” 23 So the LORD God banished him from the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken. 24 After he drove the man out, he placed on the east side[e] of the Garden of Eden cherubim and a flaming sword flashing back and forth to guard the way to the tree of life.
1st Call to Repentance: (inward) through shame.
Response: Avoided through self-deception (covered itself with fig leaves.
2nd Call to Repentance: (outward) through calling to self-examination "where are you?"
Response: Self-justification by blaming others.
3rd Call to Repentance: (in light of self-deception and self-justification) the curse as mercy (toil, strife, old age, sickness, & death) and the promise establishes a spiritual war (age long and agonizing where good overcomes evil)
Justification: man's response is repentance (returning to the original work)
God's response to man's faith is to cover man's sin (the coats of skin-atonement).
Sanctification: man is expelled out of the garden to live under the curse to be cleansed from sin and to have greater dominion over the creation and sin.
From Expulsion to Babel
(Gen. 4-11)
Cain
Lamech
Intermarriage
Apostasy
Noah & Flood
Babel
The father of an entire generation of unbelievers.
(Gen 4)
1 Adam[a] made love to his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain.[b] She said, “With the help of the LORD I have brought forth[c] a man.” 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel.
Now Abel kept flocks, and Cain worked the soil. 3 In the course of time Cain brought some of the fruits of the soil as an offering to the LORD. 4 And Abel also brought an offering—fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock. The LORD looked with favor on Abel and his offering, 5 but on Cain and his offering he did not look with favor. So Cain was very angry, and his face was downcast.

6 Then the LORD said to Cain, “Why are you angry? Why is your face downcast? 7 If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at your door; it desires to have you, but you must rule over it.”

8 Now Cain said to his brother Abel, “Let’s go out to the field.”[d] While they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.

9 Then the LORD said to Cain, “Where is your brother Abel?”

“I don’t know,” he replied. “Am I my brother’s keeper?”

10 The LORD said, “What have you done? Listen! Your brother’s blood cries out to me from the ground. 11 Now you are under a curse and driven from the ground, which opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12 When you work the ground, it will no longer yield its crops for you. You will be a restless wanderer on the earth.”

13 Cain said to the LORD, “My punishment is more than I can bear. 14 Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.”

15 But the LORD said to him, “Not so[e]; anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over.” Then the LORD put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him. 16 So Cain went out from the LORD’s presence and lived in the land of Nod,[f] east of Eden
Polygamy; Dominion; & Murder
19 Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah.
23 Lamech said to his wives,

“Adah and Zillah, listen to me;
wives of Lamech, hear my words.
I have killed a man for wounding me,
a young man for injuring me.
24 If Cain is avenged seven times,
then Lamech seventy-seven times.”
1 When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. 3 Then the LORD said, “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal; their days will be a hundred and twenty years.”
4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.

5 The LORD saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time. 6 The LORD regretted that he had made human beings on the earth, and his heart was deeply troubled. 7 So the LORD said, “I will wipe from the face of the earth the human race I have created—and with them the animals, the birds and the creatures that move along the ground—for I regret that I have made them.” 8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of the LORD.
1) animal given for food to ameliorate the difficulty of growing food
2) geological changes
3) capital punishment (restrain violence)
Rest & Preservation
Gen. 9:6
Gen. 9:7-17
Gen. 9:22-25
Gen. 9:26-27
Gen. 11:1-9
Unity in evil (one language) & tower = Scattering
Gen. 9:1-3
Hinduism
Drahvidians
(3000-1500 BCE)
Harappan & Mohenjo Daro
"The Sacrafice of Purusha"
1. A THOUSAND heads hath Puruṣa, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet.
On every side pervading earth he fills a space ten fingers wide.
2 This Puruṣa is all that yet hath been and all that is to be;
The Lord of Immortality which waxes greater still by food.
3 So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa.
All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths eternal life in heaven.
4 With three-fourths Puruṣa went up: one-fourth of him again was here.
Thence he strode out to every side over what cats not and what cats.
5 From him Virāj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born.
As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward o’er the earth.
6 When Gods prepared the sacrifice with Puruṣa as their offering,
Its oil was spring, the holy gift was autumn; summer was the wood.
7 They balmed as victim on the grass Puruṣa born in earliest time.
With him the Deities and all Sādhyas and Ṛṣis sacrificed.
8 From that great general sacrifice the dripping fat was gathered up.
He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame.
9 From that great general sacrifice Ṛcas and Sāma-hymns were born:
Therefrom were spells and charms produced; the Yajus had its birth from it.
10 From it were horses born, from it all cattle with two rows of teeth:
From it were generated kine, from it the goats and sheep were born.
11 When they divided Puruṣa how many portions did they make?
What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet?
12 The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made.
His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.
13 The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth;
Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and Vāyu from his breath.
14 Forth from his navel came mid-air the sky was fashioned from his head
Earth from his feet, and from his car the regions. Thus they formed the worlds.
15 Seven fencing-sticks had he, thrice seven layers of fuel were prepared,
When the Gods, offering sacrifice, bound, as their victim, Puruṣa.
16 Gods, sacrificing, sacrificed the victim these were the earliest holy ordinances.
The Mighty Ones attained the height of heaven, there where the Sādhyas, Gods of old, are dwelling.
1) Brahmin: teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself,
sacrificing for others, and receiving gifts.
2) Ksatriyas: protect the whole world, from foreign enemies
and by maintaining the caste system to keep
social and cosmic order.
3) Vaisyas: trade, knowing the worth of valuable materials,
and acquainted with weights and measures.
4) Sudras: involves serving the Brahmins and the other
upper classes with humility.
5) Dalits/untouchable: outside of caste system. Engage in
"unclean" activities.
Aryans
(1500 BCE)
Nomadic Western invators
"Hymn of Creation"
At first was neither Being nor Nonbeing.
There was not air nor yet sky beyond.
What was wrapping? Where? In whose protection?
Was Water there, unfathomable deep?
There was no death then, nor yet deathlessness;
of night or day there was not any sign.
The One breathed without breath by its own impulse.
Other than that was nothing at all.

Darkness was there, all wrapped around by darkness,
and all was Water indiscriminate, Then
that which was hidden by Void, that One, emerging,
stirring, through power of Ardor, came to be.

In the beginning Love arose,
which was primal germ cell of mind.
The Seers, searching in their hearts with wisdom,
discovered the connection of Being in Nonbeing.

A crosswise line cut Being from Nonbeing.
What was described above it, what below?
Bearers of seed there were and mighty forces,
thrust from below and forward move above.

Who really knows? Who can presume to tell it?
Whence was it born? Whence issued this creation?
Even the Gods came after its emergence.
Then who can tell from whence it came to be?

That out of which creation has arisen,
whether it held it firm or it did not,
He who surveys it in the highest heaven,
He surely knows - or maybe He does not!
VEDIC RELIGION
The Vedas (sruti-revealed knowledge): search for the creative power (explanation of origins)
i) Samhitas:
the gods–hymns to the gods
a. Rigveda:
From personal (polytheistic gods) to impersonal (magical rituals)
b. Yajurveda:
Sacrificial formulas
c. Samaveda:
Melodies
d. Atharvaveda:
Magic formulas
ii) Brahmanas:
the sacrifice – prose commentaries on the sacrifices

ii. Aranyakas:
a. Approach the gods through rituals as a guarantee of
desired outcome (development of priesthood)
b. From externalism to internalism:
i. Sacrifice:
act (karma)
word (mantra)
attitude (ascetic/devotional)
thought (meditation)
mental performance of sacrifices-being performed mentally
iii) Upanishads :
(6th century BCE)
the self – philosophical speculations on the nature of ultimate reality (the self)
a. Reinterpretation of the sacrificial system to attain a deeper reality
i. Knowledge of Sacrifice (limits and skepticism “unsafe boats”)
ii. Knowledge of Brahman (the sound “mantra” that opens up reality)
iii. Knowledge of Self (life within)
b. What is there in the sacrifice that is the source of the creative power-the true self of the sacrifice is the creative power.
c. The true self is the ultimate reality (Atman is Brahman)
d. Consciousness produces the world around us
e. Awareness of the self is the highest reality (pure bliss)
f. Detachment from changeable reality (the world) to focus
on the unchanging (pure consciousness/being)
EPIC RELIGION
(reconciling ordinary-the world and the apparent self- and higher consciousness-the true-self as ultimate reality)
i) The Mahabharata:
the civil war (Aryan past)
a. Bhagavad Gita:
Arjuna is taught dharma and liberation by Krishna (Brahman)
i. Dharma-the battlefield of life
ii. Persuasion of Arjuna:
1) “The Three Paths” (Trimarga):
a) knowledge:
i) Discriminative wisdom: Eternality of the true-self (Atman)
b) Action:
i) Steadiness of mind (yoga) vs the world of multiplicity (sensory experience & ordinary awareness)
ii) Unattached action (to act without the purpose of the fruits of action)
iii) Purpose (duty should supersede the outcome)
c) Devotion:
i) Bhakti Yoga surrendering all of life as love to Brahman
ii) The virtues of the dharma for man and woman in Rama and Sita (ideal king)
ii. The Ramayana:
iii) The Laws of Manu:
a. The varna-ashrama-dharma system:
i. The four castes – their duties and relations:
4) Sudras (servants to Brahmins)
1) Brahmin (six duties)
2) Ksatriyas (warriors)
3) Vaisyas (merchants)
ii. The stages of life (asramas):
d. 75-100 Renunciation (Sannyasa)
1)Man:
a. 1-25 Student stage (brahmacarya)
b. 25-50 Household stage
c. 50-75 Elders
2) Woman:
a. Girlhood (under the father)
i. Married young to preserve purity
c. Widowhood (under the sons)
b. Householder (under the husband)
iii. Sati “going with”
i. Stridharma “good wife”
ii. Shared husband’s karma and destiny
iii. The four “goods” of life:
4) Enlightenment (moksha) – requires the abandonment of the other goods.
1) Duty (dharma)
2) Wealth & possessions
(artha)
3) Pleasure & enjoyment of sense (kama)
iv. Meritorious religious activities besides one’s dharma:
1) Daily rituals-
4)Pilgrimage- sacred locations within India
a. Uttering the name of personal deity
b. Ritual bathing while uttering mantras
c. Morning prayers & evening devotions
d. Burning incense
2) Rites of passage-
a. Birth
b. Initiation
c. Marriage
d. Death
3) Festivals-
a. 330 million gods = daily rituals throughout India
DEVOTIONAL RELIGION
(all cycles of life are divine)
i) Vishnu: the avatars (preserver)
b. Avatars as intercessions to preserve cosmic order (Rama & Krishna)
a. Sustainer of the universe between time of creation and destruction
ii) Shiva: the sacred places (destroyer)
iv) Yoga: karma (action), bhakti (devotion), jnana (wisdom), and others.
iii) The divine female (Saktism)
FiVE MAIN CONCEPTS OF HINDUISM
i) Samsara: reincarnation
ii) Karma: the results of deeds
iii) Dharma: duty according to one’s caste
iv) Moksha: enlightenment; self-realization
v) Discussion of reincarnation
PHILOSOPHICAL RELIGION
(the orthodox systems--six reduced to three views)
i) Nyaya (many-pluralism): Recognizes variety in life.
b. Skepticism of ultimate reality (atheism)
a. Emphasizes logic and distinction
ii) Samkhya (two-dualism):
iii) Vedanta:
Both matter and spirit are real eternally coexistent (using yoga to attain release from reincarnation)
(one-monism based on the last part of the Vedas [Upanishads])
Absolute non-dualism
Qualified non-dualism
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHALLENGES
i) Jainism:
ii) Buddhism:
iv) The West:
iii) Islam
RESPONSES OF HINDUISM
ii) The Arya Samaj
iv) Gurus, Swamis, and New Age
iii) Gandhi:
Vivekananda (brings Ramakrishna’s teaching of Advaita Vedanta to the west in late 19th Century)
“The Story of My Experiments with Truth”
Religion:
Political:
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Noah's Sons
CB#1 Adam’s Teaching
CB#2: Abel’s sacrifice accepted and rejection of Cain’s
CB#3 Why are you downcast? (outward)
CB#4“Where is your brother?” (outward)
CB#5 Increase of the Curse on Cain
CB#6 Cain’s mark
"WORD"
"DEED"
Six Callbacks
R. wrong sacrifice revealing lack of understanding of sin and the need for atonement
R. Cain anger (inward)
"THOUGHT"
R. Murder of Abel
R. Am I my brother’s keeper?
R. “Does not repent, but rather regrets the consequences”
R. left to himself he went his own way
(Gen 4)
Cain was then building a city, and he named it after his son Enoch. 18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of Mehujael, and Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech.

19 Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah. 20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock. 21 His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all who play the harp and flute. 22 Zillah also had a son, Tubal-Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron. Tubal-Cain’s sister was Naamah.
(Gen 5)
(Gen 5)
Promise renewed/Covenant established
Curse (Ham’s son Canaan) and promise is continued (Shem & Abraham)
Curse Intensified
(Rainbow)
11 Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. 2 As men moved eastward,[a] they found a plain in Shinar[b] and settled there.
3 They said to each other, “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. 4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth.”

5 But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. 6 The Lord said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. 7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.”

8 So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. 9 That is why it was called Babel[c]—because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers outside. 23 But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it across their shoulders; then they walked in backward and covered their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so that they would not see their father’s nakedness.

24 When Noah awoke from his wine and found out what his youngest son had done to him, 25 he said,

“Cursed be Canaan!
The lowest of slaves
will he be to his brothers.”
26 He also said,
“Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem!
May Canaan be the slave of Shem.
27 May God extend the territory of Japheth;
may Japheth live in the tents of Shem,
and may Canaan be his slave.”
28 After the flood Noah lived 350 years.
The Biblical Worldview
The Torah
i) The Law (10 Commandments)
ii) The Five Books of Moses
iii) The Scripture (39 books)
iv) Way of life embodied in the Rabbi
Promise
Moses & The Law of Israel
Israel in the Promised Land
Life Outside of the Promise Land
Judaism before Modernity
Judaism and the Modern World
Buddhism
Life of the Buddha
Characteristics of Buddhism
Teachings of the Buddha
Buddhist Worldview
Early Councils & Early Divisions
Buddhist Sects
i)“Birth Tales” (preparation for reincarnation)
ii) “Turner of the wheel”
iii) Sights:
Sickness
Old Age
Death
Asceticism
iv) Departs
v) Mara & Bodhi Tree
vi) Gaining a following
vii) i)The Buddha’s two bodies: Relics (worship) & his Dharma (teachings/doctrine)
i) Focus on suffering
ii) Empirical
iii) Middle path
iv) Missionary
v) Compassionate
vi) Monastic
vii) Pragmatic
Final Charge to Disciples:
Four Noble Truths:
8-Fold Path:
i)All is dukkha:
(a) Sensation: Physical or mental pain
(b) Secession: Change & impermanence
(c) Deception: False view of the good that is not really the good
ii)Dukkha arises:
iii)Dukkha ceases:
iv)There is a path leading to the cessation of dukkha
Nirvana-blowing out
(a) 8-Fold Path
i) Ethics:
ii) Metaphysics:
iii) Epistemology:
(a) Compassionate & Pragmatic
(a) Dependent Co-Arising all is flux
(b) No origination
(a) Empiricism -> denial of substance
(b) “No object of the intellect can withstand scrutiny”
Call & Promise:
Sacrifice of Isaac:
The Patriarchs:
(i) Leave your country
(ii) Leave your people
(iii) Leave your father’s household
i) He understood God's purpose in creation and history
ii) He understood the meaning of sacrifice
iii) He understood the meaning of circumcision
iv) He understood the meaning of the name "Isaac"
v) He understood the blessing is through Isaac
vi) He understood his relation to the one to be sacrificed
vii) He understood the meaning of circumcision
i) Isaac (laughter) and The Promise:
ii) Jacob (Israel) and The Promise:
iii) Joseph, Judah and The Promise:
i) Babylon (606-536 BCE)
ii) Persia (536-332 BCE)
iii) Hellenism (332-64 BCE)
iii) Rome (64BCE-135 CE)
i) Judaism & Early Christianity
ii) Judaism & Islam
iii) Judaism & Western Europe:
i) Response to the Enlightenment
ii) Response to the Holocaust:
b) Destruction of Solomon's Temple:
a) Complete captivity of the Jewish people
d) Daniel's Vision and Messianic Kingdom:
c) Adjustment to new conditions:
2 The city was kept under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. 3 By the ninth day of the fourth[a] month the famine in the city had become so severe that there was no food for the people to eat. 4 Then the city wall was broken through, and the whole army fled at night through the gate between the two walls near the king’s garden, though the Babylonians[b] were surrounding the city. They fled toward the Arabah,[c] 5 but the Babylonian[d] army pursued the king and overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his soldiers were separated from him and scattered, 6 and he was captured. He was taken to the king of Babylon at Riblah, where sentence was pronounced on him. 7 They killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes. Then they put out his eyes, bound him with bronze shackles and took him to Babylon.
8 On the seventh day of the fifth month, in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan commander of the imperial guard, an official of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. 9 He set fire to the temple of the Lord, the royal palace and all the houses of Jerusalem. Every important building he burned down. 10 The whole Babylonian army, under the commander of the imperial guard, broke down the walls around Jerusalem. 11 Nebuzaradan the commander of the guard carried into exile the people who remained in the city, along with the rest of the populace and those who had gone over to the king of Babylon. 12 But the commander left behind some of the poorest people of the land to work the vineyards and fields.
2 Kings 25:2-12
Daniel 2:29-45
1) First Diaspora:
Challenge: How to obey the Torah w/o the Temple?
Response:
I) The Rabbi
III) Mishnah > Talmud
II) The Synagogue
29 “As you were lying there, O king, your mind turned to things to come, and the revealer of mysteries showed you what is going to happen. 30 As for me, this mystery has been revealed to me, not because I have greater wisdom than other living men, but so that you, O king, may know the interpretation and that you may understand what went through your mind.
31 “You looked, O king, and there before you stood a large statue—an enormous, dazzling statue, awesome in appearance. 32 The head of the statue was made of pure gold, its chest and arms of silver, its belly and thighs of bronze, 33 its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of baked clay. 34 While you were watching, a rock was cut out, but not by human hands. It struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay and smashed them. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were broken to pieces at the same time and became like chaff on a threshing floor in the summer. The wind swept them away without leaving a trace. But the rock that struck the statue became a huge mountain and filled the whole earth.
36 “This was the dream, and now we will interpret it to the king. 37 You, O king, are the king of kings. The God of heaven has given you dominion and power and might and glory; 38 in your hands he has placed mankind and the beasts of the field and the birds of the air. Wherever they live, he has made you ruler over them all. You are that head of gold.
39 “After you, another kingdom will rise, inferior to yours. Next, a third kingdom, one of bronze, will rule over the whole earth. 40 Finally, there will be a fourth kingdom, strong as iron—for iron breaks and smashes everything—and as iron breaks things to pieces, so it will crush and break all the others. 41 Just as you saw that the feet and toes were partly of baked clay and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom; yet it will have some of the strength of iron in it, even as you saw iron mixed with clay. 42 As the toes were partly iron and partly clay, so this kingdom will be partly strong and partly brittle. 43 And just as you saw the iron mixed with baked clay, so the people will be a mixture and will not remain united, any more than iron mixes with clay.
44 “In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever. 45 This is the meaning of the vision of the rock cut out of a mountain, but not by human hands—a rock that broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver and the gold to pieces.
“The great God has shown the king what will take place in the future. The dream is true and the interpretation is trustworthy.”
a) Return to the land & rebuilding of the Temple:
1 In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill the word of the Lord spoken by Jeremiah, the Lord moved the heart of Cyrus king of Persia to make a proclamation throughout his realm and to put it in writing:
2 “This is what Cyrus king of Persia says:
“‘The Lord, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and he has appointed me to build a temple for him at Jerusalem in Judah. 3 Anyone of his people among you—may his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem in Judah and build the temple of the Lord, the God of Israel, the God who is in Jerusalem. 4 And the people of any place where survivors may now be living are to provide him with silver and gold, with goods and livestock, and with freewill offerings for the temple of God in Jerusalem.’”
Ezra 1:1-4
a) Appeal of cultural and intellectual achievements vs the particular Jewish customs.
b) The Maccabean Revolt (167-164 BCE)
b) Under God or Emperor?
a) Under Roman Rule:
c) Messianic hope > Man of the knife
1) Pompey (63 B.C.E.)
2) Augustus (6 C.E.)
3) Nero/Vespesian/Titus (70 C.E.)
4) Hadrian (135 C.E.)
a) To man - After all we did in the Enlightenment? Never Again! (The Holy Land)
b) To God - Silence
c) To Self - Who is a Jew?
b) Reformed - demand for reform to accommodate:
1) Kosher food; the Sabbath; Hebrew language
3) We seek no Messiah, we know no homeland but the land of our birth
a) Orthodox- preservation of Jewish culture and resist modernity.
1) Continual development of Judaism
2) The Talmud does not have authority for the modern Jew
c) Conservative - middle ground between Orthodox and Reformed
d) Reconstructionist - Judaism more than religion (culture & study)
d) Response to Second Diaspora:
1) Most traumatic event in Jewish history
2) Rabbinic response - we have to go on with life
i) Three Pillars: Torah > Sacrifice > Acts of Loving Kindness (Hosea 6:6)
ii) Written & oral Torah is embodied in the Rabbi (the living Torah)
iii) Reading of Torah as devotion and not strict guidance
a) The Crusades (1095 CE)
b) Ghetto (1215 CE)
C) Moises Maimonides (1135-1204)
D) Trade and Banking
a) Babylon
b) "The people of the book"
C) Scribes and Merchants
a) Rejection of the Messiah & persecution
b) Envy and Persecution:
1) Separateness
2) Prosperity
1) Existence of perfect being
E) The Enlightenment
Theravada :
“Doctrine of the Elders”
i)Monastic/ascetic: renunciation as necessary
ii)Belief in the human Buddha that attained nirvana: anyone can follow the Buddha in the path to nirvana.
Mahayana:
“The Great Vehicle”
i)The Buddha as an incarnation of an eternal Buddha.
ii)The Bodhisattva or “future Buddha”
1)The parable of the burning house
2)“The mind of awakening”—virtues of wisdom and compassion
3)Normal human beings fully engaged in the world
iii)The Celestial Buddhas:
1)Reside in the heavens
2)The focus point of devotion
3)Avalokiteshvara “The Lord Who Looks Down” —Om Manipadme Hum.
The Three Refuges:
i)The Buddha
ii)The Dharma
iii)The Sangha
a)Madhyamika:
i)Nagarjuna—seeking the “middle position” which transcends thought & distinctions.
b)Tendai :
i)Adherence to the Lotus Sutra—concealed teachings of the Buddha that explain the “true nature of the Buddha”.
(1)Existence of countless Buddhas who serve as teachers to all non-Buddhas.
(2)The Buddha as an everlasting, ever-present cosmic father.
ii) Syncretistic responses to cultures where Buddhism entered
iii) The distinction between Nirvana and non-Nirvana is denied “inherent enlightenment”.
c)Nichiren:
i) A response to foreign invasion by the Mongols whereby Japanese sought refuge in Buddhism (highly political)
d)Pure Land:
i) Largest Buddhist group in Japan
ii)Emphasis is salvation by faith in Amitabha (Buddha of infinite light)
e)Ch’an & Zen:
i)Bodhidharma (470-543 CE):
(2)Brought Buddhism to China
iii)Everyone possesses the Buddha-nature; one has to awake to it.
ii)Non-cognitive, primarily intuitional & experiential
(1)Intrepid striving
iv)The use of “Koan”
The Gospel Age
i) Main Events in Jesus's Life:
The Apostolic Age
i) Book of Acts
ii) Book of Romans
iii) Letters
Church Fathers
c) Council of Nicea vs Arianism (denial of trinity)
i) Responses to challenges to the foundational teachings:
a) Council of Jerusalem vs. Judiazers
b) Apostles' Creed vs. Greek Dualism (Gnosticism)
Medieval Age
v) Scholasticism (Knights of Theology)
i) The rise of the papacy
ii) Monasticism (ascetic withdrawal & otherwordliness)
iii) Islam and the Crusades
The Reformation
i) Moral Reform-correct ecclesiastical abuses
ii) Theological Reform (The Five Solas):
Modernity
ii) Response to the Enlightenment:
i) The Enlightenment:
Post-Modernity
iv) Faith vs. Reason, and the nature of religion itself
i) Goodness of God after Auschwitz
ii) Clarity of God's existence and the inexcusability of unbelief
iii) Church's otherwordliness vs. the thiswordliness of secular thought
(30-90 CE)
(4 BCE-29 CE)
(90-451 CE)
(451-1517 CE)
(1517-1648 CE)
(1648-1945 CE)
(1945-present)
Old Testament:
Person and work of the Messiah to come
New Testament:
Jesus fulfilled and is fulfilling what was written of the Messiah
ii) Reasons for Rejection of Jesus as Messiah:
iii) The Word of God:
1) Identity as both son of David and son of God
2) Interpretation of the Law in contrast to the traditions of the elders
3) The nature of the kingdom to be established
iv) Pastoral & General Letters
v) The Book of Revelations
1) Growth of the Kingdom
2) Pentecost (the coming of the Holy Spirit)
3) Paul's conversion
5) Acts 15 (1st Council)
4) Promise to the gentiles
1) Systematic exposition of Christianity
2) Clarity & Inexcusability (1-2)
3) Since no one is righteous, salvation come through the righteousness of Christ (3-4)
10 As it is written:
“There is no one righteous, not even one;
11 there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God.
12 All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one.”
Romans 3:10-12
Romans 3:22-25
22 This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. 25 God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood.
Romans 1:20
20 For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.
4) Christ's atoning death has far greater benefits than the effects of Adam's sin (5-8)
Romans 8:18-22
18 I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. 19 The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 20 For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope 21 that[a] the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.

22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time.
5) God's sovereign choice and God will bring both gentiles and Jews to believe (9-11)
28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies on your account; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs, 29 for God’s gifts and his call are irrevocable. 30 Just as you who were at one time disobedient to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience, 31 so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now[a] receive mercy as a result of God’s mercy to you. 32 For God has bound all men over to disobedience so that he may have mercy on them all.
Romans 11:28-32
Romans 9:1-21
I speak the truth in Christ—I am not lying, my conscience confirms it in the Holy Spirit— 2 I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 3 For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, those of my own race, 4 the people of Israel. Theirs is the adoption as sons; theirs the divine glory, the covenants, the receiving of the law, the temple worship and the promises. 5 Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of Christ, who is God over all, forever praised![a] Amen.
6 It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. 7 Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”[b] 8 In other words, it is not the natural children who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring. 9 For this was how the promise was stated: “At the appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son.”[c]
10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children had one and the same father, our father Isaac. 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad—in order that God’s purpose in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”[d] 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[e]
14 What then shall we say? Is God unjust? Not at all! 15 For he says to Moses,
“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[f]
16 It does not, therefore, depend on man’s desire or effort, but on God’s mercy. 17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[g] 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.
19 One of you will say to me: “Then why does God still blame us? For who resists his will?” 20 But who are you, O man, to talk back to God? “Shall what is formed say to him who formed it, ‘Why did you make me like this?’”[h] 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for noble purposes and some for common use?
6) Application of the will of God through the Law (12-16)
Romans 12:1-2
Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God—this is your spiritual act of worship. 2 Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will.
Romans 13:1-7
Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. 4 For he is God’s servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God’s servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. 5 Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience.
6 This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. 7 Give everyone what you owe him: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.
The Picture & Person of the Messiah
a) Another in the place of Adam (Rom. 5:12-19)
b) Redemptive line (A,S,N,S,A,I,J,J,D, etc)
c) Prophet, Priest, and King (Deut. 18:15-18 & Psalm 110)

d) God & Man (Psalm 110:1 & Matt. 1:23)
e) Lamb of God (John 1:29)
f) Resurrection (Psalm 16:1 & Luke 11:29-32)
g) Ruling until all things are subdued to him (I Cor. 15:20-28)
(divisions within the church - gifts)
(no human effort can be added to the gift of salvation by God's grace)
(full extent of salvation in Christ who through His church is to fill everything in every way)
(Christ's life as the example of service)
(believer's completeness in Christ)
(correction of faulty teachings about the return of Christ)
(Christ is greater than and a fulfillment of the Old Testament types and shadows)
Corinthians:
Galatians:
Ephesians:
Philippians:
Colossians:
Thessalonians:
Hebrews:
Timothy & Titus:
James, Peter, John, & Jude
Teaching and exhortations about the responsibilities and conduct of pastors
Instruction and exhortation on living the Christian life
The state of the spiritual war and the eventual triumph of the kingdom of God
Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual but as worldly—mere infants in Christ. 2 I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for it. Indeed, you are still not ready. 3 You are still worldly. For since there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not worldly? Are you not acting like mere men? 4 For when one says, “I follow Paul,” and another, “I follow Apollos,” are you not mere men?
5 What, after all, is Apollos? And what is Paul? Only servants, through whom you came to believe—as the Lord has assigned to each his task. 6 I planted the seed, Apollos watered it, but God made it grow. 7 So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but only God, who makes things grow. 8 The man who plants and the man who waters have one purpose, and each will be rewarded according to his own labor. 9 For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, God’s building.
I Corinthians 3:1-9
6 I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the one who called you by the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospel— 7 which is really no gospel at all. Evidently some people are throwing you into confusion and are trying to pervert the gospel of Christ. 8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned! 9 As we have already said, so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let him be eternally condemned!
Galatians 1:6-9;2:19-21
19 For through the law I died to the law so that I might live for God. 20 I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. 21 I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!”
7 But to each one of us grace has been given as Christ apportioned it. 8 This is why it says:

“When he ascended on high,
he led captives in his train
and gave gifts to men.”
9 (What does “he ascended” mean except that he also descended to the lower, earthly regions? 10 He who descended is the very one who ascended higher than all the heavens, in order to fill the whole universe.) 11 It was he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers, 12 to prepare God’s people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up 13 until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ.
14 Then we will no longer be infants, tossed back and forth by the waves, and blown here and there by every wind of teaching and by the cunning and craftiness of men in their deceitful scheming. 15 Instead, speaking the truth in love, we will in all things grow up into him who is the Head, that is, Christ. 16 From him the whole body, joined and held together by every supporting ligament, grows and builds itself up in love, as each part does its work.
Ephesians 4:7-16
If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, 2 then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. 3 Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves. 4 Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others.
5 Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus:
6 Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
7 but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant,
being made in human likeness.
8 And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death—even death on a cross!
9 Therefore God exalted him to the highest place
and gave him the name that is above every name,
10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow,
in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord,
to the glory of God the Father.
Philippians 2:1-11
15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. 19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.

21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. 22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation— 23 if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.
Colossians 1:15-23
13 Brothers, we do not want you to be ignorant about those who fall asleep, or to grieve like the rest of men, who have no hope. 14 We believe that Jesus died and rose again and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep in him. 15 According to the Lord’s own word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left till the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. 18 Therefore encourage each other with these words.
1 Thessalonians 4:13-18
d) Council of Chalcedon vs. faulty views on the Christology
e) Augustine of Hippo (culmination of early Church)
a) Sola Scriptura: The authority for faith is Scripture alone
b) Sola Fides: Justification is by faith alone
c) Sola Gratia: Salvation is by grace alone
d) Solus Christo: Salvation is by Christ alone
e) Soli Deo Gloria: All of life is for the glory of God alone
a) Synthesis with Scripture:
1) Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
2) John Locke (1632-1704)
3) Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804)
b) Displacing Scripture:
1) Matthew Tindal (1655-1733)
2) Voltaire (1694-1778)
3) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
c) In Conflict with Scripture:
1) David Hume (1711-1776)
2) The French Materialists
3) Friedrich NIetzsche
a) Some reaffirmed historical creeds
b) Others accommodated experience as valid (evangelicalism), then literalism
c) Some adopted liberal rationalism
b) Others adopted fundamentalism as a response to apostasy
Life of Muhammad
Development of Islam
Quran
Islam in Practice
The Caliphate & the Spread of Islam
(570-632 CE)
Mu’tazalites (Averroes) & Ash'arites (Al Ghazali)
a. Nature of rationality
c. Predestination and free will
d. The nature of the Quran & interpretation
e. The nature of Sharia Law (heteronomy or derived from nature)
f. Ultimate source of authority—reason or Quran?
g.Secondary and primary causes
j. Islam and conquered cultures
Caste system structure
Animal & female figurines
Unknown Seals
Purity rituals (baths)
Vedas (wisdom)-Oldest & most sacred scriptures
Sanskrit (Indo-european)
g. Nirguna Brahman- without qualities
D) Ahimsa (non-violence)
C) Within the Caste System (Untouchables)
B) Caste System as a whole (man-made law?)
A) Why need the Vedas?
a) Gautama Siddhartha
b) Varna-ashrama-dharma system
e) Exclusivism
d) Polygamy
c) Shirk (the sin of idolatry)
b) Sharia Law
a) Alms giving
a. Christianity and Christian missionaries:
i. Opposition to Suti & human sacrifices
ii. Equality before God
iii. Industrialization
b. Secularism (The Enlightenment):
i.Political freedom (democracy)
ii.Nationalism
iii.Equality of opportunity (education & employment)
The Brahmo Samaj:
&
(Return to Vedas)
(Modern liberal)
v.Extension of communal living beyond immediate family to all
iv.This worldly asceticism for social justice
iii.Opposition to conversion
ii.Transcendence of truth “God is Truth”-the one behind the many (ineffable)
i.“Friendly study of the world religions is a sacred duty”
vi.Celibacy as householder- to establish inclusiveness and channeling of energy
vii. Revolution begins at home-Vow taking, fasting, & vegetarianism
viii.Use of Ahimsa (the force of love)
x.Inner truth abiding in all-appealing through non-violence
ix.Giving one’s life for truth but not taking another’s life for it
i. Challenge of apartheid in South Africa
ii. Challenged the English rule in India
iii. Transformed the Indian Nationalist movement (Aristocracy to the people as a whole)
iv. Equality & inclusion of untouchables
v. United India (Muslims and Hindus) Vs Muhammad Ali Jinnah
a) Concept of God
b) Creation as revelation
c) Man is created to know God and make Him known
d) The Fall: Failure to fulfill the Dominion Mandate
e) Mercy-the three call backs
f) The promise (the seed of the woman)
The Patriarchs
Cain and Abel:
i) Spiritual War (two lines)
Cain-unbelief
Seth-belief
Cain to Flood:
The Flood:
Noah:
Intermarriage:
Apostasy:
Lamach:
(polygamy, dominion, and murder)
(believers and unbelievers)
(Preserver)
(Curse and the Promise)
Babel & Table of Nations
Curse (Ham’s son Canaan) and promise is continued (Shem & Abraham)
Abraham and The Promise:
the promised land
become a great nation
“all nations blessed through you”
(1) Land & Promise: Remains in the land and marries in connection with the promise
(2) God's sovereign election:
"Two nations are in your womb. . .and the older will serve the younger" (Gen. 25:23)
Jacob have I loved, Esau have I hated
(1) Tricked for birthright
(2) Tricked for blessing
(3) Tricked by Laban
(4) Wrestling (understanding the blessing) Gen. 32:22-30
(5) Name changed to Israel
(6) Judah & Tamar (Gen. 38)
(7) "Out of Judah-The Promise"
(1) Interpreter:
To family (family will bow down to him)
To cup bearer & baker (restoration & death)
To Pharaoh (famine)
(2) Providence of God:
Famine and reunited with brothers
Sent ahead to save lives (preservation of Israel in Egypt)
Jacob's blessing of the 12 tribes
(3) Promise:
"Take my bones out" connected with the resurrection
Growth from 70 to 2.5 millions in 430 years
Phase 1:
Phase 2:
Phase 3:
Never again shall the earth be filled with evil.
(Learning the wisdom of the Egyptians)
(1) In Pharaoh's court
(2) Seeking change by autonomy (murder of Egyptian)
(Learning the meekness of humility)
On the backside of the desert
(Leading the people)
Call of Moses:
(1) Burning of the bush
(2) "I am who I am"
Contest with Pharaoh:
(1) The ten plagues
(2) Pharaoh's hardening of his heart (the human heart-NARD)
(3) Death of first born (Israel as God's first born)
(4) The Passover (justification)
(5) Feast of unleavened bread (cleansing)
(6) Red Sea-bringing people into the Land
Giving of the Law
Preparation for the Law (Ex. 19)
(1) The fear of the Lord
(2) Calling people to hear
Purpose of the Law:
(1) Constitute the Israelite as a nation
(2) Kingdom of priests and a holy nation
(3) The Law for all nations
Parts of the Law
The Moral Law
(1) Clear: Law for all nations (based on human nature-Deut. 30:11-14)
(2) Comprehensive (all of life and culture)
The Civil Law
Comprehensiveness (613+ laws)
The Ceremonial Law
Circumstantial

(Applications of the Moral Law)
(3) Critical (a matter of life and death)
(Teaching forgiveness and cleansing)
The Tent of Meeting
(How human beings are to meet with God)
1
2
3
4
9
8
7
6
5
The Courtyard
Altar: Come to God through sacrifice
Laver: Holiness through knowledge
Table of Shewbread: Word
Altar of incense: Worship
Ark (mercy seat)
Holy of Holies
Holy Place
Candelabra: Witness
Priesthood:
(Holiness though knowledge)
Laws of Cleansing
(Teaching for holiness)
e.The Year of Jubilee (every 50 years): Restoration of land and cancellation of debts
(i)Food: Clean and unclean
(ii)Disease: Examination by priest
(iii)Death & Curse: Take time for cleansing
(iv)Purification: Birth; circumcision; blood; mold
(v)Sacrifices in and through:
1.Daily: Morning and evening
2.Weekly: In addition to daily
3.Monthly: New moon
4.Annually:
a.Passover and unleavened Bread-justification and sanctification
b.Weeks/First Fruits: Beginning of harvest
c.Ingathering: End of harvest
d.Sabbath year (every 7 years): Limitation and cancellation of deaths
Numbers:
iii)Preparation to enter the land
i)Turning back at Kadesh Barnea (giants in the land)
ii)Wandering in the wilderness (38 years)
Deuteronomy:
(The second giving of the Law)
The centrality of the law to all of life:

"4 Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. 5 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. 6 These commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. 7 Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 8 Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. 9 Write them on the doorframes of your houses and on your gates."
Kingdom Divided:
Joshua:
Judges:
Kingdom United:
Conquest of the Land
Seven cycles of apostasy
Apostasy
(Curse/Judgment)
A judge is given to deliver
Peace
Cycles of Apostasy
Oppression
The decline of the prominence of the priesthood and the rise of the kingship
Solomon:
David:
Saul:
Man after his own glory
1) Man after God's own heart
2) The warrior king
3) Poet (Psalms)
4) Preparations for the Temple
5) Redemptive line (messiah)
1) Built the Temple
2) Wisdom Literature:
1) Proverbs
3) Song of Solomon
2) Ecclesiastes
13) The resurrection
12) The coming of the Messiah
11) God punishes and rewards in the afterlife
10) God is omniscient
9) Torah is unchangeable
8) Torah is divinely inspired
7) The uniqueness of Moses
6) Belief in the truth of prophecy
5) Worship without intermediary
4) God's incorporeality
3) God's unity
2) Author of all creation
(varna-ashrama-dharma system)
Ignorance
Desire
Attachment
Rebirth
Wisdom
Conduct
Mental Development
1) Right views
2) Right Intention
3) Right effort
4) Right mindfulness
5) Right concentration
6) Right speech
7) Right action
8) Right livelihood
c) Anatman-not self
Spread:
a) Tetralemma (is; is not, both, neither)
b) Two levels of truth
C) Dependent Origination
Higher power?
Five Implications
Implication #1
All persons are religious since all persons give meaning to their experiences (theist & non-theist)
Implication #2
Implication #3
Implication #4
As truth cannot be separated from meaning so faith cannot be separated from reason.
Implication #5
No one is fully conscious and consistent in their basic beliefs.
Religion is fundamentally cognitive.
It has to do with beliefs which are either true or false.
No experience is meaningful without interpretation.
Practices?
Scripture?
2. The tendency to anthropomorphize, which leads people to address natural powers as if they were human.
Three phases in human development:
3) Scientific phase (experimantation)
2) Metaphysical Phase (abstract principles)
Dichotomy between "The Sacred" & "the Profane"
Externalization objectification internalization
Phenomenological approach (experience & its effects)
Religion as a means of coping and civilization as a restrain against one's natural desires
God as a projection of our best aspects
Parracide to believe in a male god
The larger reality is a web of signification, i.e., archetypes, and universal symbolic representations that provide meaning.
How is the justice and mercy of God to be reconciled?
How is God to be merciful to man in sin?
(Departure from belief in God)
Characteristics of Existence
Impermanence
Unsatisfactory
Not-Self
iv) Rise of Universities
vi) Simony, Absenteeism, and nepotism
Abraham (Jews)
Suffering Servant
(Romans)
Adam (Greeks)
Eternal Logos
(Universal)
1) Birth to Baptism
e) Anointment of Spirit (1:32)
2) Temptation (Matt. 4:1-11)
Comes to UNDO what Adam did and DO what Adam failed to do
3) Call of Disciples
e) I have come not to send peace, but a sword
4) Teaching by Word and Deed
5) Conflict with Leader:
Whose son is the Christ?
7) Resurrection, Ascension, and Session:
Fifty days later (Pentecost)
6) Arrest, Trial, & Crucifixion
d) It is finished
1) Entrance into the Kingdom
Born again (John 3:1-10)
2) Character
The Beatitudes (Matt. 5:3-10)
3) The Law of the Kingdom
Fulfills the law and does not abolish it
4) Piety of the Kingdom
Lead us not
5) Parables of the Kingdom
Vineyard & Banquet (Matt. 22:1-14)
6) Works of the Kingdom through Miracles, Signs, & Wonders
Raising of the dead
The Logos
Eternal 1:1
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.
In Man as Reason 1:4
4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
In the Creation (1:10)
10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him.
In Scripture (1:11)
11 He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him.
Incarnate (1:14)
14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
Prologue to the Gospel of John
Hebrews 1:1-9
1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
5 For to which of the angels did He ever say:
“You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”?
And again:
“I will be to Him a Father,And He shall be to Me a Son”?
6 But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says:
“Let all the angels of God worship Him.”
7 And of the angels He says:
“Who makes His angels spirits And His ministers a flame of fire.”
8 But to the Son He says:
“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.
9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You
With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.”
Enunciation to Mary (Luke 1:30-33)
Three Magi: gold, incense, and myrrh (Matt. 2:11)
Remains at the Temple (Luke 2:41-50)
Grows in wisdom and statue (Luke 2:40 & 2:52)
John the Baptist testifies (Is. 40:3 & Mal. 4:5-6):
a) Witness to the light (John 1:6-7)
b) Eternality (John 1:15)
c) Divinity (1:26-27)
d) Atonement (1:29)
Tested as a man in far worst circumstances than Adam
Preparation for spiritual war (Matt. 10)
a) Miraculous powers
b) Sheep in the midst of wolves
c) Wise as serpents, and harmless as doves
d) You shall be hated by all men
Deeper meaning of the law
Hallowed
Thy kingdom come
Daily bread
Thy will be done
Forgive us
Sower and Seed (Matt. 13:3-8)
Wheat and Tares (Matt. 13:24-30)
Mustard Seed & Yeast (Matt. 13:31-33)
Pearl of Great Price (Matt. 13:44)
Talent, Labor, & Reward (Luke 19:11-27)
Ten Virgins (Matt. 25:1-13)
Water into wine
Multiply loaves & fish
Walking on water
Healing
Driving out demons
Cleansing of the Temple
Exposing self-righteous hypocrisy
Tradition
Healing on the Sabbath
Revelation of himself as the Christ
Woman in adultery
Greatest Commandment
Paying taxes
Marriage & Resurrection
By what authority?
Seven woes of hypocrisy
He knows what is coming (Matt. 26:31-35)
He is able to prevent it (Matt. 26:47-55)
Affirmation of Sonship before High Priest (Matt. 26:57-66)
Affirmation of kingship before Pilate (Matt. 26:11-26)
Mocked, flogged, and crucified (Matt. 27:27-56)
Utterances on the cross:
a) Forgive them for they know not what they do
b) My God, why have you forsaken me?
c) Father, into your hands I commend my spirit
The Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20)
Wait in Jerusalem for the Spirit (Acts 1:4-8)
Bodily, visible ascension and will return the same
1) Polytheism, tribalism, idolatry, and injustice
3) Judaism
4) Zoroastrianism
5) Ka'aba & Muhammad's Contribution
Pre-Islamic Arabia
"The Age of Ignorance"
Distribution:

1) Arabia
2) Persia
3) Indian Subcontinent
4) Turkey
5) Africa
6) Indonesia
Points of Contact:
1) Arabs and Jews
2) Iranian Revolution
3) Yugoslavia
4) Soviet Union
5) September 11th
2) Heterodox Christianity
Before the Revelation
1) Birth
After the Revelation
7)Death and succession of Abu Bakr
4) Marriage to Khadija
3) Caravan trade (travel and contacts)
2) Death of family
"The Seal of the Prophets"
1) Revelation in Mecca (610-622)
2) Revelation in Medina (622-632)
3) Early converts and persecution
4) Hijrah (flee) to Medina in 622 (beginning of Islamic history)
5)Pilgrimage to Mecca and destruction of idols
6) Statesman, judge, military leader, and prophet
1) Ecumenical Beliefs
a) There is no God but Allah
2) Islam and other religions
a) Prunes
3) Succession
Sunni:
4) Theological schools and interpretation
b) Muhammad is the messenger of God
c) The Quran is the word of God
d) The reality of the afterlife
e) Five pillars of Islam
d) Completes
c) Purges
b) Corrects
Shi'ites:
by appointment of the community
Cousin Ali by succession
(Justice & Rationality)
(Will & Power)
b. Knowability of the world
http://quran.com/2
Orthopraxy (correct practice)
Orthodoxy (correct belief)
vs.
Worship:
2) Friday prayer
3) The Imam
1) The Mosque
2) Prayer five times per day
3) Giving of alms
1) Recitation of the Creed
The Five Pillars
4) Ramadan fast
5) Pilgrimage to Mecca (the hajj)
Jihad:
Internal and external struggle (infidels, apostates, rebels, and bandits)
661-750
750-1258
1924-Present
1258-1924
632-661
"The Rule of the Rightly Guided Ones"
1) The four Caliphs:
Umayyad Caliphate (Damascus)
1) Appointment by hereditary succession: Genesis of corruption of Islam (Shi'a view)
Abbasid Caliphate: "Apex of Islamic Culture"
1) Change of capital (Damascus to Baghdad)
Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and the End of the Caliphate
Islam and the West:
Resurgence of Islam
1) Identity crisis in the face of failure
Abu Bakr
Umar
Uthman
Ali
2) Rapid spread:
(633)
(636)
(638)
(641)
3)
Consolidation of Islam under the Caliph (Golden Age of Muslim Rule)
2) Spread to North Africa (705); Spain (711); and France-battle of Tours (732)
3) Hierarchical society:
Arabs
half Arabs
non-Arab converts
non-Muslims (people of the book and others)
4) Massacre of Kabala (martyrdom of the Prophet's family)
5) The Dome of the Rock:
Replacement of the Jewish Temple and opposition to Christian Orthodoxy
6) Islam is established as a civilization and empire (new dispensation)
2) Spread to India and China
3) Contributions:
A) Law (Sharia & the Ulama)
B) Theology (Ash'arites & Mu'tazalites)
D) Mathematics (Arabic numbers, algebra, and decimal system)
C) Philosophy (Averroes)
4) Sufism (interior path)
5) Crusades (1095)
6) The Mongol invasion (1258)
From supremacy to humiliation
Defeats:
1) Granada (1492)
Response:
2) Battle of Lepanto (1571)
3) Battle of Vienna (1683)
4) Napoleon (1798)
5) WWI (1919)
6) Israel (1948)
7) Iranian coup d'état (1953)
Who did this to us?
What did we do wrong?
How do we catch up?
1) Military (purchased weapons)
The Crisis of Islam
2) Economics (central planning)
3) Politics (nationalism, patriotism, and constitutional democracy)
4) Culture (rights of women, science, music, abolition of slavery, and polygamy)
5) Return to fundamentals
2) Disillusionment with Westernization
3) Regaining a sense of history, faith, and values
4) Iran and Afghanistan
5) Implementation of Sharia Law in all areas of life
(Correction & Completion)
1) Essence of Islam is submission to the oneness of God and the divine will.
2) Direct revelation from Agel Gabriel "Recite!"
a) the recitation
d) the guide
c) the mother book
b) the discernment
3) Central theophany:
4) Teachings:
a) God is one (imminent and transcendent)
"God is our enough"
& (Hadith)
g) Human nature: intellect and will work together. Passions corrupt the intellect. Revelation needed to remove the veil of passions.
f) No theodicy needed
e) "Shirk"-anthropomorphism and idolatry
d) Resurrection and judgment
c) The divine lordship of the worlds (predestination)
b) Ninety nine names of God
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