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White winemaking

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on 5 October 2013

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Transcript of White winemaking

Winemaking: White, Rose & Red
Rose Winemaking
Three methods:
1) Drawing-off
2) Direct pressing
3) Blending
Red Winemaking
Pre-fermentation processing:
Harvest
Press
Crush (alternative options)
Must adjustments (if necessary)
Fermentation
Maceration
Draining and pressing
Malolactic fermentation
Maturation
White Winemaking
Harvest
Crush
Press
Must treatments
Fermentation
PRESS OPTIONS:
Whole Bunch Press
OR
De-stem & Crush
Whole bunch press
Adds body, tannins
Squeezing liquid from solid parts
Usually occurs ASAP after grapes received at winery
Should be gentle to avoid bitter/astringent elements
De-stem & Crush
Removes unwanted tannins from stems if not ripe
Allows one to more closely monitor healthy of grapes selected for processing
Slower to press without stems because stems provide drainage
MUST TREATMENTS:
Pre-fermentation clarification
Enrichment
Other adjustments
Additives
Pre-fermentation clarifications:
Cold settling
Centrifugation
Diatomaceous earth filtration
Flotation
Enrichment
Sucrose or RCGM
Vacuum Evaportation
Reverse Osmosis
Cryoextraction
Other adjustments
Deacidification
Acidification
Oxygen
reductive handling
oxidative handling
hyperoxidation
ascorbic acid
Additives
Bentonite
Enhancing enzymes
FERMENTATION OPTIONS
Vessels
Temperature
Use of lees
Barrel fermentation & ageing
Vessels
Concrete
Stainless steel
Oak
Fermentation Temperature
Optimum is 14-20 C
Aromatic whites usually lower; 11-15 C
To retain max of volatile esters even lower at 10-13 C
Lees Options
Lees contact
Lees stirring
Barrel fermentation & ageing
Small oak casks - traditional
New oak
Older oak
Direct Pressing
Directly pressing freshly harvested red grapes
Examples: Cotes de Provence & Languedoc
Blending
Not permitted in the EU
Examples: Rose Champagne,New World roses
Drawing-off
Most widely used method
Examples: Cotes de Provence & Anjou
Harvest
Press with skins to obtain color
Ferment
Decide if you want to block MLF or not
Stabilize
Clarify
Bottle
Then, treat like white wine / must...
Harvest
De-stem
Crush
wait 6-48 hrs, then...
"Draw off" or remove all or part of colored juice
Ferment anaerobically
Decide if you want to allow MFL or not;
depends on desired acidity and fruit / aromas you wish to extract
Clarify
Stabilize
Bottle young;
sold for immediate consumption
After fermentation...
Blend red & white wines
to make rose
Harvest
Press:
Whole bunch
or
De-stem
Whole bunch press:
Releases good quality tannins
Reduces compaction of the pomace cap
Makes phenolic extraction and temperature control easier
De-stem:
Removal of stems, stalks from berry bunches
Allows removal of bitter flavors before fermentation
Care must be taken not to release undesirable H2O & potassium
Can add tannins and reduce oxidation
Crush:
Gentle press
Carbonic maceration
Thermovinification
Flash expansion
Gentle press:
Release free run juice and from the leftover juice
Releases more tannin and color


Carbonic maceration:
Carbonic or semi-carbonic maceration
Requires full bunches, anaerobic, intra-cellular fermentation
Thermovinification:
Heating grape must
Time-saver
Can destroy important aromas and enzymes
Flash expansion:
Pre-heat grapes in vacuum for a short period than rapid cooling
Pre-fermentation processing
Must adjustments:
Sulfur dioxide
Deacidification / Acidification
Commercial tannins
Bentonite
Sulfur Dioxide:
Antiseptic, antioxidant, antioxidasic
10-60mg/l recommended
Total SO2 is 150mg/l for reds
Deacidificaton
& Acidification
Deacidify:
Adding potassium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate to decrease tartaric and possibly malic acid
Common in cool climates/poor years
Forbidden in warm regions
Max reduction = 1g/L
Acidify:
Adding tartaric acid (before fermentation) or citric acid (after fermentation)
Common in hot growing regions


Commercial tannins:
Maybe added to red grapes before fermentation
Provides some protection against oxidation
Can help stabilize color
Can improve mouth feel
Bentonite:
Form of clay that is used as a fining agent
Use sparingly because is "non-selective"; removes flavor compounds
Fermentation - factors to consider:
Vessel selection
Yeast selection
Aeration options
Maceration/skin contact
Vessels:
Stainless steel tanks
Wooden fermentation tanks
Oak barrels
Oak vats
Cement tanks
Fiberglass vessels
Yeast options:
Inoculated - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (active dry yeast preparation)
Uninoculated -"wild" yeast


Aeration:
Pumping over
Punching down
Rack & return
Rotovinification & autovinification
Maceration/skin contact:
Lighter reds - ~8 days
Fuller reds - ~ 3 weeks
High quality reds - ~ 1 mo
Pressing:
Vertical screw press (basket press)
Horizontal screw press (Vaslin)
Pneumatic press (Willmes)
tank press
Continuous screw press
Vertical screw press:
Easy to use
Slow to operate
Gentle press
Horizontal screw press:
Can be automated
Filling/emptying is fast
Strong pressing


Pneumatic press:
Gentle breaking down
Good liquid extraction
Longer press cycle

The tank press:
Oxygen contact can be eliminated
Gentle breaking
Better quality
Expensive, longer pressing cycles
Continuous screw press:
Very high output
Rough action and higher pressure
Lesser quality juice
Occurs in tank before the wine is moved to barrel
Almost inevitable in red winemaking
Malic Acid + Lactic Acid+ CO2
Better oak integration
MLF:
Maturation
Free-run juice: if grapes have been crushed, juice already present; usually occus ASAP after grapes received at the winery; clean and considered best quality
Full transcript