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Transcript of Fashion cluster
in Milan Renaissance in Italy Renaissaince architecture Renaissaince Painting Industrial revolution What influenced fashion? Fashion in 1930s Factors at stakes Fashion in 1950s Growth of small & medium-sized industries
Technological transfer and increased prestige of competences
Synergy between partners The knowledge triangle The regional public transport system is not well integrated with the Milanese public transport system; trains run on too low frequencies Research Fashion houses Education
Exportation of designs World War II MILAN FASHION CLUSTER Kristel Gonzaba Michał Motyka Mohit Tailor Sara Hrar Warda El Rhattas History = Quality of Made in Italy
“There is some certainty in the belief that no one will ever be able to do beautiful quality things like Italy. There is but one Armani.”
Universities = Talents & Innovation
Knowledge is the key to innovation and creativity
Innovation and creativity are essential to avoid “fading away, turning into a museum, suffering from latest downturns”
A city “must change, and be reinvigorated and affected by contemporary ideas for it to move forward and stay ‘alive’, to not remain a museum of ancient policies and artifacts” (Chiang & Taylor, 2007) Competitiveness and sustainability offer a real shopping adventure.
Shops in Milan range from expensive and exclusive boutiques to global retails like Zara and H&M and also the locally handcrafted fashion
The area attracts various groups of customers, however it can be noticed the majority of customers are international.
various product end uses from external clothing to underwear and sportswear.
Retail clusters and shopping areas Retail clusters and shopping areas organized mainly by the Municipality of Milan and its partners and it’s accessible to the wider public.
An opportunity for ordinary people to feel the spirit of the Milan Fashion Week.
The aim of those events is to promote made in Italy products, extend the reach of arts and culture into the fashion sectors and promote fashion and design students.
Most famous events: Milano Loves Fashion, OPS! - Schools of Fashion Open, Fashion incubator III. Artistic and Cultural Events linked to fashion III. Artistic and Cultural Events linked to fashion Fashion fairs and exhibitions
The main characteristics of fashion fairs and exhibitions taking place in Milan are specialization, exclusivity and limited accessibility.
goal of the fairs is to attract professionals and people having direct links with the fashion industry
The other targeted group are the journalists and opinion leaders
The low frequency of the expositions (mainly twice a year) increases its exclusive character
Most famous events: Milano Unica, Milano Prêt a Porter, Micam Shoevent, Intertext Milano II.Promotional events II.Promotional events spokespersons: spokespersons involve people and organizations whose views are respected and have an influence in shaping public opinion. Those are mainly designers.(Giorgio Armani, Valentino Garavani, Gianni Versace, Gianfranco Ferrè, Miuccia Prada,, and Dolce & Gabbana)
Houses and labels:Most of the major Italian fashion houses and labels are based in Milan.Prada,Valentino SpA, Armani, Dolce &Gabbana, Versace
Fashion institutions and agencies: The many fashion agencies and institutes in Milan include Beatrice International Models Agency, D'management Group, Why Not Model Agency, and Style Design College. I. spokespersons, houses and modeling agencies I. spokespersons, houses and modeling agencies Branding channel is defined as a set of related or similar spaces and activities through which many brands and massages can be communicated and negotiated Branding channels Challenges :
High competition worldwide (globalization)
traditional cities as Paris, New York and London
emerging cities as Tokyo, Hong Kong and Torino (Italy)
Difficulty for young talents to establish Explain the sustainability There was no single reason of success of Italian ready-to-wear and the development of Milan as a fashion city Reinach (2006)
Many factors – economic, social, cultural and geographical along with the spirit of the times contributed to its success. How it manages to be competitive ? Competitive advantages Competitive advantages Ability to be an area for workers as much as for companies and consumers Key success factors Milan Fashion Week II.Promotional events Ability to represent a unique stylistic identity Ability to keep its position of “world capital fashion” Aymeric d'Ales Historical experience (Gucci 1921, Prada 1913)
Strong knowledge and skills
Strong brand image = Made in Italy concept, called “brand Italia”
Direct financial support from great Milanese families
Education system developed
High qualified labor force
Exchange of knowledge and skills
Arts and culture
Attracting “finest talents” (Fabris 2002) or “creative class” (Florida 2002)
Networks between fashion companies, industrial districts outside the city and stores, showrooms, designers in urban area
Consequent information flows
Strong and stable relationships between different operators
Widest opportunities for professional development
Specialization in ready-to-wear industry
High fashion content but “wearable” (haute couture specialization of Paris
Unique stylistic identity (Armani, Prada, Versace and Dolce&Gabanna) Organizational capacity (fashion business) Employment in the line of sight Space availability Positive externalities Employment in the line of sight Space availability Positive externalities Employment in the line of sight Space availability Positive externalities Competitive Innovation Stimulus
externalities Employement in the light of side Tag of one
of the best
Unity of cluster
Fashion in 1970s 1970s as a turning point in modern fashion shifting the focus domestic
collections Important dates in 1970s 1972 Fashion designers move their shows from Florence to Milan 1978 Placing men's ready-to-wear fashion in Milan 1975 Establishment of Idea Como - the union of
silk producers Establishment of Modit - institution that regulates mechanism of fashion shows French Houte Couture loses its popularity in second half of 1970s Milan takes over the position of Paris
in ready-to-wear industry Fashion in 1980s fashion embedded in Culture Milanese ready-to-wear became an established trend Investments in fashion houses - development of infrastrcture Fashion stopped being reserved only for the wealthiest social classes Fashion in1990s the rise of fashion conglomerates and multibrand stores. Extension of products to new categories like accessories or furniture Fashion in 21st century Globalization affects fashion system:
new markets for luxury goods
spread of location of production
competition from China Growing importance of 'masstige' 'Made in Italy' in figures Data from SMI - Sistema Moda Italia (2007) 58.004 number of companies
associated in SMI 513,000 approximate number of employees in SMI Figures of Milan's fashion industry around 60,000 workers over 13,000
showrooms 6000 sales outlets Bibliography http://www.lib.gla.ac.uk/media/media_47937_en.pdf
The Business History Review, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Autumn, 2006), pp. 415-447 Published by: The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25097225
Turning Fashion into Business: The Emergence of Milan as an International Fashion Hub Author(s): Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese