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Milky Way, More Like Water Way

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olivia selmonosky

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Milky Way, More Like Water Way

Are We Alone

Are We Alone?
Since man first looked to the stars, we have wondered if a world parallel to ours exists elsewhere in the universe.
Earth
The conditions under which life is able to survive on earth are the paradigm we use when determining whether another planet is capable of sustaining life. We use life on earth because it is the only life we know, however we are a nothing of a nothing in the vastness of infinity so there is a likelihood that our life is not the only one.
Life on Earth
Conclusion
FastForward: Today
Scientists have discovered over 715 planets
Around 23 planets in our Solar System with some traces of water
more in the Kuiper Belt
A Look At Life Beyond Earth
Chance and the Ancients
Math and science flourished during the Greco-Roman era:
Democritus and Epicurus- the universe is the result of chance (jostling of atoms) and the probability of other inhabited worlds is highly likely
Metrodorus of Chios- our "world" being the only one as unlikely as "if a single ear of wheat grew on a vast plain"
Lucretius- "Nothing in the universe is unique and alone and therefore in other regions there must be other earths inhabited by different tribes of men and breeds of beasts." (Lucretius, On the Nature of Things)
Trace Vapours
Neptune and Uranus
Ice giants
Water vapour in upper atmospheres
Ice in lower atmosphere
"Mantle"
Oceans?
Large bodies of condensed gas
Venus, Jupiter and Saturn
Trace amounts of water vapour
We don't know what is under the gas
Too high heat/ pressure
The Moon and Mercury
Accumulations of ice at poles
Proof of water earlier on?
What does water on the moon mean?
Oceans?
Europa
Ice crust
Oceans below kept warm/ liquid by Jupiter's tidal effect (possibly hydrothermal vents
Ice geysers
Evidence of Hadley Cells
Warm water radiating from the moon's equator
Constant geological activity
Enceladus
Eruptions from ice geysers compromise F-Ring
1000 tons of water into space every hour (organic molecules, salt, et al.)
Warm ocean form Saturn's tidal effect
Gravitational pull causes hydrothermal activity, which warms the ocean and causes geysers
Same "hotbeds" in which life began on earth
Ganymede
Largest moon, bigger than Mercury
100 mile thick ice crust
Warm, salty ocean below?
Jupiter
Callisto
Furthest Galilean moon: least radiation
Magnetic field
Water confirmed
Liquid?
Lacks geological activity
Requires anti-freeze compound
Ceres
"watery dwarf planet with an icy mantle and a slushy ocean below"
Recent observations from Hubble and Dawn
Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
Very close to earth
Mars
Once contained vast oceans
Traces of water left on surface
Compounds from ocean's evaporation
Ice shrinks and grows depending on the season
Melting
Underground reservoirs containing microbial life?
Dione
Evidence of warm past
Geological activity
"Giant mountain peaks"
Similar to Enceladus
Saturn
Pluto and Charon
Observed as icy world
Orbit of Charon causes Tidal Forces and Pluto's violent formation indicate Pluto may, and still might, have an oceant
Titan
Frozen Planets
Saturn's largest moon
Liquid methane oceans
Most liquid deposits in solar system
Similar in size to earth
Life?
Mimas
Completely covered in ice water
Wobbles as it orbits Mimas
Ocean or oblong core?
Too small to retain heat
Radioactive decay?
Triton
Retrograde orbit suggests that it did not form in time with Neptune
Kuiper Belt?
Surface of ice and methane
Internal ocean?
Heating or radioactive decay
Nitrogen geysers
Thin atmosphere
Titania, Oberon and Umbriel
Uranian moons
Composed of ice and rocks
Could only have liquid water with anti-freeze e.g. amonia
Umbriel
Less likely to have liquid
Bright spot at one pole
Impact sight?
Carbon-Dioxide under surface?
Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus
Saturnian moons
"Inert"
Frozen
Rhea
Liquid?
Iapetus
Water sublimation?
The Kuiper Belt
Asteroid belt surrounding solar system
Contains many icy satellites
Pluto, Eris, Hamua
Water ice surfaces
Saruna, Quaor, Orcus
Cryovalcanism and liquid?
Life On Earth
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