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Spanish Presentation

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Transcript of Spanish Presentation

Nowadays
3.500 B.C.
476 B.C.
FESTIVAL INTERNACIONAL DE BENICASSIM
1500
Modern Age
Contemporary Age
1789
LAZARILLO DE TORMES
Lázaro de Tormes was born in Salamanca. When he was still a little boy his mum sent him to accompany a blind man because she couldn’t afford to feed him. The young boy loses his innocence through the cunning deeds of the blind man. But after abandoning him, things go from bad to worse for Lázaro.
LA CELESTINA
The story takes place in Salamanca. Calisto is a young boy who falls in love with Melibea, a beautiful girl from the upper classes.

In order to satiate his passions, Calisto enrolls the help of Celestina, a witch and owner of a brothel which Calisto and his slaves frequent. Celestina manages to arrange a date between the lovers but then tragedy unfolds.
MIGUEL DE CERVANTES: DON QUIJOTE
This book narrates the life of a country gentleman from La Mancha who goes mad because of too much reading. It was a firm attack on the novels about knighthood, which were very fashionable at the time. The protagonist loses his mind, calls himself a knight and convinces his neighbor Sancho to follow him on a journey to find glory so that he and his Lady Dulcinea can become nobility. His adventures as a knight begin in the lands of La Mancha, where he fights against all types of imaginary enemy.
One of the most important themes in the theatre of Lope de Vega and other authors at the time was homage, which was closely related to honor. It was hierarchical honor that was related to the social class of the characters of the play, whereas honor corresponded to all men and was equal for all humans, independent of their social class. In this society honor played a part in virtue and human dignity and also intervened in ancestry.
JOSÉ DE ESPRONCEDA: ESTUDIANTE SALAMANCA
LUIS DE GÓNGORA Y QUEVEDO
Poetry became one of the highest renowned arts. Divided into two sectors, “culteranismo” and “conceptismo”. These two divisions became enemies because of the different ways that the poetry was interpreted.
In one hand, Culteranismo is an artistic tendency that is based on the search for the reader´s astonishment through the use of hyperbaton and dark words, mythological themes, neologisms. The founder was Luis de Góngora y Argote.
On the other hand, Conceptismo gave importance to the association of new elements that are not related, in order to surprise the reader. Its origins are in Petrarchanism which was introduced by Ausias March and Garcilaso. This movement was the base of culteranismo also, since the idea of “concept” was very important during the Baroque period.

LOPE DE VEGA: FUENTE OVEJUNA
Was another of the great Romantics. In his poems the main Romantic themes appeared, although his most well-known poem is the “Canción del Pirata” (Song of the Pirate). As an idealist social outcast who lived on a boat and searched for adventure, the pirate was a symbol of freedom.
GUSTAVO ADOLFO BÉCQUER: RIMAS
His Rhymes innovated new meters which were full of rhythm and musicality. They were poems that talked about love and poetic creativity. The Legends were short prose texts which relayed popular legends that had been recreated by the author.
BENITO PEREZ GALDOS: MARIANELA
Was the leading literary figure in 19th century Spain. Galdós was a prolific writer, publishing 31 novels, 46 National Episodes, 23 plays, and 20 volumes of shorter fiction, journalism and other writings.
LEOPOLDO ALAS CLARIN: LA REGENTA
His Rhymes innovated new meters which were full of rhythm and musicality. They were poems that talked about love and poetic creativity. The Legends were short prose texts which relayed popular legends that had been recreated by the author.
PIO BAROJA: EL ÁRBOL DE LA CIENCIA
Considered by critics the most important twentieth-century Spanish novelist.

He wrotes El Árbol de la ciencia, in which explains the life of Andres Hurtado, a medical student, and all their physical and mental development.
ANTONIO MACHADO: CAMPOS DE CASTILLA
He was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.

Many poems start to be mainly descriptive, but then give way to the lyric poet's exaltation to the nature of the fields of Castile.
RAMÓN MARIA DEL VALLE INCLAN LUCES DE BOHEMIA
Spanish dramatist, novelist and member of the Spanish Generation of 98, is considered perhaps the most noteworthy and the most radical dramatist in the early part of the 20th century.
The play recounts the last hours of the life of Max Estrella, a 'hyperbolic Andalusian poet of odes and madrigals "already old, blind, miserable and who enjoyed sometimes some recognition.
JUAN RAMÓN JIMENEZ: PLATERO Y YO
Juan was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956. His most important contribution to modern poetry was his advocacy of the French concept of "pure poetry."

In this book we can see all the adventures of these two characters over a year, these adventures are reflections on life, sickness, death and happy life.
FEDERICO GARCIA LORCA: ROMANCERO GITANO
Was a poet, playwright and prose Andalusian writer, also known for his skill in many other arts. In Romancero Gitano, Lorca stylize gypsy world, away from the manners and folkloric quaintness.

ANA MARIA MATUTE: LUCIERNAGAS
Was an internationally acclaimed Spanish writer and member of the Spanish Royal Academy. She is considered to be one of the foremost novelists of the posguerra, the period immediately following the Spanish Civil War.

It is an educational novel which shows the psychological evolution of Soledad Roda, a teenager from a wealthy family, who sees his family and social environment breaks down and destroys sharply with the civil war.
CAMILO JOSÉ CELA: LA FAMILIA DE PASCUAL DUARTE
In 1942 Camilio José Cela's “La Familia de Pascual Duarte” appeared. It is an existential novel in which the author presents the life of Pascual Duarte in an autobiographical form. It is a tragic novel as the protagonist is doomed to a tragic end. This book is an example of a modern picaresque story in which the protagonist relays his life from the cradle until death. This work also employed some aspects of the false document technique.
1911
1912
1920
1917
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour)
Diego Velázquez,
Museo del Prado, Madrid
Barroque Style,
Golden age for Spanish
Humanistics

Large room In the Royal
Alcázar of Madrid during
the reign of Philip IV of Spain
Infanta Margaret Theresa
The Kings
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/221511297/II/Las%20meninas%20de%20Vel%C3%A1zquez%20II.html
La oración en el huerto,
Salzillo
Salzillo Museum, Murcia
Picks up a biblic passage
where Jesus retires
to Gethsemane, feeling
the Death Throes, when
an Angel coming from
Heaven strengthens him
Carved in polycromathic wood
Takes the "Climax situations"
Ancient Age
Middle Age
MINISTRY OF JOUGLEURY
The Ministry of Jongleury was the post of the “juglares” (jongleurs) in the Middle Ages. They travelled to towns and cities singing about deeds carried out by local heroes who fought against enemies of the kingdom.

In the beginning they reported news of events that took place in neighboring villages. They then adopted them to rhyme to make them easier to remember. In this way the ballads and epic songs were born.

One of the earliest told stories in Spain is that of 'El Cid' from the 12th century, which was transmitted from generation to generation by oral repetition.

The poem itself talks about the journey that el Cid undertakes while banished for making the king, Alfonso, swear that he had nothing to do with the murder of his brother, Sancho II of Castille. The Royal Court met in the Santa Gadea Church in Burgos, and it is there that the king swore his innocence. After swearing on the bible the King exiled el Cid to roam the Castilian plains. It is here where the “Cantar del destierro” (Song of Exile) begins.

Cantar del Destierro (Song of Exile)
Cantar de las Bodas (Song of the Wedddings)
La Afrenta de Corpes (The Offense of Corpes).
POEMA CANTAR DE MIO CID

VERGE DE GER (Ger Virgin)
MNAC , Barcelona

Unknown artist, masterpiece found in Catalonia

Romanesque style (Gothic)

Sculptural group formed by a virgin and child Jesus (carved with wood, common back there)

Straight and symmetric composition in order to impact the believer
CENTRAL APSE from "Sant Climent de Taüll" church
Mestre de Taüll
MNAC, Barcelona
One of the top masterpieces inside the Gothic european Romanesque: Lack of
perspective and depth

Combination of several biblical passages around the main strength, Jesus, who is anouncing the doomsday
PERE TEIXIDOR : Salvador
MNAC, Barcelona
Known as the "Redeemer", is in chare of saving us from the pagans and the doomsday.
AQUEDUCT OF SEGOVIA

The aqueduct is built by granite blocks. During the Roman era, each of the three tallest arches displayed a sign in bronze letters, indicating the name of it's builder along with the date of construction.
THE MUSIC
IN THE ANCIENT AGE
ROMAN THEATER OF MERIDA
The building correponds to the typical Roman model and it's divided in three spaces:
- Stands and orchestra
- Stage
- Proscenium

UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site in 1993. The theatre was located on the edge of the Roman City adjacent the city walls.
SPANISH CINEMA
In Spain we have some figures of first level, among stand out: Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Juan Antonio Bardem, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Segura, Alejandro Amenábar...
THE 60's, 70's AND 80's
Spain's tourism boom of the 60's and 70's brought in musical styles from all over the world, while the 80's saw the rise of the movida. Following Franco's death young people dabbled in newfound freedom and alternative lifestyles not prevented by the restored democratic government. Spanish rock 'n' roll, punk, and pop music shot to the forefront and have been unstoppable ever since.

JAVIER BARDEM
VICTORIA ABRIL
Victoria is a Spanish film actress and singer.

She tried to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1979 with "Bang-Bang-Bang", but came second by just one point in the national final, losing to Betty Missiego with 26 out of a maximum 29.

THE GRET MOSQUE OF CORDOBA
1734
ROYAL PALACE MADRID
PENÉLOPE CRUZ
Penélope is a Spanish actress and model.

Signed by an agent at age 15, she made her acting debut at 16 on television and her feature film debut the following year in Jamón, jamón (1992),

She was the first Spanish actress in history to receive an Academy Award and the first Spanish actress to receive a star at the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Cruz has modeled for Mango, Ralph Lauren and L'Oréal.

Cruz has volunteered in Uganda and India, where she spent one week working with Mother Teresa; she donated her salary from The Hi-Lo Country to help fund the late nun's mission.
CINEMA'S HISTORY
MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
The history of Spanish music continued to evolve with the dawning of the Renaissance period.

Instrumental music emerged and flourished, most notably with the influence of Arabic music and the development of the Spanish guitar.

THE END OF FRANCO'S REGIME
1667
GRANADA CATHEDRAL
THEATER IN THE MIDDLE AGE
MONEGROS DESERT FESTIVAL
It's a electronic music festival celebrated in the monegros desert, in Huesca. The first festival was in 1994.

Had arrived at 20 edditions, joining each one more than 30 international artist.
Miguel de Cervantes
He always feel attracted about theater like poetry.
The seventeenth century was the golden age of theater in Spain.

In this century were the most important writers of that time.
THEATRE IN XVI CENTURY
For a long time the record or mysteries were represented inside the temples. Then was used the exterior of those one, the atrium.

Bit by bit began to appear the comedy, interlude, drama and tragicomedy

The most important play was “La celestina” of Fernando de Rojas. It is a work of such complicated structure that it never been represented on his time.

1526 in Valencia was the first theater in Spain.called “Casa de las representaciones y farsas”

In the two centuries before the Christian era,
Roman
rule brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece.

Early
Christians
, who had their own differing versions of church music arrived during the height of the Roman Empire.

The
Visigoths
, a Romanized Germanic people, who took control of the peninsula following the fall of the Roman Empire.

The
Moors
and
Jews
in the Middle Ages.

Hence, there have been more than two thousand years of internal and external influences and developments that have produced a large number of unique musical traditions.
Lope de Vega
Called the father of nacional Spanish Theater.
MONOLOGUES
IMPROSHOW
The improshow consists that the public write some words in a paper and they give to the actors and they plays with that words and make a history improvising with the words of the public.
Gil Parrondo
Gil is a Spanish art director, set decorator and production designer.

He won two Academy Awards and was nominated for another in the category Best Art Direction.
1970 - Patton
1971 - Nicolás y
Alejandra
ANTONIO BANDERAS
PEDRO ALMODÓVAR
He is a Spanish film director, screenwriter, producer and former actor.

He is noted for being one of the most internationally successful Spanish filmmakers, whose films have a worldwide and cult following.

And later won the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film and Best Original Screenplay for All About My Mother (1999) and Talk to Her (2002) respectively.
UNIVERSITY OF SALAMANCA
Is the third oldest university in Europe that remains open to this day.

Its increasing relief gives the sensation of amplitude. It is decorated with many symbols that allude to the virtues and vices.

This facade, is divided into three well-defined parts that represent the social powers-that-be at the time of its construction.

1600
By the end of the 17th century the "classical" musical culture of Spain was in decline, and was to remain that way until the 19th century. Classicism in Spain, when it arrived, was inspired by Italian models, as in the works of Antonio Soler.
It is one of the Spanish royal sites and functions as a monastery, royal palace, museum, and school.

The design and construction were overseen by Juan Bautista de Toledo, who did not live to see the completion of the project.

It's an imposing church in the Ribera district of Barcelona, built between 1329 and 1383 at the height of Catalonia's maritime and mercantile preeminence.

It is an outstanding example of Catalan Gothic, with a purity and unity of style that is very unusual in large medieval buildings.

From the outside, Santa Maria gives an impression of massive severity that belies the interior. In contrast with the exterior, the interior gives an impression of light and spaciousness.

After the Reconquista of the 16th century, the polyphonic singing style, featuring complementing voices, developed probably through contact with Spain's northern neighbours France and Flanders. As mobility throughout the European continent improved, musicians began travelling from country to country - especially to Rome - and picking up ideas and styles along the way.

Originally was a Catholic Christian church built by the Visigoths, although it was later converted to an Islamic mosque in the Middle Ages.

After the Reconquista, it was made a Catholic Christian church once again.

The cathedral is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.

ALHAMBRA
It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-11th century by the Moorish.


The Alhambra integrates natural site qualities with constructed structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen, and builders of their era.


Saturno devorando a un hijo + Perro semihundido,
Francisco de Goya (1819-1823)
Museo del prado (Madrid)
Saturno devorando un hijo
Belongs to the
Black Paintings series
, located at Goya's house
Quinta del Sordo
Clare-Obscure technique
SANTA MARIA DEL MAR
Allegorical respresentation of the pass of time by representing the
myth of Chrono
Perro semihundido
Also belongs to the
Black Paintings
series from
Quinta del Sordo
SALAMANCA CATHEDRAL
It was constructed between the 16th and 18th centuries in two styles: late Gothic and Baroque. It was declared a national monument by royal decree in 1887.

The building began when the gothic style was becoming less popular and was merging with the new Renaissance style. However, this cathedral retained more of its Gothic character because the authorities wanted the new cathedral to blend with the old one.
Pure loneliness
Ocher color, weakness
Lonely dog, single element
that is drowning
1492
Slgithly different from its origin because of the transference to canvas
Desconsol,
Josep Llimona,
MNAC, Barcelona
Belongs to Catalan Modernism

Plaster sculpture that was originally in a centric park of barcelona (Ciutadella) but because of polution, it had been moved to the MNAC, putting in 1984 a copy of it became the #1 sculptural artwork after the banning of nudity inside the SLAC

Perfection of the Female body, delicate, fragile,
nostalgic
Banyista,
Joan Miró,
Fundació Miró, Barcelona
Smells like poetry, the lack of elements is the true form of the cosmos, less is more, because what it matters, is the unphysical...
Guernica,
Pablo Picasso,
Museo del Prado, Madrid
Cubist period of Picasso, requested by the director of General Fine Arts, Josep Renau, for the 1937 International Expo of Paris, defending the Republican Spain.
Elogi de l'aigua, Eduardo Chillida,
Parc de la Creueta del Coll, Barcelona
54 tones of Reddish concrete aggregate and iron shot, supported by steel cables, built
in situ

Showhs the myth of Narcissus, who fell in love with his reflection in a lake.

As its title suggests, the work is a tribute to water, which played a major factor in the appreciation of sculpture; according to the author,
"I do half of the sculpture; the other half is done by water."
Antonio Soler's Sonata No. 84, an example of Classical era music in Spain
1850
Zarzuela
, a native form of opera that includes spoken dialogue, is a secular musical genre which developed in the mid-17th century, flourishing most importantly in the century after 1850. Francisco Asenjo Barbieri was a key figure in the development of the romantic zarzuela.
POPULAR AND FOLK MUSIC
The history of Spanish music saw, instead, the surge of popular and folk music throughout the various regions of Spain.
Is the official residence of the Spanish Royal Family at the city of Madrid, but is only used for state ceremonies.

The main facade of the Palace consists of a two-story rusticated stone base.
Director who's production had a very big influence in Europe.

Buñuel created films from the 1920s through the 1970s.

Luis Buñuel
The construction was when Spanish Renaissance designs were supplanting the Gothic regnant in Spanish architecture of prior centuries.


Antonio is a Spanish actor, director, and producer.

Banderas also portrayed the voice of "Puss in Boots" in the Shrek sequels and Puss in Boots as well as the bee in the US Nasonex commercials.
Javier is a Spanish actor. In 2007, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as the psychopathic murderer Anton Chigurh in No Country for Old Men (2007).

He is the first Spanish to be nominated for an Academy Award (Best Actor, 2000 “Before Night Falls”), and the first Spanish actor to win an Oscar.
During the Spanish Civil War and subsequent fifty-year repressive government, the dictator Francisco Franco, intent on creating a uniform and nationalist country, banned everything pertaining to regional cultures. Regional languages, literature, and music was banned, burned, and berated. As a result, Spain's wide range of folk music that had developed over the past centuries didn't disappear, but its practice was certainly kept hidden from the watchful eyes of Franco's government.

THE DICTATORSHIP
The cinema is a mirror of the reality and the society of the adge which was made.

In 1914 Barcelona is the center of the cinematografic industry of the country.

In 1928, Francisco Elías Riquelme film “El misterio de la puerta del Sol”, the first sound movie.

In 1987 was created the Goya Awards trying to do a kind of Academy Awards but Spanish.
In the actuality we have some shows like the monologue “stand-up comedy “ that begings in bars in EEUU and became to be famous in Spain.
The Aranjuez concert by Joaquín Rodrigo (he was the composer of classical music more important in the franquism period).
Is a renowned building located in the center of Barcelona and is one of Antoni Gaudí’s masterpieces.

The local name for the building is Casa dels ossos (House of Bones), as it has a visceral, skeletal organic quality. the goal of the designer was to avoid straight lines completely.


1949
1921
The rises of pop music and rock ‘n’ roll marked another important notch in the history of Spanish music. Spanish artists added flamenco passion and rhythms into the mix, giving it a genuine Spanish touch that you can still find in today's pop music.
1882
SAGRADA FAMILIA
1960
Construction of Sagrada Família had commenced in 1882 and Gaudí became involved in 1883, taking over the project and transforming it with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau form.

Gaudí's original design calls for a total of eighteen spires. The façade towers are crowned with geometrically shaped tops that are reminiscent of Cubism.

Although incomplete, the church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
1969
1959
1974
Is an annual music festival which takes place in the town of Benicàssim, Spain. It focuses mainly on pop, rock and electronica artists, as well as having other elements including short films, fashion shows and art.

The first 'FIB' took place in 1995
SÓNAR
Sónar is a three-day electronic and advanced music festival. It was founded in Barcelona in 1994.
The Spanish theater as Europe emerges linked to religion. The Mass, central liturgical celebration in the Christian religion, is itself a "drama", a representation of the death and resurrection of Christ.

Gradually were added profane and humorous to such representations, for reasons of decorum, ended up leaving the churches and began performing in public places elements in porches and courtyards of churches, squares, streets and cemeteries.

One of the most important acts of the theater that arrived to our days, was “The three wise men that used to be represented on the epiphani days.
Flamenco
: Attributed to Andalucía's persecuted gypsy culture, flamenco is a passionate form of music and dance combining Jewish, Moorish and Andalucían influences.

Sevillanas
is related to flamenco and most flamenco performers have at least one classic sevillana in their repertoire.

Jota
: The fast tempo jota originally hails from Aragón but is popular - with minor modifications - throughout the rest of Spain.

With probable Moorish influences, the jota is typically danced in two's as couples raise their hands above their heads playing castanets.

CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
1996
Designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela, the project underwent the first stages of construction in July 1996 and the finished "city" was inaugurated April 16, 1998.

The complex is made up with several buildings.
500 A.D.
15 B.D.
Northwest Spain (Asturias, Galicia and Cantabria) is home to a distinct musical tradition extending back into the Middle Ages.

The signature instrument of the region is the gaita (bagpipe).
785
GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO
889
1997
1116
Designed by American architect Frank Gehry, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao building represents a magnificent example of the most groundbreaking 20th-century architecture.

The curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random; the architect said that "the randomness of the curves are designed to catch the light".

1140
Though Catalonia is best known for sardana music played by a cobla, there are other traditional styles of dance music like ball de bastons (stick-dances), galops, ball de gitanes.

Catalan gipsies created their own style of rumba called rumba catalana which is a popular style that's similar to flamenco, but not technically part of the flamenco canon.
1384
1619
1605
1620
1554
1551
1513
1218
1563
1656
EL ESCORIAL
1871
Is one the most significants and best-preserved ancient monuments.

It transports water water from Fuente Fría river situated in nearby mountains, to the city.
1878
1885
1754
1994
1995
1994
1942
1123
1949
1987
1937
2nd half of the XII th century
1928
1939
1925
1900
1420-1430
1840
1877
1903
THEATRE IN XVII CENTURY
SPREADING OF MUSIC
1975
Nowadays...
Nowadays...
CASA BATLLÓ
Kiitos,
MOSkiitos!
Full transcript