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Drugs and its Effects

3rd Period
by

Ethan Waterman

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Drugs and its Effects

Drugs and its Effects Waterman, Tralmer, Patel, Cintron The brain associates life-sustaining activities with pleasure and reward. Thus, when the brain gets these feelings from drugs, it believes that the drugs are necessary substances that are the difference between life and death. This is the start of addiction. This is on top of the fact that the amount of endorphins and dopamine released from drugs are often many times that of natural (or everyday) awards that the body gives off. Over time, this impairs the ability for the brain to process everyday events and information. Drugs and the Brain http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science-addiction/drugs-brain Inhalation- taken via the nose or trachea (e.g. glue or solvents)
Oral Absorption- taken through the mouth (e.g. pills)
Injection-administered through a needle (e.g. steroids)
Transmucosal- diffusion through a mucous membrance (e.g. cocaine)
Topical (transdermal)-administered through the contact of the skin (e.g. lotion) Routes of Administration Ex. Household Objects: glue, cleaners, bleach, paint, permanent markers, Nitrous Oxide, Amyl/Butyl Nitrite, Hydrocarbons, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Meth, Heroin, Fentanyl
Harmful Effects: Shallow respirations, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, and possible death, Pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, confusion, sedation, respiratory depression and arrest, tolerance, addiction, unconsciousness, staggering gait, coma and death. Inhalation http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/FormsSubmissionRequirements/ElectronicSubmissions/DataStandardsManualmonographs/ucm071667.htm Citation Oral Absorption Ex. Tabacco, Marijuana, Methamphetamines, Hashish, Crack Coaine, Amphetamines, Barbiturates, Methaqualone, Tranquilizers, Phencyclidine, LSD, Psilocybin (shrooms), Heroin, Codeine, Morphine, Opium, Ecstasy
http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/04/05/illegal_drugs_identification_chart_what_they_look_like__amp_how_to_recognize_their_effects.htm
Harmful Effects: Meth dries out the mouth "cotton mouth" or "desert mouth", but the actual medical name is xerostomiaxerostomia: dryness of the mouth due to salivary gland dysfunction. Dentists commonly see xerostomia in patients who have had radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and in patients with Sjogrens Syndrome, who experience a general dryness of the mucous membranes. Tooth decay, which is also called dental cavities or dental caries, is the destruction of the outer surface (enamel) of a tooth.
Problems with memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, loss of coordination, altered sense of time, feelings of anxiety or panic and increased heart rate.
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+oral+health+effects+of+illegal+drug+abuse.-a0171253623 http://www.uni.edu/wellrec/wellness/subabuse/risks/chart.pdf
http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/04/05/illegal_drugs_identification_chart_what_they_look_like__amp_how_to_recognize_their_effects.htm Drugs Defined Drugs are a substance that has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body, in particular Hallucinogens
Stimulants
-and-
Depressants Stimulants Stimulants Stimulants are a substance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body
Examples:
1.Amphetamines
2.Cocaine
3.Ritalin
4.Caffeine
5.Ephedrine

Effects:
1.Depression
2.Exhaustion
3.Apathy
4.Hostility
5.Paranoia Short Term Effects Depression (down that follows the up)
-Exhaustion that follows
-soon they need drugs just to feel normal
Long term
-addictive
-Feelings of hostility and paranoia
-high temperatures and irregular heartbeat Injection Ex. Cocaine, Heroin, Amphetamines, Meth, Codeine, Morphine, Opium, Merpidine, Fentanyl
Harmful Effects: Pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, confusion, sedation, respiratory depression and arrest, tolerance, addiction, unconsciousness, staggering gait, coma and death. Increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function, memory loss, numbness, nausea/vomiting, possible decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, panic, aggression, violence, loss of appetite and depression.During the "up" time: Extra energy, cheerfulness, confidence, prevents sleep, reduces appetite, speeds up breathing and heart rate, widens the pupils. During the "down" time (about eight hours after use): Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, anxiety, anger. Long Term Effects -addictive
-Feelings of hostility and paranoia
-high temperatures and irregular heartbeat Hallucinogens Hallucinogens are drugs that cause hallucinations Overdose Effects Examples
1.LSD
2.Psilocybin
3.Mescaline
4. Datura
5. Ketamine -increase in blood pressure
-heart and respiratory problems
-death
-seizures
-Heart attack
-brain hemorrhages
-kidney failure Effects
1. Blurred Vision
2.Increased breathing rate
3. Paranoia
4. Impaired coordination
5. Nausea Hallucinogens -Increased heart rate
-Increased blood pressure
-Heart failure
-Abnormal, rapid breathing
-Lung failure
-Changed emotional feelings
-Confusion
-Disorientation
-Suspiciousness
-Mixed-up speech
-Loss of muscle control Short Term Effects Long Term Effects -flashbacks
-Decreased motivation
-prolonged depression
-decreased motivation Overdose Effects -powerful hallucinations
-tolerance to hallucinogens
-death or suicide during a hallucinations Depressants -slow brain function
-slowed pulse and breathing
-lowered blood pressure
- confusion
-fatigue
-slurred speech
-fever
-dizziness
-addiction
Visual disturbances Short Term Effects Long Term Effects -tolerance to depressants
-depression
-sexual and sleep problems
-nausia
-coma or even death Overdose Effects -death
-disruption of brain’s control of
-seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, or respiratory failures Mucousal Ex. Cocaine, LSD, Methamphetamines, Phencyclidine, Heroin, Fentanyl
Harmful Effects: In snorting cocaine, the drug is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream via the mucous membrane. One immediate effect within the membrane is to shrink the blood vessels. As a result, this sensitive lining becomes irritated and inflamed. Symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion and nosebleeds. If the mucous membrane becomes damaged due to cocaine misuse, (and also any substance with which it has been cut) it can impair the way that air is humidified before it reaches the lungs. Eventually, this will cause sores in the nose that may cause the septum (middle fleshy wall of youur nose) to collapse and make your nose to look deformed.
http://www.thesite.org/drinkanddrugs/drugsafety/drugsandyourbody/cokeandyournose Topical Ex. Lotions, Creams, Ointments, Gels, Pastes, Tapes, Powders, TDSs, Balms, Emulsions
Cordran Tape, Acne Medicines of any forms, Cocaine,
Harmful Effects: An overdose of numbing medications can cause fatal side effects if too much of the medicine is absorbed through your skin and into your blood.. Overdose symptoms may include uneven heartbeats, seizure (convulsions), coma, slowed breathing, or respiratory failure (breathing stops).
http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/lidocaine-topical
Adrenal Gland Suppression:Topical steroids can suppress the production of natural steroids, which are essential for healthy living. Stopping the steroids suddenly may then result in illness.
Cushing's Syndrome: If large amounts of steroid are absorbed through the skin, fluid retention, raised blood pressure, diabetes etc. may result.
Local side effects of topical steroids include: Skin thinning (atrophy) and stretch marks (striae). Easy bruising and tearing of the skin. Perioral dermatitis (rash around the mouth). Enlarged blood vessels (telangiectasia). Susceptibility to skin infections.Disguising infection e.g. tinea incognito. Allergy to the steroid cream.
http://www.dermnetnz.org/treatments/topical-steroids.html Depressants Depressants are influences that depress activity
Examples:
1.Alcohol
2.Barbiturates
3.Marijuana
4.Inhalants
5.Anxiety Medication
Effects:
1.Slow brain function
2.Poor concentration
3.Dilated pupils
4.Fatigue
5.Confusion
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