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RAFT Writing Strategy

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by

Hannah Scouten

on 13 March 2014

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Transcript of RAFT Writing Strategy

Developed by Santa and Havens (1995) R.A.F.T. is a writing strategy which encourages students to think both critically and creatively.


Research
R.A.F.T. Demonstration
After reading a passage, students will use the R.A.F.T. writing template to complete a writing assignment.

1. Read the passage on the Boston Tea Party.
2. Provide the
role
,
audience
,
format
, and
topic
for the writing assignment.
3. Have students fill in their organizers and complete the writing assignment independently, with partners, or in small groups.
Boston Tea Party
Role of the Teacher
Model your own R.A.F.T. so that students know what is expected of them
Select a content area topic that students are familiar with
Possibly select the role, audience and format (if you want students to focus on a specific one of these) or options to select from
Monitor students’ understanding of concept and use data to plan for future instruction
Provide the opportunity to write to an audience other than your teacher

Presented by Lena,
Kristina, and Hannah
R.A.F.T. Writing Strategy
Recommendations
is best used for students in grades 3-12 (when students are able to understand the components of the template and are able to expand their writing skills).
can be adapted for different grades and age groups (ex: shared writing for lower elementary, independent writing for upper elementary, middle, and high school students.
can be used in different content areas (see handout).
The R.A.F.T. strategy...
Research
According to Groenke and Puckett (2006),
the R.A.F.T. strategy:

helps students make connections between prior and new knowledge, and among interconnected concepts,
provides a context for thinking deeply about a topic
encourages personal engagement, which can make informational writing more powerful as students have an opportunity to share an opinion or viewpoint
provides students choices in their writing assignments (the authors believe student choice increases motivation to write and quality of text production).
also encourages students to think beyond the classroom.
is flexible, as teachers and students can develop any number of writing possibilities adjusted for skill level and rigor.
Role of the Student
choose your role, audience and format for writing
write creatively and meaningfully
After writing you may choose to debate your writing viewpoint with others
References
Dean, D. (2006).
Strategic writing: The writing process and beyond in the secondary English classroom
. Urbana, IL: NCTE

Deane-Williams, B. (n.d.).
RAFT: Role, Audience, Format, Topic
. Retrieved from http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics

Groenke, S. L., & Puckett, R. (2006). Becoming Environmentally Literate Citizens.
Science Teacher
, 73(8), 22-27.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). Writing, not just in English class.
Principal Leadership
, 60.

Santa, C. M., Havens, L. T. and Maycumber, E. M. 1996. Project CRISS: Creating independence through student-owned strategies. 2nd ed., Kalispell, MN: Kendall Hunt.

What is R.A.F.T.?
• Role: Who are you as the writer?

• Audience: To whom are you writing?

• Format: In what format are you writing?

Topic: What are you writing about?

Critique
Benefits:
Can be used with fiction and nonfiction texts
Is cross-content friendly
Non-traditional writing assignment
Incorporates a multiple audiences rather than just the teacher
Flexible and limitless
Can be stretched into an independent style and manipulated so that creativity and student engagement is heightened as it develops
Due to its flexibility, the R.A.F.T. strategy can be used for an independent assignment, small group assignment, or in a whole group lesson.

Students need to have an understanding of perspective as the strategy does require students to put themselves in someone (or something) else's shoes.

Teachers should be sure to teach the components separately prior to the lesson. For example, if students are expected to write in letter format, they should have prior experience writing letters.
Recommendations
Categorized as an
after
you read strategy, R.A.F.T. engages students with the text through a writing prompt. The acronym represents the four areas of focus: role, audience, format, and topic.
Benefits:
-Fiction and nonfiction
-Non-traditional written response
-Flexible and limitless
-Independence can be increased
-Differentiation geared for a variety of skill levels
Drawbacks:
-Not for introductory lessons
-Scoring may prove difficult
-Textual understanding is key for success
-Prior knowledge is necessary in order to assume roles
Sample categories:
ROLE

AUDIENCE

FORMAT

TOPIC

Writer Self Journal Issue relevant to
Artist Peer group Editorial text or time period
Character Government Interview Topic of personal
Scientist Parents Song lyric interest or concern
Inventor Jury Cartoon for the role or
Judge Activists Game audience
Reporter Animals/Objects Bio. sketch Topic related to an
Therapist Fictional characters News article essential question
Rebel Past generation Primary document
Full transcript