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Copy of Chapter 6: An Age of Expansion
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 6: An Age of Expansion
The Creek Tribe was led by Chief Alexander McGillivray.
McGillvray signed the Treaty of New York, that gave up all the Creek lands east of the Oconee River.
Peace lasted from 1797 to 1812 between settles and the Creeks.
The Creek War.
The Red Sticks and White Sticks were two different groups of Creeks.
Treaty of Indian Spring signed by Chief William McIntosh. The Creek Indians After the Choctaw were moved to the West, the Creek didn't budge.
The government of Alabama took away all their legal rights.
The white population swooped in and took their lands, the Creek unable to defend themselves.
In 1832, The Creek signed the Treaty of Washington.
The treaty gave up all of the Creek's remaining lands and gave the Creek two million acres to live on.
It was up to each individual Creek to choose whether they would go westward or stay on the reserved lands.
Still, the treaty was broken immediately after it was signed; they burned the Creek's houses and stole from their farms.
Over the next few years, in fear of another war, thousands of Creek Indians were move to present-day Oklahoma. Removal of the Creek Gold was discovered in Dahlonega during the summer of 1829.
Even though the Cherokee knew that there was gold in the hills, a man named Benjamin Parks was given credit for the discovery.
Auraria, in Lumpkin County, became the first gold mining center in the U.S.
The Georgia legislature passed a law that put a portion of Cherokee land under government control.
The law considered the Cherokee's laws to have no validity and Cherokee could not speak against white men in the court of law.
After all that, the Cherokee were also disallowed to the gold on their own land. Gold in Dahlonega The Cherokee Indians Red sticks -The Native Americans who wanted war. White sticks - The Native Americans that wanted peace. Litigation - A legal court action. Emigrate - To leave one country or region to settle in another. The Cherokee indians were one of the largest and most civilized groups of Indians in Southeast America.
They played a very important role in American life, their history and agricultural techniques impacting the economy of America and ultimately our way of life.
The Cherokee Indians ruled a homeland located in and around the southern Appalachian Mountains, where they created hunting and farming villages.
The Cherokee were experts in cultivating corn, stalking wild game, and fishing. 5. How many Native Americans were displaced by the Indian Removal Act? 4. Who signed the Treaty of New York? (Hint: Native American) 3. What is a syllabary? 2. Which two major tribes populated Georgia? 1. What year was the Indian Removal act established? BY: Patrick Hope, Elijah Jenkins, & Nick Tilman Section 6 Quiz http://bit.ly/p4HP7g The Chief Vann house exterior In 1811, Tecumseh, a Shawnee, visited the Creek to recruit warriors and gain support. The Indian Removal Act was passed during the presidency of Andrew Jackson (left). Cherokee chief John Ross took a petition to Congress with 15,000 signatures, 90 percent of all Cherokee, to oppose the Indian Removal Act. When the Americans found gold in Dahlonega, the Cherokee lost all hope of keeping their land. http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/famoushistoricalfigures/tecumseh/ http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/ushistory/trailoftears/ A performance of "Unto These Hills" tells the story of around a 1,000 Cherokee who managed to escape into the North Carolina Mountains. 1830 The Creek & The Cherokee Is a group of symbols
that stand for whole symbols Cheif Mcgillivary More than 100,000 Six months after they came to Indian Territory, Major Ridge (right), John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot, the editor of the Cherokee Phoenix, were killed for breaking a tribal law forbidding individual Cherokee from signing away their land without permission. The Cherokee Phoenix In 1829, Elias Boudinot became the editor of the first Indian newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix.
The newspaper was named after a legendary bird that burned itself and rose from the ashes of the fire.
The Cherokee Phoenix was printed in both Cherokee and English.
This newspaper succeeded in the task of uniting the scattered Cherokee tribes.
The Cherokee Phoenix made it possible to spread news to Cherokee tribes in Virginia, North Carolina, and Alabama.
Although the paper was discontinued in 1834, it has been recently revived and is now being published online. Cherokee Capital Moves to New Echota Prior to 1825, the capital of the Cherokee Nation was wherever the principal chief lived.
In 1825, though, the Cherokee established a long-term capital in New Echota, near today's city of Calhoun.
New Echota contained twenty government buildings, one of them containing a printer's shop for the Cherokee Phoenix.
Other buildings included a Cherokee national library and a courthouse.
The Cherokee adopted a constitution similar to that of the United States.
Their government also followed an American structure, containing judicial, executive, and legislative branches.
The principal and second chief were elected much like the U.S. president. Sequoyah's Syllabary George Gist, or Sequoyah as the Indians knew him, created a great contribution to Cherokee advancement.
Since Sequoyah was crippled as a child, he learned to work with silver and became a blacksmith.
He became interested in the written language of the Americans and their use of "talking leaves."
In 1809, Sequoyah began to create a syllabary, a group of symbols that stood for whole syllables, for the Cherokee spoken language.
It took twelve years for Sequoyah to decide on the 85 symbols.
At first, members of the tribal council laughed at Sequoyah, but after he taught his daughter and a few young chiefs, the council changed their mind.
Sequoyah taught his method to Cherokee all over the territory.
In six months, most tribes could read and write the language, and the Cherokee were the first Indians to have their own written language.
As result, the Cherokee payed him $500 a year for life for his accomplishments. The Creek War A Shawnee leader named Tecumseh tried to unite all the Indians to fight for their land.
The tribes split over the issue. Red Sticks were the Indians that wanted war and White Sticks were Indians that wanted peace.
Red Sticks fought on the British side during the War of 1812 and on August 30th, attacked Fort Mims.
400 people, including women and children, were killed by the Red Sticks.
Because of the attack, troops from Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi began attacking Creek territory.
In the next year many battles were fought, but the United States Army was too strong for the Creek.
On March 27 1814, the White Sticks and Cherokee helped Andrew Jackson defeat the Red Sticks.
Afterwards, the Creek gave up all of their lands to the U.S. government. Murder of Chief William McIntosh Once the Creek land started to be given to the government, many tribes split.
They wouldn't trade, or even talk to each other.
The Creek confederacy that had united the tribes before the settlers came was now over with.
Because groups of Creeks signed treaties without the permission of the tribes, Chief William McIntosh was killed.
By February 12th, 1825, McIntosh had worked out the terms of the Treaty of Indian Springs.
The U.S. paid him $200,000 to surrender the rest of the Creek lands to the U.S. government.
McIntosh's decision was challenged by other Creek tribes, and the groups that disagreed met to discuss how to punish McIntosh.
The tribes decided on killing him and sent Menawa, a rival chief, to assassinate him.
The group of Creek that traveled with Menawa set fire to McIntosh's home. They dragged him out of the house, stabbed him in the chest, and took his scalp. Chief William McIntosh thought that the Creek Indians should take the money and move to the West. The Indian Removal When Andrew Jackson was elected president, he had formerly been friendly to the Indians.
He was politically wise enough, though, to know that white voters didn't want the Native Americans in the southern states.
In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act that forced the Indians to move West.
The vote was very close, but the bill did pass by fourteen votes.
After Jackson signed the bill into law, the Indian tribes had no chance. Removal of the Cherokee The Indians' Last Hope Most Georgians could care less about what happened to the Cherokee, except a group of white missionaries.
In 1830, to get rid of the missionaries, the Georgia legislature passed a law saying that a white person couldn't live on Cherokee land without taking an oath of allegiance to the governor.
Eleven people were sent to jail because they refused to sign the oath.
At the trial in September, the jury took very little time to declare them guilty of all charges.
When they were sentenced to four years in a penitentiary, all but two of the missionaries agreed to be pardoned by taking the oath.
When the two took the case to court, the Chief Justice ruled that the decision could not stand because Cherokee lands were not subject to state law.
Andrew Jackson thought that the state government should have rule over Cherokee lands.
Although a lottery was held to give Cherokee land to white men, they still wouldn't leave.
The Cherokee were eventually run off their lands, whipped, or even killed.
Chief John Ross made trips to Congress requesting help, but help wasn't received.
In 1835, the Cherokee came to their capital, New Echota, to sign a treaty.
Major Ridge signed the treaty along with a few others.
The treaty said that the Cherokee would move west and Georgia would give them a little money and food for the trip.