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Science Investigatory project

group5 of 7-Brebeuf

Valvatorez McArthur

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Science Investigatory project

Group 5 of 7-Brebeuf Problem Statement: Hypothesis: Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation How does the amount of salt in water affect the conductivity of electricity? If there is more salt in water then, the saltwater will conduct mor electricity. Through this project, our group will know the purpose of saltwater in terms of electricity. Our group can solve the problem of the world losing too many resources by using saltwater to conduct electricity instead of using the common metal conductors. This will benefit especially environmental organizations, companies on budget, power plants and even in ordinary household people. Since pure water does not conduct electricity, any impurities like salt in water, enable it to conduct electricity. When, this is disolved in water, sodium chloride (salt) breaks into positive ions and negative ions. With the use of a battery with a positive and negative pole put into saltwater, this will connect the positive and negative ions and the poles of the battery thus creating a closed circuit. The study will focus on how the amount of salt in water affects the conductivity of electricity. Our group will use a multitester to measure the conductivity of electricity from the differet setups of saltwater (each setup containing a different amount of salt). The experiment will take 1-2 days to complete.

The study will NOT focus on the following:

The type of salt's effect on the conductivity of electricity.
The amount of electricity used for the experiment.
The usage of alternative sources of electricity for different setups. Science Investigatory Project Background of the study : Our group chose this topic because we wanted to solve the problem of factories that produces metals for electrical purposes. This way, we can save our natural resources and save money for buying metal to be used for other purposes. We tried to find alternitives to be used as alternatives for conducting electricity so we came up with this topic in which salt in water will be used as the substitute for metal. CHAPTER 2 Chapter 3 Materials water
measuring cup batteries AA
copper wire
multitester Procedure 1) All materials were gathered

2) An open circuit was formed by using the copper wire that has been connected to 2 AA batteries.

3) About 500 mL of tap water was placed into small basin

4) The batteries from the circuit were removed momentarily.

5) The presence of an electric conductorin the setup was tested using the multitester.

6) The conductivity of electricity was measured using the multitester.

7) The batteries were added again to the circuit.

8) 1 teaspoon of salt was added to the tap water in the small basin.

9) Stir the mixture thoroughly with the teaspoon.

10) Steps 4-9 were repeated 2 more times

11) Results were recorded in the experiment.

12) The conclusion was finalized. Variables INDEPENDENT: Amount of salt in water

DEPENDENT: Conductivity of Electricity


Kind of water (tap,distilled,mineral..etc.)
Amount of batteries for each set-up
Amount of water Timetable November 5-9: Discussion and distribution of tasks

November 12-16: Gathering of the needed materials

December 19: Experimentation

January 12: Re- Experimentation

January 13: Finalizing of results and data Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion Based on our results that we received, we therefore conclude that when there is more salt in water, the water will conduct more electricity. This proves that our hypothesis was, in fact, correct. Recommendation Things that could have been done to improve the project

> We could have used different batteries to make its voltage equal to the voltage of the multi tester

> We could have used a different multi tester to make its voltage equal to the voltage of batteries

> We could have used smaller and more flexible copper wires in connecting the batteries to the water

> We could have used electric tape instead of using masking tape in connecting the batteries

Other topics

1.How does the type of salt in water affect the conductivity of water?

2.How does the amount of salt in different types of water affect its conductivity?

3.How does salt in different amounts of water affect its conductivity?

4.How does the salt in different types of water affect its conductivity?

5.How does salt in different temperatures of water affect its conductivity? Acknowledgement Our group would like to thank Mr. Moralejo for guiding us throughout this project. He had shared his time and made an impact in helping us prepare for our project. We would also like to thank the Gusilatar family and house help for their support and preparation for the materials. Finally, we would like to show our gratitude to Zenon Mateo and Jun Dela Paz for teaching us how to use a multi tester. Presentation of Results Summary 1 Source: http://www.electricityinfo.org/ Electricity today is being used by almost everyone in earth. It is one of the most useful inventions of mankind. Electricity is made from coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewable and other energy sources. Electricity powers appliances, gadgets and vehicles used today. It is very useful, but it harms the earth because electricity generation emits Carbon Dioxide which is bad for the earth’s atmosphere. Nuclear waste is produced each stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear power creates waste that requires storage and/or disposal. Electricity therefore is very harmful to the environment. We should then save the amount of electricity we use. Summmary 2 Water is a compound made of the two elements hydrogen and oxygen. This substance can exist near the earth’s surface in all three physical forms: as a liquid, vapor or gas and as a solid.Water’s chemical formula is H2O.The water molecule odd shape with both hydrogen atoms occurring on the same side of the oxygen atom gives water its ability to “stick” to itself and to other surfaces. The hydrogen atoms create a positive electrical charge while the oxygen atom creates a negative charge. It’s a solid at 32F and a gas (steam) at 212F. Summary 3 Source: Why Salt in Water Can Conduct Electricity | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how-does_5245694_salt-water-can-conduct-electricity.html#ixzz2In9l3KRG Pure water itself is not very conductive, only little current can move through water. When salt is added, it dissolves in water. However, its molecules split into 2 parts, a chlorine ion and a sodium ion. The sodium ion is missing an electron therefore giving it a positive charge while the chlorine ion has an extra ion that gives it a negative charge. There will be two terminals in an electric source sending a current through water. One is a negative one that conducts electrons into water. The other one is a positive one that removes them. EFFECT OF AMOUNT OF SALT ON VOLTAGE
| Voltage Reading(Trials) |
Set | Kind of | Kind of | Amount of | 1 | 2 | 3 | Average |
ups | water | battery | Salt (tsps.) | | | | |
A | tap | 1.5 volts | 0 | 0.05 | 0 | 0.1 | 0.05 |
B | tap | 1.5 volts | 1 | 0.25 | 0.3 | 0.5 | 0.35 |
C | tap | 1.5 volts | 2 | 0.7 | 0.6 | 0.5 | 0.60 | Analysis of Results
It can be clearly seen that the more salt that is added to the water the more voltage it conducts. This shows that when salt dissolves in water, they from ions, which are charged particles that move in response to an electric field that is created when a voltage is applied to the fluid. The reason it conducts electricity is because the NaCl (sodium chloride) breaks apart into a positively charged Na and a negatively charged Chlorine. When current is applied, it is easily conducted by the highly charged ions. This proves that pure water is an extremely poor conductor compared to salt water.
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